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surprised me with a tenth. His ing a proof of a Druidical temple having mistaken these sepulchral where sacrifices were offered, are the circles for Druidical ones, is extremely very reverse. The temples were kept venial, considering that it is no easy clean with the most religious scrupumatter, in many cases, to draw a pro- lcsity, and the ashes and reliques of per line of discrimination. Fortunate- the sacrifices carried without the saly, on this occasion, the characteris- cred pale, and, in a plurality of intics are so strong and unequivocal as stances, one or more little mounts or not to leave even the shadow of a hillocks have been found near Druididoubt. I shall therefore now proceed cal temples, containing ashes, and the to state my reasons for concluding burnt bones of the victims offered in that the circles in question are strict- sacrifice. ly sepulchral, not with any view to That the erect stones of Druidical controvert your worthy correspond- circles are sometimes contiguous, is ent's theory, but merely to throw an error into which a superficial exalight on a subject, to which I have mination has betrayed some of our anpaid some attention, and to prevent tiquaries. I found one of these at these antiquities from going down to Auchlee, in the parish of Fetteresso. posterity under a wrong name. The interstices betwixt the erect
It is on all hands allowed that the stones had been filled up with other Druidical temples were open above, large stones standing on end, and it and not one has hitherto been found was converted into a sheep-fold, but covered over with earth. Indeed, still retained the name of Temple such a mode of procedure would have Stunes. I have fallen in with two or ûnfitted them altogether for being three other instances, but the modern temples,-would have rendered them part of the structure was easily diswholly inaccessible, and sacrifice whole tinguished from the ancient; and a ly impracticable.
minute examination of numerous The stone fig. 2. is by far too di- Druidical circles has led me to infer, minutive for an altar. It lies flat on that the erect stones were originally the ground, whereas the altars were and invariably equidistant, but never elevated on supporters generally from contiguous, except when modernized, eight to ten inches high, forming a as in the cases above mentioned. The repository below, in which the instru- contiguity, therefore, of the stones ments for sacrificing are supposed to surrounding the circles in question, is have been deposited.
no proof of their being Druidical, but In the Druidical temples, not a ves the reverse. tige of sandstone has been discover The situation of these circles, beared, nor even in their judicial circles. ing cast and west, does not prove them They are uniformly composed of the to be Druidical ; for, though this apharder kinds of stone, such as granite, pears to be the position to which the whinstone, &c. and are always rude, Druids, in a plurality of instances, and without polish of any kind. The adhered, still I have found several reason is obvious, for these temples exceptions to it, and particularly that are of very remote antiquity, and pro- they frequently followed the direction bably anterior to the use of iron toolsof the dorsum, or ridge, on which without which freestone quarries their circles were built, in whatever could not have been wrought, where- direction it lay. If, therefore, the as detached pieces of the harder kinds tidge on which the circles in question of stone were everywhere to be are situated ranges east and west, it found.
will sufficiently account for their poThe Druidical altars have neither sition, independent of any other cunemblematical figures, nor hierogly- sideration. Having offered these arphics, like the stones, figures 2 and 5. guments to evince that the antiquities Sach would, indeed, have been whol- in question are not Druidical, we Iy superfiuous, and of short duration, shall now offer a few more to prore being alternately exposed to the in- that they are really sepulchral. juries of the weather, and of fire, dur Their being principally composed of ing the numerous sacrifices of the freestone, the contiguity of these Druids.
stones, and their subterraneous posiThe burnt bones and ashes found tion, are all of them strong proofs under the stone fig. 2, so far from be- that the fabrics in question are sepul
chral. The Danish monuments in state, that there is a large crescent, Scotland are, without a single excep- and many small ones, on the Danish tion, composed of freestone. Many obelisk at Aberlemno. I hesitate much graves of apparently obscure indivi- whether the cross inscribed in a circle duals are frequently discovered, com has any reference to Christianity, or posed of two rows of freestone, and whether it may not represent the the body in the middle. Three of wheel of the covin, or ancient Caledothese were lately dug up in this nian chariot, whilst the figure to the vicinity, though the freestone must left of it, apparently constructed of have been brought from a distance withes, may represent the body of the of several miles. In all these, and machine. If this last conjecture is a hundred more, the rows of freestone well founded, the scattered and diswere contiguous, and packed as close jointed state of the chariot is in strict together as possible. As to these cir- unison with the other parts of the incles being covered with carth, it is scription. only necessary to remark, that all As to the figure No. 3, it evidently graves are necessarily subterranecus, exhibits a belt, and a string of six though the Celts, at a certain remote beads. These beads have been often era, seem to have preferred a cairn, or found in cemeteries composed of silcovering of stones.
