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fowers of cowslips also are frequently sed and the husks rejected, for there used, but they merely communicate their will be no redness unless the husks be favour to the wine, the spirit almost mixed up and fermented with the grape; entirely arising from the sugar: and in- and the same observation may be made deed when our own fruits are employ- respecting the damson, black currant, ed, they are not sweet enough to make and deeply coloured gooseberries, used any wine which would keep, and there- by ourselves. fore a considerable quantity of sugar is The natural colour of wine may be invariably added; while the continent- entirely and speedily destroyed, by the al fruits are sufficient of themselves. addition of hot well-burnt charcoal in
The foreign wines are principally pretty fine powder, or by pouring into. made from grapes, or the fruit of the it lime-water. This colouring matter vine, from which our own word wine is likewise may be gradually separated evidently derived. When the grapes and precipitated by exposing the wine are fully ripe, they are gathered, and to the heat of the sun. It sometimes submitted to the action of a press, from precipitates of itself, as is observed not which their juice runs into vessels. The only in the incrustation of the bottles of quantity of sugar contained in grapes port wine, but in its becoming more and when fully ripe is very considerable. more tawny the longer it is kept. It may be obtained in crystals by evap
The Red Port which is so much orating tbe must to the consistency of drank in England, derives its name syrup, separating the tartar which pre- from Oporto in Portugal. The quancipitates during the evaporation, and tity exported is from 50,000 to 70,000 then setting aside the must for some pipes annually, by far the greater part months. The crystals of sugar will of which goes to the British Dominions. thus gradually be formed.
Sherry is prepared near Xeres The colour of foreign wines is in in Spain,and has hence been termed by many instances artificial, and imparted our merchants Sherries and Sherry. to those liquors after they come into. -Malmsey was formerly only made mercantile hands. Thus white wines in the Greek isles, but is now brought are tinged red by decoctions of log chiefly from Spain. -Champagne, wood or brazil chips, the juice of elder Burgundy, Frontiniac, Rhenish, Hock, and bilberries, and, in France, by Alicant, &c. are among the most celemeans of the husks of tinged grapes ; brated of the French and German while other ingredients are too frequent- wines. Those from Germany are full ly employed by unprincipled persons of spirit, and will keep for a long time. which are decidedly deleterious. Madeira is procured from the Ma
The saccharine part of the grapes deira Islands, and from Palma, one of which as we have seen is the basis of the Canaries. This wine is of two the spirit, resides in the cells of the kinds, the first called Madeira sec, the grapes, while the colour is the husk or latter, which is far richer, Canary or skin. White wines therefore may be Palm sec (corruptly written sack) sig. prepared from red grapes, provided nifies dry, these wines being made from that the juice may be carefully expres- half-dried grapes.
FEMALE TONGUES. Hippel, the author of the book “ Up- amongst men. In general the current on Marriage," says—“ A woman, that remark upon men is valid also with does not talk, must be a stupid woman.” respect to women—that those for the But Hippel is an author whose opinion most part are the greatest thinkers who it is more safe to admire than to adopt. are the least talkers; as frogs cease to The most intelligent women are often croak when light is brought to the wasilent amongst women; and again the ter's edge. However, in fact, the dismost stupid and the most silent are ott- proportionate talking of women arises en neither the one nor the other except out of these dentariness of their labours :
sedentary artisans,-as tailors, shoe- talk, as savages say, that they may not makers, weavers,—have this habit as be set to work : but women often talk well as hypochondriacal tendencies in double their share-even because they common with women. Apes do not work.
THE SPIRITS OF THE AGE.
under-tone, but unprecedented,and not an altogether at the top of his voice, and with the full unmerited popularity as a preacher. breadth of his chest) from a Calvinistic As he is, perhaps, though a burning and pulpit, is new and wonderful. The a shining light, not " one of the fixed," Fancy have lately lost something of we shall take this opportunity of dis- their gloss in public estimation, and afcussing his merits a second time, while ter the last fight, few would go far to he is at his meridian height; and in see a Neat or a Spring set-to;—but to doing so, shall “nothing extenuate, nor see a man who is able to enter the ring set down aught in malice."
