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visit it severely on his head. I then, tion, and letting the real state of our with the view of impressing still more force be known, till my authority was deeply on his mind the verity of my securely established. But feeling that statement, entered into minute details that authority could only be maintainof the campaign, mentioned the names ed by public opinion, my grand aim of individuals whom I had personally now was to procure conciliation and known at Java, &c. &c.

attachment. With the governor himHe was considerably agitated, and self I had no difficulty, for the more undecided what part to take. To com- we lived together, the more reason he pel him to decision, I drew out my had to be convinced that he was not watch, Sir, I give you ten minutes deceived; but I soon found the case for deliberation, if, at the expiration was far different with those who had of that time, you are not decided, I not the same opportunity of investigaam.”

" I shall then return on tion. The public mind was in a state board.” His inquietude increased. I of great ferment. Weeks had elapsed saw that he was inclined to obey the since my first arrival, and no vessel summons, but the fear of committing had arrived from any quarter, bearing himself would not allow him to act. the confirmation of the capture of I whispered to my Dutch interpreter Java, and the overthrow of their emto proceed to the fort, which was in pire in the east, which were looked upsight from the portico of the govern- on as equally chimerical as the dement-house, where the conversation struction of one of the great powers of was held, and endeavour, by feigning Europe. himself to be the bearer of orders to I had a Malay slave, who was much that effect, to haul down the flag. He attached to me. This man brought executed his commission so well, that me continually reports of what passed before the ten minutes were expired, in the societies of Copang. They had and while the governor still was hesi- already more than suspected the distating, the flag of Holland was lower- tressed and sickly state of our force, ed, and the British ensign waved in and exclaimed loudly against what its stead. It was too late for him to they termed the pusillanimity of the retract. I thanked him for his prompti- governor, in lending a credulous ear tude, and immediately established him to the improbable story I had told in due form as vice-governor provi- him. My trusty slave also informed sionally, till the ulterior orders of the me, that a report was abroad of a conBritish government were received ; spiracy entered into by the governor and I then promised him, that pro- and principal inhabitants, and the vided he would answer for the fidelity four native rajahs in the neighbourof his colonists, that I would not run hood; who, on a preconcerted signal, the risk of disturbing the harmony were to unite their forces, make mywhich I hoped would reign in the set- self prisoner, and re-hoist the Dutch tlements, by landing a single English- flag. I was the more inclined to give man, excepting my own boat's crew, credit to his story, as my dwellingas a body guard for myself. He ac- house had been beset lately, during quiesced entirely in my views. You the night, by parties of the natives will easily conceive what were really and slaves, who had startled me from the motives of my apparent delicacy, my sleep by repeated howls and warviz. the almost total impossibility of cries. The activity and alertness of garrisoning the fort, not having more my trusty guard prevented any thing than 30 or 35 efficient men, who were unpleasant occurring. scarcely sufficient for the ordinary du- It now appeared to me that matters ty of the ship. Our measures were were drawing to a crisis, and that now all amicably arranged. I receiv- some decided measure must be taken, ed and returned the official visits of I repaired on board my ship early the the chief personages of Copang. Fresh following morning, without making provisions, &c. were sent off in abun- my intentions known. I left orders dance to the ship, and I procured a with the commanding officer to bring pilot to place her in the anchorage, the ship immediately as close to the which I learnt with pleasure was at town as was consistent with her safety, a considerable distance from the place, and to have all clear for action. I as by that means I should have less myself proceeded with my boat's crew, difficulty in preventing communica- with the intention of making myself

The governor

master of the person of the governor, sion of the measures of the men of the as a hostage and a security for the north; they felt and acknowledged good conduct of the inhabitants. I their inferiority. chose mid-day for the enterprise : in At nine the following morning, the the tropics it is the season of tranquil- procession moved from the governor's lity and repose. I entered the inner house towards the fort. I could harbour, which led to the very door scarcely keep my gravity at the specof the governor's house. No alarm tacle. The governor, secretary, and was given ; not a soul was stirring. suite, had ransacked their wardrobe to I was in the inner apartment with my make up gala dresses, and never were trusty men, who planted themselves seen such originals. However, the at the door. The governor appeared. solemnity was well preserved ; and He was alarmed and agitated. I ex- we entered the castle-yard, after a plained to him the report which had military salute from the troops and reached my ears, of a conspiracy against the detachment of seamen. I had forus, and that he himself was supposed gotten to mention, that the four native to be not perfectly free from taint. He princes whom I spoke of attended the was excessively distressed-called on ceremony at the