ver, glass, wood, &c.; and, like the There is, however, one circumstance circular bracelets and rings, were orwhich is decisive of the point in ques naments of distinction. The hierotion, namely, the grave-stone, fig. 2, glyphics on fig. 2 and 5 are so much decorated with a sepulchral inscrip- the same, as to evince, without any tion, (such as was then in use,) and further argument, that, if the one is placed directly over the remains of the sepulchral, the other must be the dead. Many of these hieroglyphics same. cannot now be decyphered, but others I would be much obliged if your can; and, fortunately, the spade or very respectable correspondent would shovel, which is still a lugubrious em- inform me, through the medium of blein of mortality on our tomb-stones your miscellany, whether the sepulat the present day, cannot be mistak- chres in question seem to have been en. Mr Ure, in his history of Ru- covered with earth by accident or detherglen and Kilbride, tells us, that sign. It can hardly be supposed that the workmen employed in demolishing such elegant structures, and approprian ancient cemetery, found an antique ate sepulchral inscriptions, could be massy iron spade. It being reckoned originally intended to lie for ever confortunate to find iron, they were much cealed from mortal eye. We all at a loss how to divide it, as no one know that the inhabitants of Scotland was willing to resign his share. The long led a migratory life, and that the difficulty was got over by one of them Highlanders, up to a late period, set proposing to inake it into tackets for their houses on fire when they left their shoes, and give each of thenı an them, lest they might shelter. their equal share, which was accordingly enemies; and,"I am half persuaded, done.
that they intentionally concealed their The pair of shoes turned upside cemeteries, to keep the ashes of their down seem to imply that the owner ancestors from being violated. My had no farther use for them ; and re- information on this head is, however, ininds us of reversing arms at a sol- very deficient, and any thing addidier's funeral. The crescent on the tional would be very acceptable. figure, resembling a shield, is well As to the two antique vases, withknown in heraldry. The shield, like out a minute inspection, I cannot prothe shoes, is turned upeide down, nounce whether they are those used because the owner's battles were all by the Druids to procure holy water, fought. The circular figures un
From the draught, they apdoubtedly represent annuli, or rings, pear rather too elegant. At any rate, many of which have been found in they seein to have no connection with sepulchral monuments. The circular the antiquities in question, but appear figure, with two perforated knobs, or to have been concealed under ground, handles, seems to represent some an from religious or superstitious motives, tique vase, decorated with gutte la- in some crisis of danger or alarm. crymales. I had almost omitted to The note which you, Mr Editor
have appended to the reverend gen- spring of 1814, where this bird is tleman's communication, might very much more common than in Britain, well have been spared, and a moment's and having occasion to converse with reflection might have convinced you, many of the natives of that country, that it is not at all to the purpose. who make a very good livelihood by You state, in substance," that circles collecting the plover's eggs, not only similar to those in question have been for sale in the principal cities of their found where neither Druids nor Celts own provinces, but for exportation to ever penetrated, and where a different the London and Paris markets, where religion is known to have prevailed.” they are esteemed a great delicacy, I This is, however, a mere gratis dic was most particular in my inquiries, tum. The proof you adduce is, that and found, to my surprise, that all of an iron ring is run into one of the pil- them were perfectly aware of the fact, lars of a Druidical temple in Orkney, that, by taking away the egg as it was which the inhabitants call the ring of deposited in the nest, the bird contiOdin. Such perversions are common, nued to lay for a considerable period; but they only establish the uncertains and they assured me, that, in this ty of all things human The Celts way, they procured triple the number were unquestionably the aborigines of of eggs that could be obtained by robEurope, and have everywhere left bing the nest when the bird had comDruidical circles behind them, which pleted its usual number for hatching, their successors, the Goths, have per- viz. four. I believe it is pretty well verted, and misapplied to their own ascertained, that most early birds, apurposes. St Patrick, we know from mong whom I reckon the lapwing, authentic history, sanctified three breeel twice in the season, if they are Druidical circles in Ireland, and in- not interfered with. Of this I can asscribed on them the name Jesus in sure Physicus, that the ovarium of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin ; but the lapwing contains the germs of a though by this means they changed great inany more ora than four,— both their name and their use, they fact which may be demonstrated withwere still Druidical circles. In the out much difficulty at this season of same manner, though the Norwegi- the year. With regard to the lark, I ans, on their gaining possession of have had no opportunity of renewing the Orkneys, added an iron ring to a my observations since I was fourteen Druidical circle, and gave it the name years of age, and shall, therefore, al. of Odin's ring, the circle is as much low it to have no more weight than, Druidical as ever. The man who can as a boyish recollection, it may seem found a system on such sandy foun to merit. This is the moment, howdations, need not hesitate to assert, ever, to make such investigations; that putting a bridle into a cow's and I hope, if your correspondent remouth will convert her into a horse. sides in the country, that he will pay
R. H. some attention to the subject, and fa
vour me with the result of his observations.
