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to him the castle of Driencourt, and the castle of Arches, which were to have been delivered to William, archbishop of Rheims.

In the same year, Berengaria, queen of England, Joanna, queen of Sicily, and the daughter of the emperor of Cyprus, came to Rome, under the charge of Stephen de Turnham, and were honorably received by our lord the pope, Celestinus, and the nobles of Rome; and they stayed there nearly half a year, through fear of the emperor. When they departed thence, our lord the pope gave them into the charge of Master Mellur, a cardinal; on which they proceeded to Pisa, thence to Genoa, and thence to Marseilles. At Marseilles they were received by the king of Arragon, who paid them all due honor and respect, and escorted them to the borders of his kingdom, on which the count of Saint Gilles escorted them through his terri. tory; and thus they arrived in Poitou. In the

year of grace 1194, being the second year of the captivity of Richard, king of England, the said Richard was still in the custody of the emperor of the Romans, at Spires, in Germany, on the day of the Nativity of our Lord, which took place on a Saturday; and there he remained until the time of his liberation which the emperor had appointed for him, that is to say, the second day of the week after the expiration of three weeks from the day of the Nativity of our Lord. After the emperor had arrived there, together with the archbishops, bishops, dukes, and nobles of his empire, and had discussed at length the liberation of the king of England, there came to the emperor envoys from the king of France, and envoys from John, earl of Mortaigne, brother of the king of England; and they made offer to the emperor, on behalf of the king of France, of fifty thousand marks of silver, and on behalf of earl John of fifty thousand marks of silver, on condition that he should keep the king of England in his custody until the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel next ensuing; or, if the emperor should prefer it, they would pay him at the end of every month, so long as he should detain the king of England in his custody, one thousand pounds of silver; or, again, if the emperor should prefer it, the king of France would give him one hundred thousand marks of silver, and the earl John would give him fifty thousand marks of silver, on condition that he would deliver up to them the king of England, or at least detain him in his custody for the space of one year from that time. Behold, how they loved him! After hearing them, the emperor

put off the day of the liberation of the king of England, and appointed another day for his liberation, namely, the day of the Purification of Saint Mary, and at Mentz.

In the meantime, Geoffrey, archbishop of York, on the eighth day before the Nativity of our Lord, came to York, and, by the advice of prudent men, appointed ministers for the metropolitan church of York, which he found deserted, in order that they might, as was fitting, perform Divine service in the said church. And this was accordingly observed, until the canons and their chaplains, by means of the influence and violence of the laity, were restored. After this, four of the chief men of the church, who, in consequence of the suspension of service in the said church, had been excommunicated, crossed over to the king who was then set at liberty, and, receiving permission from him, because he was angry that the archbishop had not come as he had been commanded by him, set out for Rome. Against them, deputies were also sent thither by the archbishop.

Each side accordingly appearing in presence of pope Celestinus, the election of the dean was discussed at great length, and after due deliberation, as it was acknowledged to have taken place after appeal duly made, it was therefore to be annulled, or rather to be pronounced as having been null and void. Our lord the pope, also, being wishful for the present to avoid pronouncing a decision in the matter, whether the presentation to the deanery of right belonged to the archbishop or to the chapter, relying on his own power, the extent of which it is lawful for no one to question, saving always for the future the rights both of the archbishop as also of the chapter, gave the deanery to the before-named Simon of Apulia, and confirmed, and with his golden ring invested him with the same.

This matter being thus disposed of, they immediately proceeded to slander and accusations against the said archbishop, declaring that he was a violent spoliator of themselves and the other clergy, a dishonest extortioner, that he had with an armed band broken open the doors of churches, had simoniacally divided and retained in his own hands ecclesiastical benefices, that he had paid no regard to appeals, and had set at nought the privileges of the Roman Pontiff, and, to express it in a few words, asserted that he quite despised his duties as archbishop, and was devoted to hawking, hunting, and other military pursuits. For these, and for other reasons, they sought

to depose him; and they in especial, whom he had enriched with the greatest honors, and with inestimable wealth and revenues in the church of York, and beyond what, with due regard to God, he ought to have done. Of such it is, that the Lord saith, “I have nourished and brought up children, and they have rebelled against me." Therefore, let them beware, lest the just Judge despise them, and lest with the traitor Judas they be condemned to hell.