head of their respecevery thing sacred to witness his per- tive councils. The Malay corps were fect innocence--but admitted, that for in line, the principal inhabitants assome days past he had not been per- sembled around me. fectly satisfied with the conduct of advanced in the middle, and read some individuals, who had talked to aloud the oath of allegiance, which him in a manner very indiscreet. In was answered by all present, amidst a reply, I stated to him my extreme salute of twenty-one guns fired by our dissatisfaction at the want of confi- detachment. All seemed to pass off dence of the colonists, who appeared well, when an unlucky peal of thunto have mistaken my hitherto mild der seemed to waken the superstitious manner of treating them for a want of feelings of my demi-civilized friends. force and authority. It was now ne- I determined to anticipate the evil cessary to undeceive them. (At this augury, and my interpreter exclaimed, moment a gun was fired from the that Heaven likewise joined in the soHesper, which was the signal to me lemnity we were celebrating. It was that she had taken her station close to answered by a viva ; and we assemthe town.). I directed a call of the bled in the evening to a ball and supprincipal inhabitants immediately, and per, prepared under the portico of the they were informed to prepare them- government-house, adorned by some selves to take the oath of allegiance fine old banyan-trees, which had stood the following morning, in the castle there for ages, and whose successive yard. In the mean time, the governor branches, having taken root, formed a was to remain a state prisoner in his most singular and picturesque shelter own house ; and it was understood from the heats of day or dews of that his person was responsible for any night. tumult or outrage that might take Universal harmony prevailed. Keiplace. This sudden call and declara- sar, the chief of the princes, paid his tion, the appearance of the Hesper's devotions most earnestly to the brandy broadside within three hundred yards bottle which was placed before him, of the beach, checked at once the His attachment to his new masters rising seeds of disaffection. They re- increased at every glass. He embraced newed to me their promises of fidelity me, fell on his knees, embraced me and attachment, and professed them- again, and swore to follow me through selves perfectly ready to take the oath this world. All present seemed to feel of allegiance to his Britannic Majesty. the effects, more or less, of their hearty

The night passed without any thing libations. I gave the signal to rise; extraordinary. In the mean time I and in the same instant, an officer had thrown into the battery every dis- whom I had stationed with some fireposable man from the ship, leaving the works discharged the rockets. From convalescents and boys to do their that moment I felt myself perfectly best in keeping a constant fire on the secure of the fidelity of my subjects. town, in case it should be necessary. With few exceptions, almost all, creAsiatic indolence was astonished and oles and natives, fell with their faces alarmed at the promptitude and deci- on the ground; and several moments



elapsed before the consternation had English, and which consequently afpassed.

fected him. We were no longer eneNothing of any moment occurred mies. I then desired that they would after this affair, till the arrival of some make known to him my displeasure at visitors on the island, whom, being of the menace given by one of his suba race and character perfectly distinct jects to a man of mine. His eye was from the native Timorese, or other lighted up with fury; he ordered the islanders in the neighbourhood, I beg culprit into his presence; when arleave to introduce to your notice. I rived, in an instant he seized him with had been informed by the governor, his left hand, dashed him to the that between Timor and Sandalwood ground, placed his foot on his body, island lay the small island of Savu, and, raising his right arm with his the king of which came annually, with naked creesse, exclaimed, turning to two or three large boats, to do homage me, “ Shall I strike?” The action, the to the Dutch power, and left a detach- attitude, the gesture, was so fine, that, ment of men for the year, who assisted had not the life of the trembling vicin all the public works, and were par- tim been at stake, I should have reticularly useful for the harbour sea- mained gazing at him. I staid his duties, as they were bold and enter- arm, and interceded for the offender ; prising seamen, in contradistinction to he was allowed to rise, and then threw the native Timorese, whom nothing himself at my feet. The chief then could ever persuade to trust them- turned to his followers, and, in a disselves to the treacherous element. The

course accompanied with the most arrival of these islanders was daily ex- powerful and expressive action, depected, as the westerly monsoon now clared his determination to punish was at its height. In fact, we were with instant death the man who surprised, early one morning, by the should henceforth disturb the hararrival on the beach of three or four mony that existed between his new large launches, full of men. One of friends and him. This individual I my seamen had gone down early in found, during the rest of my stay on the morning to bathe. The strangers the island, of a character most supewere landing-who, of course, were rior. In him were united all the noble ignorant of the change of affairs at virtues of the savage, with few or none Čopang. He was pointed out by some of the vices ; and I parted from him evil-disposed person as an Englishman with regret. and an enemy. One of the chiefs im- I am now drawing near my deparmediately advanced to him with his ture. The monsoon had begun to creesse in his hand, and my fellow was relax; and towards the month of glad to escape from the threatened March, light and variable airs andanger, by taking to his heels. He nounced the return of the fine season. ran to my apartment, and awakened I took my leave of my new friends, me with his tale of invasion and at- leaving them in a state of tranquillity tack. I repaired to the government and perfect submission to the British house; and a few minutes afterwards authority; as, in the interim, a Chithe newly-arrived rajah entered, and nese junk had touched at the island, a scene truly dramatic ensued.