The magpie, the sparrow, and the wren, were the most unfavourable in
stances he could have chosen, as it is No. III.
well known that the first is the most MR EDITOR,
ticklish of all birds, and will very often Lan much gratified to find that the forsake her nest if the smallest twig confew observations on the incubation of nected with it is put out of its place, birds, which I sent you in September while the last lays such an immense last, have attracted the notice of so number of eggs in its natural state, able a zoologist as your correspondent that there is scarcely a possibility of Physicus. I should not have ventured that number being increased by any to state my boyish recollections in op- interterence with its ordinary econoposition to the observations of a Mon- my. Tagu, of which I was perfectly aware, It is well known, Mr Editor, that if they had not been confirmed (parti- the cuckoo lays only one egg, and that cularly as to the lapwing) by subse- this egg is always deposited in the nest quent observation.
of some other bird. In this country, at Happening to be in Holland, in the least, the gowk is seldom seen during
CURIOUS FACTS IN NATURAL
the spring, but in the company of his tomed, in great quietness, to enjoy faithful attendant, the Titling, a very herself on the banks while they gamsmall bird, in whose nest I have al- boled in the pool. For two or three ways found her patron's egg. I have years she uniformly brought out duckfrequently discovered these nests con- lings, and, at last, as regularly led taining four small eggs, and one large them to the water as their natural one. I have watched their progress, dam would have done. In the course but never yet could ascertain what be of time, however, she brought out a came of the small birds, as, the mo breed of chickens. These she imme. ment the young cuckoo emerged from diately led to the side of the pool also, his shell,' all appearance of birds or but, when she found they did not eneggs was removed from the nest. It ter the water, she became quite unwas our belief as beys, that the easy,--called them close to it,-made cuckoo devoured the young of his every motion for them to enter it,-foster-mother. I should wish to know few over to the beetling stone in the if Physicus has made any observations centre of the pond, and then called on this subject.
on them to follow, but all to no purI am inclined to think, that, ale pose. When she found that nothing though the cuckoo deposits only one would entice them to enter the water, egg in each niest, yet that he intrudes she actually seized upon one or two of upon several nests at the same time; them, and threw them into it, and, if and I have met with a remark somes she had not been prevented, it is bewhere, that a cuckoo's egg had been lieved would have drowned her whole found in a nest into which the bird progeny. This shows how much the could never have entered to deposit it native habits, of even fowls, may be in the natural way, so that it must first changed by circumstances, and proves, kave been laid by the side of the nest, in some degree, the existence of meand then placed in it.
mory, without judgment, in the feaWe otten meet in our aviaries with thered tribes. what are called mule canary birds, We have had a great many remarks that is, the offspring of the grey linnet of late on the sagacity of dogs. I and the canary.
In the country, don't find, Mr Editor, that the anecwhere the domestic fowls are accuse dote which I am about to relate, and tomed to wander to a considerable dis- the truth of which may be relied uptance from the farm-yard, I believe on, has been surpassed by any thing it is no uncommon occurrence for a that has yet appeared. A gentleman chicken that is evidently the offspring in the county of Stirling kept a grey, of the partridge and common hen, to hound and a pointer, and, being tond make its appearance. Indeed, I am of coursing, the pointer was accustominclined to think that the breed be- ed to find the hares, and the greytween fowls of the same genus is of- hound to catch them. When the seatener crossed than we are aware of.