with either of them, or brandisha Few circumstances show the prevail- quarter-staff with Friar Tuck, or a ing and preposterous rage for novelty broad-sword with Shaw the Life-guards? in a more striking point of view, than man, stand up in a strait-laced oldthe success of Mr. Irving's oratory. fashioned pulpit, and bandy dialectics People go to hear him in crowds, and with modern philosophers or give a come away with a mixture of delight cross-buttock to a cabinet-minister, there and astonishment—they go again to see is something in a sight like this also, if the effect will continue, and send that is a cure for sore eyes. It is as if others to find out the puzzle--and in Cribb or Molyneux had turned Methothe noisy conflict between extravagant dist parson, or as if a Patagonian savage encomiums and splenetic objections, the were come forward as a patron-saint of true secret escapes observation, which Evangelical religion. Again the docis, that the whole thing is, nearly from trine of eternal punishment was one of beginning to end, a transposition of the staple arguments with which, eterideus. If the subject of these remarks nally drawled out, the old school of had come out as a player, with all his Presbyterian divines used to keep their advantages of figure, voice, and action, audiences awake, or lull them to sleep; we think he would have failed: if, as á but to which people of taste and fashion preacher, he had kept within the strict paid little attention, as inelegant and bounds of pulpit-oratory, he would barbarous, till Mr. Irving, with his castscarcely have been much distinguished iron features and sledge-hammer blows, among his Calvinistic brethren : as a puffing like a grim Vulcan, set to work mere author, he would have excited at- to forge more classic thunderbolts, and tention rather by his quaintness and kindle the expiring flames anew with affectation of an obsolete style and the very sweepings of sceptical and mode of thinking, than by any thing infidel libraries, so as to excite a pleaselse. But he has contrived to jumble ing horror in the female part of his conthese several characters together in an gregation. In short, our popular deunheard-of and unwarranted manner, claimer has, contrary to the Scriptureand the fascination is altogether irresisti- working, put new
wine into old bottles, ble. Our Caledonian divine is equally or new cloth on old garments. He has, an anomally in religion, in literature, in with an unlimited and daring licence, personal appearance, and in public mixed the sacred and the profane tospeaking. To hear a person spout gether, the carnal and the spiritual man, Shakespeare on the stage is nothing, the petulance of the bar with the dogthe charm is nearly worn out—but to matism of the pulpit, the theatrical and hear any one spout Shakespeare (and theological, the modern and the obso
lete;-what wonder that this splendid mon-place or bombast in his style of piece of patchwork, spendid by contra- composition. Put the case that Mr. diction and contrast, has delighted some Irving had been five feet high-Would and confounded others? The more he ever have been heard of, or, as he serious part of his congregation, indeed, does now, have “bestrode the world complain, though not bitterly, that their like a colossus ?" No, the thing speaks pastor had converted their meeting- for itself. He would in vain have lifted house into a play-house : but when a his Lilliputian arm, people would have lady of quality, introducing herself and laughed at his monkey tricks. Again, three daughters to the preacher, assures had he been as tall as he is, but had him that they have been to all the most wanted other recommendations, he fashionable places of resort, the opera, would have been nothing. the theatre, assemblies, Miss Macauley's “The player's province they but vainly try, readings, and Exeter Change, and have Who want these powers, deportment, voice, and eye." been equally entertained no where else, Conceive a rough, ugly, shock-headed we apprehend that no remontrances of Scotchman, standing up in the Caledoa committee of ruling-elders will be able nian chapel, and dealing "damnation to bring him to his senses again, or round the land” in a broad northern make him forego such sweet, but i!l- dialect, and with a harsh, screaking assorted praise. What we mean to in
voice, what ear polite, what smile sesist upon is, that Mr. Irving owes his
rene, would have hailed the barbarous triumphant success, not to any quality for which he has been extolled, neglect and derision? But the Rev.
