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water, shows us an underlying, compara- tention among European scientific men. tively cooled surface, fringed with a belt of Mr. Scott Russell has ascertained, by direct cooling vapors.

experiment, that in disruptive explosion its

strength is six-fold that of good gunpowder. -In the Proceedings of the Royal So- Twenty-five pounds of gun-cotton, conciety, of England, No. 63, Dr. T. Phipson fined in a cylindrical shell, sixteen by reports some interesting reasearches on twelve inches, completely shattered a the metal magnesium, now becoming so powerful stockade, such as is used in fortiinteresting in relation to its illuminating fications. Professor Abel, chemist to the properties. He states that magnesium is British War Department, has shown, howcapable of reducing silicic acid at a high ever, that its gaseous products corrode temperature, which the alkaline metals, metal, and although its disruptive power is sodium and potassium, cannot do, as they much greater, yet its projectile force is volatilize before the crucible attains the much less than that of gunpowder. Thereproper heat. It decomposes carbonic acid fore he thinks that we are not yet in a confrom dry carbonate of soda, and it precipi. dition to adopt it as a substitute. tates nearly all the metals from their neutral solutions. Unlike zinc, it will not -Poggendorff's Annals contain unite with mercury at the ordinary tem- paper from which M. Magnus remarks that perature of the air. Magnesium will be if a little sodium is introduced into a nonfound a useful metal wherever tenacity luminous gas flame it becomes luminous, and lightness are required, and where tar- and, at the same time, its heat-radiating nish is of no consequence. It is especially power is augmented. The filame must valuable in the laboratory for effecting have lost heat in vaporizing the sodium, decomposition, which sodium and potas- but still it emitted nearly one-third more sium cannot effect on account of their heat. If a plate of platinum was introgreater volatility.

duced, instead of the sodium, the radiation

was still greater. When a little sodium -Dr. Crace Calvert, in his concluding was placed on the platinum the effect inlecture of the Cantor course, delivered be- creased, and a still greater augmentation fore the English Society of Arts, called of emitted heat occurred if some sodium attention to the same metal, and showed was introduced into the flame below the the brilliant light which the combustion of platinum. In the latter case three times as wire made of it affords, pointing out at the much heat was radiated as when the flame same time the special quality of the light was used without any addition. From as an illuminating agent for photographic these experiments M. Magnus concludes, purposes. Mr. Claudet, at the close of the that solid bodies radiate much more heat lecture, illustrated its value in this direction than gaseous bodies, and consequently he by taking several successful photographs of thinks that solar heat cannot reside in a the bust of the Prince Consort in the ante- photosphere composed of gas or vapors. room of the society's lecture hall, illuminated by the burning of this material. The -Mr. Grove, of the Royal Society, time of exposure in the camera was only having perceived that with the oxygen and thirty seconds, and much interest was ex- hydrogen, resulting from the decomposition cited among the audience. It was stated of water by ignited platinum, there was that the manufacture of the metal commer- always mingled some nitrogen, was led to cially had been undertaken by Messrs. initiate a more careful examination of the Johnson & Malthey, the well-known metal- phenomenon of boiling. He found that lurgists, who are prepared to supply the water freed from air and boiled in a vacuwire at the rate of 21s. per ounce, the um, boiled, not in the ordinary way, but ounce of wire being one hundred and like sulphuric acid, in bursts, between each twenty feet long.

of which the surface was tranquil. By

means of carefully arranged apparatus ho -Gun-cotton still attracts great at- ascertained that, after condensing the 1864.] Miscellany.

