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the same as "John admires, loves, or is attached to truth."

3dly, By the use of different words; thus, "Industry contributes to health" may be varied by saying, "Health is promoted by active exertion," or "Active exertion promotes health."

4thly, By reversing the order of the correspondent parts of the sentence; thus, "He who lives always in the bustle of the world, lives in a perpetual warfare," may be thus transposed, "He lives in a perpetual warfare, who lives always in the bustle of the world."


-1. In the following phrases, for the nouns printed in Italics substitute appropriate adjectives or adverbs ;

He remonstrated with firmness against their measures. The honourableness of his character was soon apparent. With justice his liberality has been praised. Familiarity sometimes breeds contempt.


2. Convey the same idea by a negation of the opposite, or the - A wicked son is a reproach to his father. Titles and ancestry render a good man illustrious. I have perused the book with pleasure and profit. Innocence confers case and freedom on the mind. Be armed with courage against flatterers. Religion does not require a gloomy aspect. No station is so high as to exempt men from rashness. I venerate the man whose heart is pure. Too great a variety of studies weakens the mind.


3. Substitute different words for those printed in italics; Folly may laugh, but guilt will sting. Christianity is auspicious to the cultivation of the intellectual powers, as well as beneficial in its moral effects. The duties which it prescribes indeed are admirably calculated to produce that docile temper

and soberness of thought, those habits of perseverance and patient investigation, which are absolutely necessary in the pursuit of general knowledge. To keep the spirit of religion warm and operative in your hearts, persevere in the duties of public and private devotion, and in the regular perusal of the Holy Scriptures. In them you will find that the Saviour of the world has illustrated his precepts by the most pleasing and striking parables, recommended them by his own greatest and best of all examples, and enforced them by the most awful sanctions. There he unfolds the great mystery of redemption, and communicates the means by which degenerate and fallen man may recover the favour of his offended Maker.

4. In the following, reverse the order of the correspondent parts of the sentences; - She who studies her glass neglects her heart. If we have no regard for religion in youth, we have seldom any regard for it in age. Full of spirit, and high in hope, we set out on the journey of life. Poor were the expectations of the studious, the modest, and the good, if the reward of their labours were only to be expected from man. Virtue were a kind of misery, if fame only were all the garland that crowned her.


49. RULE 6. Sometimes a writer or speaker wishes to avoid the harshness conveyed by a plain expression; on such occasions, he can employ a softened mode of expression, called a euphemism. Thus, instead of saying, "he told a lie," "he is idle," we may express ourselves more mildly by saying, "He told an untruth," or "misrepresented the case; ""He is not noted for industry.”

EXERCISES.-Let the pupil employ euphemisms in the following sentences, instead of the words in italics;

1. I hate that man.

2. He was turned out of office.
3. He cheats and she lies.
4. He is a thief, a rascal.
5. John is a coward.

6. He has been sent to prison.

7. He was sent to the madhouse.

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8. He has no money.

9. He has run into debt. 10. He is a great glutton. 11. He turns up his nose at every thing.

12. The man was drunk.

50. RULE 7. Another mode of varying the expression, is by the employment of terms called synonymous. Synonymous words are so called, because they agree in expressing one principal idea. Many of these have precisely the same import, but others express the leading idea with some diversity of circumstances. Thus, puerile and childish are the same in signification; but conceal and dissemble, while they both agree in expressing "hiding the object" from our view, yet differ in this; the former expresses an action done accidentally, the latter, one done intentionally. The clouds may conceal the sun from our view, but the hypocrite designedly dissembles his real motives. EXERCISES. In the following sentences, write synonymous terms for the words printed in italics;·

Their situation had no effect in inducing them to surrender. Walker continued his daily exhortations from the pulpit, assuring them that the Almighty would grant deliverance, and entreating them to defend the place to the last extremity, and reminding them of the importance of their perseverance to the cause of the Protestant religion.

Observing that the pirates had diminished in number, it was resolved next day, to regain possession of the wreck; but the enemy, on perceiving the approach of the boats, instantly

pushed off, and set fire to the ship, which became, in a few minutes, one burning mass from stem to stern. Nothing could exceed the desperate ferocity of the Malays; but the most humane attention was paid by our men to the wounded.

LESSON 19. Synonymous Words, continued.

51. In this lesson, the pupil must explain the difference of signification, and the appropriate application, of the following synonymous terms; thus, observance and observation: the former means obedience to or compliance with a law or rule; the latter signifies the faculty of noticing or remarking. By a man's observance of the rules of equity he secures confidence; by his habit of careful observation he is daily making improvement.

Reference may be had to the Author's English Grammar, or to Crabbe's Synonymes.


1. Abate, diminish, decrease, lessen, relax, impair.

2. Ability, capacity.

3. Acquiesce, resigned, agree in, consent.

4. Acknowledge, confess, avow.

5. Active, diligent, industrious, assiduous, laborious.

6. Addict, devote, apply.

7. Ambiguous, equivocal. 8. Authentic, genuine.

9. Amend, correct, reform, rectify, emend, improve. 10. Ceremonious, ceremonial.

11. Conquer, subdue, surmount.

12. Conscience, consciousness.

13. Custom, habit.

14 Discover, invent.

15. Doctrines, precepts, principles.

16. Enlarge, increase.

17. Intelligible, intellectual.

18. Persevere, persist.

19. Sophism, sophistry.

20. Together, successively.

LESSON 20. Classical Words.

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52. RULE 8. The expression may be varied by employing words of a classical origin instead of those that are of an English or Saxon derivation. Thus, "He distributed the contribution among the indigent," conveys the same sense as, "He dealt out or shared among the poor the money which

had been raised."

EXERCISES. For the classical words printed in italics in the following sentences, substitute others of an English or Saxon origin; —

There is a profusion of all kinds of fruit this season. The malady is very prevalent, and the hospitals are filled with invalids. After the revolution, the adherents of the regal system were persecuted with acrimony. The public are agitated by conflicting rumours. Parallel lines can never converge. Equestrians and pedestrians were mingled together. The aborigines of the country were extirpated. The traitor was proscribed, and his goods were confiscated. Stimulated by national animosity, the armies ardently waited for the opening of the campaign. The incision was promptly made, and the abscess materially reduced. The air in the vicinity is very humid, owing to the exhalations from the contiguous fen.

The circulation of the blood through the bodies of men and quadrupeds, and the apparatus by which it is carried on, compose a system, and testify a contrivance, perhaps the best understood of any part of the animal frame. The lymphatic and the nervous systems may be more subtle and intricate; nay, it is possible that in their structure they may be even more artificial than the sanguiferous: but we do not know so much about them.

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