prodigy, or not consigned him to utter but to a combination of qualities, the Edward Irving, with all his native wildmore striking in their immediate effect,
“ hath a smooth aspect framed to in proportion as they are unlooked-for
make women” saints; his
very unusual and heterogeneous, like the violent op- size and height are carried off and position of light and shade in a picture. moulded into elegance by the most adWe shall endeavour to explain this view mirable symmetry of form and ease of of the subject more at large. Mr. Irving, then, is no common or
gesture; his sable locks, his clear ironmean man. He has four or five quali- grey complexion, and firm-set features,
turn the raw, uncouth Scotchman, into ties, possessed in a moderate or in a
a noble Italian picture ; and even his paramount degree, which, added or
distortion of sight only redeems the multiplied together, give him the im- otherwise « faultless monster” within the portant space he occupies in the public bounds of humanity, and when admieye. Mr. Irving's intellect itself is of ration is exhausted and curiosity ceases, a superior order; he has undoubtedly excites a new interest by leading to the both talents and acquirements beyond idle question whether it is an advantage the ordinary run of every-day preachers. to the preacher or not. Farther, give
These alone, however, we hold, him all his actual and remarkable adworld not account for a twentieth part vantages of body and mind, let him be of the effect produced: they would have listed him perhaps out of the mire skin, as much at his ease, as silver
as tall, as straight, as dark and clear of and slough of sordid obscurity, but would never have launched him into tive as he is, yet with all these, and
tongned, as eloquent and as argumentathe ocean-stream of popularity, in which without a little charlatanry to set them he lies floating many a rood;":--but off, he had been nothing. He might, to these he adds uncommon height, a graceful figure and action, a clear and and professed calling, have preached
keeping within the rigid line of his duty powerful voice, a striking, if not a fine forever; he might have divided the oldface, a bold and fiery spirit, and a most fashioned doctrines of election, grace, portentous obliquity of vision, which throw him to an immeasurable distance reprobation, predestination, into his six
teenth, seventeenth and eighteenth beyond all competition, and effectually heads, and his lastly have been looked relieve whatever there might be of com- for as 6 as a consummation devoutly to
5 ATAENEUM vol. 1. 2d series.
be wished; he might have defied the their magazine-writers; he levels their devil and all his works, and, by the resorts of business, their places of ahelp of a loud voice and strong-set per- musement, at a blow-cities, churches, son
palaces, ranks and professions, arts and “A lusty man to ben an Abbot able" elegances--and leaves nothing standing have increased his own congregation, but himself, a mighty land-mark in a and been quoted among the godly as a degenerate age, over-looking the wide powerful preacher of the word; but, in havoc he has made! He makes war addition to this, he went out of his way upon all arts and sciences, upon the to attack Jeremy Bentham, and the faculties and nature of man, on his vices town was up in arms. The thing was and his virtues, on all existing institunew. He thus wiped the stain of mus- tions, and all possible improvements, ty ignorance and formal bigotry out of that nothing may be left but the Kirk his style. Mr. Irving must have some- of Scotland, and that he may be the thing in him to look over the shining head of it. lle literally sends a chalclose-packed heads of his congregation, lenge to all London in the name of the to have a hit at the Great Jurisconsult KING of HEAVEN to evacuate its streets, in his study. He next, ere the report to disperse its population, to lay aside of the former blow had subsided, made its employments, to burn its wealth, to a lunge at Mr. Brougham, and glanced renounce its vanities and pomp; and an eye at Mr. Canning; mystified Mr. for what?--that he may enter in crownColeridge, and stultified Lord Liver- ed with glory; or after enforcing his pool in his place in the Gallery. It threat with the battering ram of logit, was rare sport to see him, " like an ea- the grape-shot of rhetoric, and the crossgle in a dovecote, flutter the Volscians fire of his double vision, reduce the in Corioli.” He ḥas found out tire se- British metropolis to a Scottish heath, cret of attracting by repelling. All with a few miserable hovels upon it, those whom he attacks are curious to where they may worship God according hear what he says of them : they go to the root of the matter. Such is the again, to show that they do not mind it. pretension and the boast of this new It is no less interesting to the by-stan- Peter the Hermit, who would get rid of ders, who like to witness this sort of all we have done in the way of imonslaught,--like a charge of cavalry, provement on a state of barbarous igthe shock and the resistance. Nr. norance, or still more barbarous preIrving has, in fact, without leave asked judice, in order to begin again on a or, a licence granted, converted the tabula rasa of Calvinism, and have a Caledonian Chapel into a Westminster world of his own making. It is not Forum or Debating Society, with the very surprising that when the whole sanctity of religion added to it. Our mass and texture of civil society is inspirited polemic is not contented to de- dicted as a nuisance, and threatened to fend the citadel of orthodoxy against be pulled down as a rotten building all impugners, and shut himself up in ready to fall on the heads of the intexts of scripture and huge volumes of habitants, that all classes of people run the Commentators as an impregnable to hear the crash, and to see the engines fortress ;-he merely makes use of the and levers at work which are to effect strong-hold of religion as a resting- this laudable purpose. What else can place, from which he sallies forth, armed be the meaning of our preacher's taking with modern topics and with penal fire, upon himself to denounce the sentilike Achilles of old rushing from the ments of the most serious professors Grecian tents, against the adversaries in great cities as vitiated and starkof God and man. Peter Aretine is said inlight, of relegating religion to his nato have laid the Princes of Europe un- tive glens, and pretending that the hymn der contribution by penning satires of praise or the sigh of contrition canagainst them: so Mr. Irving keeps the not ascend acceptably to the throne of public in awe by insulting all their fa- grace fi'om the crowded street as well vourite idols. Ile does not spare their as from the barren rock or silent valley ? politicians, their rulers, their moralists, Why put this affront upon his hearers? their poets, their critics, their reviewers Why belie luis own aspirations ?