315 vapor resulting from the bursts, there re- as to safety, &c., of this invention are so mained a small bubble uncondensed, which great that it has been adopted in Paris, and proved to be nitrogen. He then boiled will soon be commonly used in this counbromine in a vacuum, and found, after try. condensing the vapor, a quantity of permanent gas in the tube, which proved to be - Professor Husley says that the best oxygen. Other experiments gave like cur- mode of comparing skulls is to determine ious results. Hence he concludes that the basi-cranial axis"-a line drawn withboiling is by no ineans, as commonly sup- in the skull from the front of the occipital posed, a simple separation of the cohesion foramen to the anterior end of the sphein the molecules of a liquid from distention noid bone—by making a vertical and longiby heat, but is a much more complex oper- tudinal section. In some of the progation, resulting from the extraction of some nathous skulls of the lowest human races permanent gas, against which the liquid the distance from the front end of the axis evaporates. As nitrogen is eliminated until to the back of the cerebral cavity is only the last drop is boiled off, Mr. Grove thinks four times as great as the distance to the that there may be some hidden relation be- front of the cavity; while in some of the tween air and water, and that nitrogen is most highly developed races it is seven by no means merely an inert diluent in times as large. The Professor regards this respiration.

greater development of the posterior posi

tion of the brain in the higher races as -To obviate the inconvenience and entirely subversive of the location of organs danger arising from the present form of as adopted by phrenologists. footlight employed in our theatres and lecture rooms, M. Soubra bas perfected a -Dr. Tyndall, in his fourth memoir very ingenious invention. He takes a wide on heat, read before the Royal Society, glass tube, bent in form of letter U, one June, 1863, states that, under pressure of leg, however, is considerably shorter than one atmosphere, the absorptive energy of the other. Just inside the shorter leg an olefiant gas is nine hundred and seventy Argand burner is inverted; and the longer times greater than that of air, and that amleg of the tube being heated for a short moniacal gas is almost absolutely impertime so as to rarify the air in it and cause a vious to radiant heat. If our globe were downward current in the short leg, the surrounded by a shell of olefiant gas two Argand burner is lighted, and the flame, inches thick, this shell would offer only a following the direction of the current of slight obstacle to the passage of the sun's air by which it is surrounded, continues to rays, but would cut off one-third of terresburn upside down. The current, when trial radiation and return it, so as to keep once established, is sustained by the heat the surface continually at a stifling temperfrom the inverted flame. The advantages ature.




Professor Tyndall, in a discourse son, in a note to his paper on the “Rigidity at the Royal Institution, commented upon of the Earth,” about to appear in the Philothe fact that the ugly word “physicist,' sophical Transactions, wishes to generaland inconvenient combination "natural ize the word naturalist into the meaning philosopher,” are the only ones in our lan- given by Johnson—"& person well versed guage which define a man battling with in natural philosophy." We fear the word physical science. Professor Tyndall covets is too convenient and too rooted, in its the word “physician.” Professor Thom. restricted sense, to have its meaning extended, although, we confess, the sooner on the banks of the river Tocuyo, has resuch an “un-English, unpleasing, and mean- turned to England by the last West India ingless a variation from old usage as 'physi- steamer. Whilst exploring the valley of cist' ” is superseded the better. We give the Tocuyo, he has discovered what may another conservative note of Professor, prove of the utmost importance to the Thomson's as we find it:-“Dynamics, railways and steamers now establishing in meaning properly the science of force, and that part of the world-extensive coalthere being precedents of the very highest beds, the coal being valued in London at kind—for instance, in Delaunay’s Mécan- thirty shillings per ton, and resembling the ique Rationale,' of 1861, and Robison's best Welsh steam coal. This part of South • Mechanical Philosophy,' of 1804-in favor America is as yet little known, but abounds of using the term according to its proper

in natural wealth ; in it are situated some meaning, the modern corrupt usage, which of the richest copper-mines in the worldhas contined it to the branch of dynamical those of Aroa, to which an English Comscience in which relative motion is con- pany is now making a railroad, sixty miles sidered, being excessively inconvenient and in length, ten of which bave already been vexatious, it has been proposed to intro. finished. The soil is of extreme fertility, duce the term “kinetics,' to express this and mahogany and other precious woods branch ; so that dynamics may be defined

abound. simply as the science of force,' and divi

-The Spanish journals mention the ded into the two branches, Statics and Kinetics. The introduction of this new term,

outbreak of a dangerous malady in the city

of Murcia :-In constructing the railway derived from Kivnois, motion, or act of

which passes through that place, a large moving, does not interfere with Ampère's

mass of earth was excavated from the term, now universally accepted, 'kinema

neighborhood of the city for the purpose tics' (from Kivnua), the science of move

of making the embankments. At the spot ments."