These allegations being made, our lord the pope wrote to Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, and his fellow judges, that if there should be any to accuse the archbishop on these charges, they should carefully hear what was alleged on either side, and after enquiry into the truth thereof, send their report, sealed with their seals, to the Apostolic See. But, if no accuser should appear, and the archbishop should be attacked by public rumour, they were to call upon him to clear himself by the testimony of three bishops and as many abbats. But, as the archbishop had appealed before the citation of the judges, and had proceeded on the road for the purpose of urging his appeal, the said judges, in accordance with the contents of the rescript of our lord the pope, assigned him a space of three months for the said appeal, appointing the calends of July as the day for his appearance. The archbishop, however, did not appear at the time so named, both on account of the king's prohibition, as also by reason of the unwholesomeness of the atmosphere that then prevailed at Rome. His clerks, howerer, who were at this time staying at the court of Rome, alleging the above as the causes of his absence, obtained of the pope, that whatever had been done against the archbishop in the meantime, after his appeal, should be revoked, as being null and void; because it was not his fault that he had not come to the court of Rome; and the time on which he was to present himself in the Apostolical presence was fixed by our lord the pope, upon the octave of the feast of Saint Martin, then next ensuing. But because not even then he appeared in the Roman court, either personally, or by sufficient proxy, he was at the Nativity of our Lord next ensuing, suspended from the performance of all episcopal duties.

The liberation of Richard, king of England.
In the meantime, Henry, emperor of the Romans, with the

4 Is. i. 2.

nobles of his empire, and Richard, king of England, with queen Eleanor, his mother, Walter, archbishop of Rouen, William, bishop of Ely, his chancellor, and Savaric, bishop of Bath, met at Mentz, on the Purification of Saint Mary, and, a conference being there held as to the liberation of the king of England, the emperor wished, in his eagerness for the money which the king of France and earl John had offered him, to recede from his agreement. Bringing with him the envoys from the king of France and the envoys from earl John, in whose number was Robert de Nunant, brother of Hugh, bishop of Coventry, he delivered to the king of England the letters of the king of France and of earl John for him to read, which they had sent to prevent his liberation. On seeing and reading these, the king was very much disturbed and confused, and despaired of his liberation.

Accordingly, by his summons, the emperor convened on this subject the archbishops of Mentz, Cologne, and Saltzburg, the bishops of Worms, Spires, and Liege, the duke of Suabia, the brother of the emperor, the dukes of Austria and Louvain, the count Palatine of the Rhine, and the other nobles of the empire who had been sureties on behalf of the emperor between him and the king of England for his performance of the articles agreed upon between them. These boldly appeared before the emperor, and reproved him most severely for attempting in so shameless a manner to recede from his agreement, and prevailed upon him to release and dismiss the king of England from his custody: a stipulation, however, having been made that the king of England should deliver to the emperor Walter, archbishop of Rouen, Savaric, bishop of Bath, Baldwin Wac, and many others of his earls and barons, as hostages for the payment of the remainder of the money due for his ransom, and for his keeping the peace towards the emperor and his empire, and all the lands of his dominions.

Accordingly, the archbishops of Mentz and Cologne delivered him, free and released by the emperor, into the hands of his mother Eleanor, on the day before the nones of February, being the sixth day of the week, an Egyptian day, or what the people of modern times call an unlucky day; and so, upon an unlucky day, the Lord restored him to liberty. On the said king asking Robert de Nunant, brother of Hugh, bishop of Coventry, to be one of his hostages, Robert made answer that

5 The 4th February : other writers say that it was the 2nd February.

he was a liegeman of earl John, and, therefore, declined to be a hostage for him; at which the king being incensed, ordered him to be seized and thrown into prison, which was accordingly done.

On the same day on which the king was set at liberty from the custody of the emperor, he sent one Salt de Bruil, as his messenger, to his nephew, Henry, count of Champagne, in Sulia, and the other Christian princes, informing them of the day of his liberation; and that, if God should grant him vengeance against his enemies, and peace, he would come by the time appointed to succour them against the pagans. He also promised to the said Salt de Bruil that he would give him lands to the value of forty pounds on his return from the land of Sulia. On the same day, the king, by his letters, summoned Hugh, bishop of Coventry, to appear in his court, and to take his trial before the bishops, because he himself was a bishop, and before certain laymen, because he held under him a layman's office, upon the charges that were made against him.

On the same day, the emperor of the Romans, and the archbishops, bishops, dukes, and counts of the empire, joining in a letter in common, and appending their seals thereto, sent word to the king of France and to earl John, immediately upon sight of the said letter to restore to the king of England the castles, cities, fortresses, towns, lands, and all other things which they had taken from him, while he had been in the custody of the emperor; and, unless they did so, they were to know for certain that they would aid the king of England to the utmost of their power, in recovering everything that he had lost. After this, the king of England made promise of, and by his charters confirmed, to certain archbishops, bishops, dukes, and counts, and many of the barons of the empire, yearly revenues, for their homage and fealty, and aid against the king of France. He accordingly received the homage of the archbishop of Mentz, the archbishop of Cologne, the bishop of Liege, the duke of Austria, the duke of Louvain, the marquis of Montferrat, the duke of Nemburg, the duke of Suabia, the brother of the emperor, the count Palatine of the Rhine, the son of the count of Hainault, the count of Holland, and many others, saving always their fealty to the emperor.

It ought also to be known that the king of England was in captivity with the emperor during a period of one year, six weeks, and three days.

6 Probably meaning Mecklenburgh.

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