God made the country and man made the town." can be more insignificant as to mere So says the poet; does Mr. Irving say outward appearance, and yet he is lisso? If he does, and finds the air of tened to in the House of Commons. the city death to his piety, why does he But he does not wield it, he does not not return home again ? But if he can insult or bully it. He leads by followbreathe it with impunity, and still retaining opinion, he trims, he shifts, he glides the fervour of his early enthusiasm, and on the silvery sounds of his undulating, the simplicity and purity of the faith flexible, cautiously modulated voice, that was once delivered to the saints, winding his way between heaven and why not extend the benefit of his own earth, now courting popularity, now experience to others, instead of taunting calling servility to his aid, and with a them with a vapid pastoral theory? large estate, the “ saints," and the popuOr, if our popular and eloquent divine lation of Yorkshire to swell his infinds a change in himself, that flattery fluence, never venturing on the forlorn prevents the growth of grace, that he is hope, or doing any thing more than becoming the god of his own idolatry “hitting the house between wind and by being that of others, that the glitter. water." Yet he is probably a cleverer ing of coronet-coaches rolling down man than Mr. Irving. Holborn-Hill to Hatton Garden, that. There is a Mr. Fox, a dissenting titled beauty, that the parliamentary minister, as fluent a speaker, with a complexion of his audience, the compli- sweeter voice and a more animated and ments of poets, and the stare of peers, beneficent countenance than Mr. Irdiscompose his wandering thoughts a ving, who expresses himself with manlittle ; and yet that he cannot give up ly spirit at a public meeting, and is the these strong temptations tugging at his darling of his congregation; but he is heart; why not extend more charity to no more, because he is diminutive in others, and show more candour in person. His head is not seen above speaking of himself? There is either the crowd the length of a street ofl. a good deal of bigoted intolerance with He is the Duke of Sussex in miniature, a deplorable want of self-knowledge in but the Duke of Sussex does not go to all this ; or at least an equal degree of hear him preach, as he attends Mr. Ircant and quackery.
ving, who rises up against him like a To whichever cause we are to attri- martello tower, and is nothing loth to bute this byperbolical tone, we hold it confront the spirit of a man of genius certain he could not have adopted it, if with the blood-royal. We allow there he had been a little man. But his im- are, or may be, talents sufficient to proposing figure and dignified manner ena- duce this equality without a single perble him to hazard sentiments or asser- sonal advantage; but we deny that this tions that would be fatal to others. His would be the effect of any that our controversial daring is backed by his great preacher possesses. bodily prowess, and, bringing his intel- ceive it not improbable that the conlectual pretensions boldly into a line sciousness of muscular power, that the with his physical accomplishments, he, admiration of his person by strangers indeed, presents a very formidabie front might first have inspired Mr. Irving to the sceptie or the scoffer. Take a with an ambition to be something, incubit from his stature, and his whole tellectually speaking, and have given manner resolves itself into an imperti- him confidence to attempt the greatest nence. But with that addition, he over. things. He has not failed for want of crous the town, browbeats their preju- courage. The public, as well as the dices, and bullies them out of their sen- fair, are won by a show of gallantry. ses, and is not afraid of being contra- Mr. Irving has shrunk from no opinion, dicted by any one less than himself. however paradoxical. He has scruIt may be said, that individuals with pled to avow no sentiment, however great personal defects have made a con- obnoxious. He has revived exploded siderable figure as public speakers; and prejudices, he has scouted prevailing Mr. Wilberforce, among others, may fashions. He has opposed the spirit of be held out as an instance. Nothing the age, and not consulted the esprit de