whence the earth was taken, a quantity of

stagnant water has since collected, the maMadler, of Dorpat, makes the fol- laria from which is said to have produced lowing proposal for the union of the Ju

an epidemic fever, with all the characterlian and Gregorian Calendars: The length istics of a plague. More than 1,500 persons of the mean tropical year being 365,192 in Murcia and the environs have been atdays, it follows that a period of 128 years tacked, and a large number of deaths have must contain 31 leap and 97 ordinary already taken place. A manifestation years. If, therefore, as is done now, every against the railway company, by the popyear which can be divided by four is made

ulation, lately took place, and more serious a leap-year, but after every 128 years a disturbances were feared. leap-year is transformed into a common year, the desired result is achieved. Since, -Mammon's throne was illy served however, the beginning of this period of when in Archbishop Whately's presence. 128 years may be fixed arbitrarily, it would He weakened its influence be best to commence it at the time when rather by the scorch of his caustic wit than the Gregorian calendar likewise omits the by any violent muscular effort to subvert leap-year, viz, in 1900. The following the one or unlock the other. “Many a would, accordingly, not be leap-years, but man,” he said, “who may admit it to be common years, according to the proposed impossible to serve God and Mammon at general united calendar : A. D. 1900, 2028, one and the same time yet wishes to serve 2156, 2284, 2412, 2540, 2668, 2796, 2924, Mammon and God; first the one, as long 3052, 3180, 3308, 3136, 3564, 3692, 3820, as he is able; and then the other." 3948, 4076, 4204, 4332, &c.

-The French government has grantDr. Seemann, who has been several ed the sum of 200,000 francs towards the months in Venezuela, for the purpose of execution of a work on Assyrian antiquiinspecting an estate of 100 square leagues ties.


and grasp


Educational Intelligence.


The Academy at St. Petersburg has A German printer, of the name of been intrusted with all the books and man- Vierling, of Görlitz, announces the Teruscripts which were kept hitherto in the centenary commemoration next year of Asiatic Department of the Russian Minis- the founding of his office by Ambrosius try of the Foreign Office. This will be a

Fritzsch, in 1565, whose first book was an great boon for scholars intent on Asiatic

edition of Luther's Catechism of that date. studies. These books are very rare, and In 1566, Fritzsch issued a panoramic view most of them exist only in the countries

of Görlitz, a large wood engraving, by where they have been published. They George Scharfenberg, of which the blocks are written in Chinese, Mandshurian, Ti- are still preserved in the office. betian, Mongolian, and Sanskrit. The

At Paris, recently, an autograph Gandshurian collection, written in the lan

of Tasso was sold, written by the poet of guage of Tibet, comprises 170 volumes.

the Gerusalemme Liberata, in the twentyThe Tanshurian collection is still in the

sixth year of his age. It is worded as keeping of the Russian Ambassadorship at

follows: "), the undersigned, hereby acPekin.

knowledge to have received from Abraham

Levi, 25 lire, for which he holds in pledge Richard the First seems to have a sword of my father's, 6 shirts, 4 sheets, been most fortunate in the chroniclers who and 2 table-covers. March 2, 1570. Torhave handed his exploits in the Holy Land quato Tasso." down to posterity. In Abulfeda's Life of

We learn that the Italian governSaladin he is scarcely less prominently ment is about to dispatch a scientific exbrought forward than Saladin himself, and pedition to the Pacific, and that it will in never misrepresented willfully ; whilst in

all probability sail during this month. It Richard of Devizes, and in Richard, canon

was intended that it should have started of" the Holy Trinity, London, the chroni

during the past spring, but it was precles of the latter of whom have just been

vented by the war-like rumors then so edited, under the direction of the Master

prevalent. of the Rolls, by Mr. Stubbs, of Lambeth Palace, he was fortunate in having two im

Amherst College recently conferred partial eye witnesses in his camp, from upon Dr. Dio Lewis the honorary degree 1187 to 1192, who have narrated what of Master of Arts, a compliment to the they saw graphically, in scholar-like Latin, ability of the new master, and a graceful scarcely less pure than that of William of recognition of his services in behalf of Malmesbury.

physical education.