and confirmed the news of the downI never shall forget the noble, manly, fall of their empire. I returned to dignified appearance of this savage. He Java without accident or difficulty, stood upwards of six feet high, well and was hailed with satisfaction by proportioned, and his loosely-flowing the rest of the squadron, who had robes shewed him like a model from the long given us up for lost.* antique. His countenance, and those of his countrymen, had none of the Malay features, which generally ex- * The Bibliotheque Universelle, in which press the presence of the worst pas- Professor Pictet's translation of the above sions. His face Was Roman, nose narrative appeared, is distinguished among somewhat aquiline, eye full and open; all the continental journals, as that which and his hair, unlike that of the Malay, affords the best and most copious informawas short and thick-curled, but witħ- tion respecting English literature. It is, out the woolly texture of the African tific communications of all the first men in

besides, enriched with the literary and sciennegro. We saluted, and the governor Switzerland, and is, upon the whole, one of explained to him the new relationship the most interesting and useful miscellanies which existed between the Dutch and in Europe.


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and strong, has not failed to introduce PETRARCH'S LETTER TO POSTERITY.

its usual train of disorders. My pa

rents, inhabitants of Florence, of resMR EDITOR,

pectable extraction, but of moderate As I am not aware that the following (or to speak more correctly, of decayautobiography, the work of a most il ed) fortunes, amidst the troubles of lustrious man, has yet appeared in the times had been driven into exile. English, I venture to offer it to your During this exile, I was born at Arezacceptance, and remain yours, &c. 20, early on Monday morning, Au

F. R. S. gust 1,* 1304. A determined despiser

of wealth, not from indifference to its FRANCIS PETRARCH to Posterity, comforts, but from a hatred of the Greeting.

toils and anxieties which are its inse

parable companions, and a disrelish of It is barely possible that you may its pampered festivals. I have spent my have heard me slightly mentioned, days more happily at a frugal board, though it may reasonably be doubted and with temperate fare, than the whether a name, so lowly and obscure whole tribe of Apicii with all their as mine, is likely to extend over any luxuries. Banquettings indeed, and considerable interval, either of space revelries, are equally unfriendly to or time. In that case you will proba- modesty and to morality; and, as bly wish to learn what kind of a man such, have always been my horror. I was, and what success attended my Hence I have invariably shunned the literary labours; particularly those, of giving and receiving of formal invitawhich the character in terms more or tions; though the casual dropping in less favourable,) has reached your ear. of a friend has always enhanced the Upon the first head, representations enjoyment of my table, nor would I will of course widely differ, as men ever by choice sit down to a solitary generally speak under the impulse ra- meal. Of all things, parade displeases ther of passion than of truth, and are me the most; not only as criminal in seldom moderate either in their com- itself, and adverse to true humility, mendations or their censures.

but also as harassing and vexatious. I was one of your own class, a petty Victim in my youth of a single and human being, of a lineage neither honourable, but most passionate atsplendid nor vulgar, but (to adopt an tachment, I should longer have enexpression of Augustus Cæsar's) of dured its violence, had not the flame, an ancient family! My disposition which age had already mitigated, been was not naturally, till tainted by the extinguished by the severe, but salucontagion of bad example, either vici- tary, hand of death. Much as I could ous or immodest. Age, however, cor- wish to represent myself unstained by rected the errors of my boyhood and sensual indulgences, I will not do so youth, by impressing upon me, expe- at the expense of truth; but I can rimentally, the truth of my early les- truly affirm, that, even when hurried sons,--that “ youth and pleasure” are into them by the impulse of youth and empty sounds; and that the great Crea constitution, I constantly reprobated tor of times and seasons occasionally them in my heart; and on the appermits his wretched creatures, buoyed proach of my fortieth year, without up by bubbles, to float at random, in having experienced any abatement of order to teach them, even by a late appetite or vigour, I as totally rediscovery of their transgressions, the nounced the pleasures and memory of knowledge of themselves !