son was over, it was found that the It is a common practice in the coun- dogs were in the habit of going out by try to set a hen, as it is called, upon themselves, and of killing the hares ducks' eggs, and the agony which she
for their own amusement. To presuffers when she sees her young vent this, a large iron ring was fastercharge first take to their natural ele ed to the pointer’s neck by a leather ment, the water, has often been obe collar, and hung down, so as to preserved and remarked apon. The fol vent the dog from running or jumplowing anecdote may be relied upon, ing over dikes, &c. The animals, as the circumstance was observed by á however, continued to stroll out to gentleman of science and of high rank; the fields together; and, one day, the and it occurred in the town or suburbs gentleman, suspecting all was not o Stirling. A hen, which had been right, resolved to watch them, and, to employed to hatch a duck's eggs, in kis surprise, found, that the moment the neighbourhood of a dyer's mill, they thought they were unobserved, where there was a small pond, was the greyhound took up the iron ring observed to exhibit the usual symp- in his inouth, and, carrying it, they toms of terror and alarm when the set off to the hills, and began to search ducklings first took to the water, but, for hares, as usual. They were fol. by degrees, she became quite recon- lowed, and it was observed, that, eled to their habits, and was accus whenever the pointer scented the hare,
INGS OF THE FAMILIES OF
the ring was dropt, and the grey- public libraries, and the collections of hound stood ready to pounce upon the curious. There is, however, an poor puss the moment the other drove appendix subjoined to it, containing her from her form, but that he uni one or two original papers, which formly returned to assist his compa- have not as yet appeared elsewhere, nion when he had accomplished his but which well deserve to be better object.
known; and it is to one of these, inThese anecdotes, though neither titled “ Lady Murray's Narrative," philosophical nor physiological, still that we wish at present to draw the tend, in some degree, to illustrate the attention of our readers. natural history of animals. I am, This Narrative consists of seve&c.
A. ral copious extracts from an unpubEdinburgh, 6th April 1818. lished MS. written by a lady of the
Jerviswood family, and now in the possession of the present Mr Baillie.
The writer, Lady Murray, was the SOME PARTICULARS OF THE SUFFER- daughter of the Honourable George
POL- Baillie and Lady Grizzel Hume, and WARTH AND JERVISWOOD, PREVI- consequently the grandchild of the ceOUS TO THE REVOLUTION op 1688; lebrated Robert Baillie, and of Patrick, WITH EXTRACTS FROM LADY MUR- first Earl of Marchmont. She marRAY'S NARRATIVE.
ried Sir Alexander Murray of Stan
hope ; but the union proving an unSome of our readers may probably happy one, she latterly resided in her recollect that soon after the publica- father's house ; and there wrote the tion of Mr Fox's Historical Fragment, MS. referred to. a quarto volume of“ Observations” on Lady Murray gives this little histhat work appeared from the pen of the tory of family sufferings and adven. late Right Honourable George Rose. tures chiefly from the information of The professed object of Mr Rose's her mother, who had a principal share book was to defend the character of in all of them; and whose kindly, Sir Patrick Hume (afterwards Earl of innocent, and light-hearted character Marchmont) from certain injurious gives the narrative its most endearing imputations which he conceived to charm. The annals of fiction scarcehave been thrown upon it in Mr Fox's ly afford any thing more interesting, account of Argyle's invasion ; and this or more simply and affectingly told, allegation, though utterly unfound than the account here given by the ed, as it turned out, afforded a sort of writer of the origin and progress of plausible pretence for a most elaborate her father and mother's attachment; and ungracious, though singularly and we regret, exceedingly, that it is ineffective, attack on the posthumous not in our power to relate the whole in work of our great statesman. Such the original words of the narrative. are the humiliating effects produced The elder Jerviswood and Sir Patrick by the littleness of party jealousy and Hume had been long intimate friends, resentment, even on minds naturally and very strictly connected from bewell disposed ! And we feel the more ing of the same way of thinking in reregret on being obliged to advert to ligion and politics. They were also the present instance, as the late associated in the same patriotic designs Treasurer of the Navy appears to have for defending the liberties of their been not only a person of an amiableand country. When Mr Baillie was first liberal disposition in private life, but imprisoned, Sir Patrick was extremeon several occasions, entitled to our res ly anxious to communicate with him spect and gratitude for his public ex- privately; but owing to the jealousy ertions. As might have been expect- with which his own conduct was ed, his heavy quarto speedily sunk watched, and the closeness with which back into that state of " dull for- Baillie was guarded, he found it imgetfulness” from which it had been possible, by the ordinary means, to for a moment rescued by the indig- effect his purpose. In this strait, he nant refutation of Serjeant Heywood, sent his daughter Grizzel, (then a and the contemptuous exposure of the child little more than twelve years of Edinburgh Review ; and it is now age,) from Redbraes Castle to Edinonly to be found, we believe, in a few burgh, with instructions to obtain ad