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In the following list we give the


Erie.... places and time of holding Teachers' In

Steuben. stitutes in the State of New York for 1864, Greene. so far as we have learned that arrange


Washington. ments have been completed. The dates

Wryne.. denote the times of the commencement of Tioga.. the Institutes, which generally continue ten

Madison.. days. The Institute for Wyoming County

Oneida.. will be held in two places, five days in

Genesee. each. In Westchester County it will prob

Monroe.. ably continue only six days.


Fort Ann...

...Newark Valley.



19. Oct. 3. . Sept. 20.

26. 26.

26. Oct. 3.


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Oct. 8.


81. Nov. 14.


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6. A reading-room is to be established; Wyoming


provision is to be made, by the employFranklin.. . Malone.

ment of assistant librarians, for greater Livingston Geneseo

facility of access to the college library; Tompkins.

Ithaca.... Essex.. . Elizabethtown.

and measures are proposed for giving Broome... ... Binghamton

greater prominence and interest to the anChautauque. .. Westfield.

nual meeting of the Alumni. The trustees Delaware.. ....Delhi .... Montgoinery

have in view the erection, as soon as shall .Canajoharie.. Sullivan. Liberty..

be practicable, of a gymnasium. They Niagara. Lockport.

design, also, to prosecute vigorously the St. Lawrence. Madrid.. Westchester..

work, so successful thus far, of enlarging Sing Sing. Clinton. Plattsburgh

the endowment. Toward defraying the expenses of these Institutes the State pays to each county At the last public examination of the holding one or more, with an attendance pupils at the Training School, at Davenof thirty teachers during ten days, $100, port, Iowa, which was a brilliant success, and in addition, at the rate of sixty cents

the merits of the Intuitive method, introfor each teacher in excess of the thirty, duced into Iowa by H. S. Kissell, came who shall have attended ten days.

under discussion. A committee was apAt a recent meeting of the trustees pointed by the Educational Convention to of Dartmouth College, a number of im- examine into the merits of the training portant measures were inaugurated, of school conducted under this system. From which the following is a summary :

the report we make the following ex1. Mr. Elijah T. Quimby, principal of tract : the Appleton Academy, at New Ipswich, We cannot resist the impression that a New Hampshire, was elected Professor of training school for teachers, organized as Mathematics, to fill the vacancy caused by this is, and prosecuted with the vigor, enthe resignation of Professor Varney. Mr. ergy, and precision which we here witness, Quimby graduated in the class of 1851. is one of the great wants of the public

2. Mr. Edward R. Ruggles, of the class school system in this country. Here we cf 1859, was appointed instructor in modern find a process by which teachers are literlanguages and literature, in place of Pro- ally prepared for their high and responsible fessor Packard, transferred to the chair of vocation-a process which from the vigor Greek. Mr. Ruggles has for several years of its methods, cannot fail to develop, to been pursuing his studies in Europe; of the utmost, every faculty for imparting inlate in Dresden, Germany.

struction with facility, and for keeping a 3. Commencement appointments are

school in a condition of pleasant subjection. hereafter to be made, as formerly in Dart- It is evidently the great misfortune of mouth, and as now in the other New Eng- our public schools in this country, that so land colleges, on the principle of relative many young men and women enter upon merit.

the profession of teaching without having 4. There is to be a Junior Exhibition in served any apprenticeship for the business, the Spring term, and a joint anniversary and with no other qualifications than those of the two chief societies (the Social Friends of an exclusively erary character. They and the United Fraternity) in the Fall are, of consequence, without drill, without term — the latter not to supersede the any acquired habits of teaching, or any 11-ual address before these societies at settled method of governing a school; and Con mencement.

are obliged to learn and unlearn, from the 5. There is to be prize-speaking at

most mortifying experience, during which Commencement. A fund of $1,000 has time the reputation of the teacher suffers, been presented by Le Grand Lockwood, and not unfrequently the best of talent is Esq., of New York, the interest of which ruined in the outstart. is to be devoted to prizes in elocution and

This school is distinguished in these parcomposition.


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