the sex, as if I had never looked

upon Of a frame, when young, rather ac- a woman in my life. This, indeed, I tive than athletic, I may say without class among my principal blessings; too much vanity, that in earlier life it and most devoutly do I thank my Crewas not ill formed to please. My ator, that before the period of languor * complexion was blooming, and inclined and decrepitude, he rescued me from to brown; my eyes full of fire, and my sight, for a long period, intensely keen,

* Kal. Aug.-But a xüi. seems to have been till by its unexpected failure after my by mistake omitted, as he elsewhere says, sixtieth year, I have been reluctantly (Ép. ad Boccac. viii

. 1.) he was born July compelled to make use of spectacles. 20; and in 1304 that day would fall on But age, though it found me sound Monday, not August 1. VOL. III.

2 R


so degrading and hateful a thraldom. In the ordinary course of conversation But to proceed.

with friends or acquaintance, I never Pride, the infirmity of other minds, studied eloquence; and I am surprised was never mine. Little as I was in that an Augustus ever did. But unreality, my self-estimate always stood der particular exigencies of circumat a still lower point. This, though stance, or place, or person, I failed not I frequently felt its ill consequences to exert myself in this respect, -with myself, never injured any body else. what success, others must decide. In of respectable friendships,— 1 speak it my own judgment, the merit of the with honest exultation, because I know lips, compared with that of the life, is that I am speaking the truth, -I was of

very inferior account. The glory always most covetous; vehement in arising from mere splendour of diction, my resentments, but ever ready to form is nothing more than a breath. get their cause; and religiously tena- My past life has been distributed cious of the memory of kindnesses. by chance, or inclination, as follows: Enviably fortunate, however, as I was The greater part of my first year I in the condescensions of princes and spent at Arezzo, where I was born; sovereigns, and the intimacies of the and the six which ensued, in my fagreat, I could not escape the penalty ther's house at Ancisa, (distant only of age, the surviving of numbers most fourteen miles from Florence,) with dear to me. Why my royal and noble my mother, who had been recalled contemporaries thus respected and lov- from banishment; the eighth at Pisa; ed me, it is for them, not me, to ex- the ninth, tenth, &c. in France, on plain. I scarcely seemed, indeed, to the left bank of the Rhone, at Avigbe more with them, than they with non, where the Roman pontiff holds me; and their station, of which I of- and has long held,) the church of ten felt the benefit, was in no instance Christ in disgraceful exile ; although irksome or oppressive. Yet numbers Urban V. appeared, not long before, to thus distinguished, much as I regard- have re-established her in her ancient ed them, from my innate love of li- seat. But the attempt failed; the Pope berty I studiously shunned, as imply- himself, (for he was still alive,) I am ing by their very title something hos- sorry to observe, apparently repenting tile to that blessing.

his honourable effort. Had he surMy talents are rather equable than vived a little longer, he would unacute; but though not disinclined to doubtedly have learned my opinion upany respectable or useful study, they on that subject. I had already taken seem peculiarly adapted for the culti- up my pen for the purpose, when the vation of moral philosophy and poetry. unhappy old man quitted his glorious The latter, however, in process of time, project and his existence nearly togeI laid aside, or reserved for occasional ther. I say " unhappy," because he embellishment, from my passion for might have died by Peter's altar, and sacred literature, in which I found a in his own Vatican. For had his suchidden and long neglected delight. cessors continued there, to him would Among my various pursuits, I engaged have been referred the credit of their ardently in the investigation of the re- restoration; and if they had again semains of antiquity, having ever enter- ceded, their misconduct would have tained such a dislike for the present served as a foil to his magnanimity. age, that, were it not for the bonds of But this is prolix and querulous dilove and friendship, I should have pre- gression. ferred being born in any other, as I At Avignon then, on the bank of a was always, in idea, transferring my- gusty river, I passed my boyhood unself to some of its nobler predecessors. der the sway of my parents, and subThis made me partial to the works of sequently (with many interruptions historians, though I could not but be indeed,) under that of my follies, I revolted by their discrepancies. In wasted my youth. For at this period, such cases, however, I regulated my Carpertras, a small town situated a belief by the robability of the fact rem little to the east of Avignon, possessed corded, or the authority of the chro- me full four years ; during two of nicler.

which, I gave as much attention to My ciocution, as many have assert- grammar, logic, and rhetoric, as my ed, was loud and clear: to myself it age admitted, or rather as schools usualways appeared feeble and indistinct. ally exact. That this is to a very mo

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