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296

Battle of Prague-State of Church Livings in 1708. (May 1,

in your widely-circulated and much-read the little foundation there has ever been iniscellany.

J. M. for the im

for the imputations which have often of Thurlby, Feb. 6, 1816.

late years been so unjustly reflected on

the proceedings of this respectable body, MR. EDITOR,

as not bearing a due proportion in their HAVING bserved in your Magazine progress to the extent of their resources, for November lası, p. 353, the remark that for the fact is precisely the reverse-it “ the name of KOTZWARA must be fami. being ratber a subject of astonishment liar i every lover of inusic, as the com- that so extensive an amelioration of the poser of the celebrated Battle of Prague," smaller livings should have been effected I have presuined to contradict that asser- during the last hundred years, with a tion, and to lay before your readers the revenue (at least till the liberality of Parnames of the authors from whom that liament had enriched it by its late muoimusic was selected. The principal part, ficent grants) of so very confined a de called the Battle, was selected from Bach's scription. celebrated Battle of Rosbach,* God save In the wish of your correspondent I the Kingt by Carey, and the Turkish fully concur, that a copy may be transQuick March from the last movement of mitted to your Magazine of the official a concerto I by Sterkel.

returns of the year 1814, as these will

CRIBER. shew what has been actually done since Knightsbridge, March 11, 1816.

1808 for the augmentation of poor live

ings, under the extended powers of the MR. EDITOR,

corporation, by the operation of the parWITH the desire of giving a connect

liamentary grants.

V. M. H. ed statement of the operations o! Queen March 13, 1816. Anne's Bounty from its original institution, as tending to complete the view of Abstract of the Returns of Poor Livings a subject which seems to bave justly ex

in 1708. cited the interest of your clerical readers, I. Livings returned under sol., I am tempted to offer you a concise aba and never charged in the stract of the state of livings, given by King's Books* . . . . 173: Mr. Ecton in his valuable 'publication to II. Livings returned under sol. which I alluded in a former letter ; con

in charge, and of which all ceiving at the same time that such a

under 50l. (to the amount communication may afford your corre

of 3826) were then exonespondent H N an accurate idea of

rated from the future paythe information afforded by this useful

ment of first-fruits and

tenths:work.

viz, not exceeding 201. per ann. 1216 This abstract, which I have carefully

201. to

906 made from a calculation of Mr. Ecton's

30

921 detailed lists, presents the total result of

783 the different returns of poor benefices

620 as made for the express use of the cor

445 poration in and about the year 1708 ;

191 and when examined in conjunction with

5089 those of 1808, (which H N has given at p. 105 of your present volume,) a

Total in 1708 under 801. 6814 comparative estimate may be formed of

Ditto 1808 ditto .. 2163 the state of the inferior benefices as

Amount of diminution in existing at these two remote periods; thus shewing the actual progress that

100 years. . 4651 has been made during that long interval # It is of these livings, consisting chiedy in the improvement of their condition. of curacies and chapelries, that Mr. Ecton

I am the more anxious to have such a gives detailed returns, methodically arranged comparative estimate exhibited, to shew under their respective deaneries in each dio

This piece was published a few years cese. His other detailed lists consist of the since in a clavichord 'selection by Dr. Call. livings augmented by the bounty, both by cott, and printed by Birchall.

ballot and conjunction of patrons' donations; 7. First published as a two-part song in a republication of wbich, enlarged by the the Gentleman's Magazine, 1745.

statements of all subsequent augmentations, Concerto in C, published by Longman I suggested as in my idea the best foundaand Broderip.

tion for any modern view of the operations § N. M. Mag. vol. iv. p. 107.

of this munificent charity.

40 50

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ANCIENT LANGUAGE OF MALTA.

1816.] Mr. Dougall on the Ancient Language of Malta. 297 MR. EDITOR,

dour, many ages must have elapsed in CONFORMABLY to the proposal that distant period of society before that contained in my letter of the 15th past, importance and splendour culd be acI now transmit some general observa- quired. Under the idea of commercial, tions on the vernacular language of particularly maritime enterprise, are Malta and its dependent islands. comprehended in some degree every use

John DOUGALL. ful exercise and application of the human London, Feb. 10, 1816.

faculties: hence we find the Greeks and Romans attributing to the Phænicians,

or to their neighbours the Egyptians, The bistory of a language is generally (with whom they very early established that of the people by whom it is spoken; commercial intercourse, the invention nor can a stronger proof of the filiation of ship.building, navigation, and comor the affinity of separate tribes and merce; of astronomy as applicable to nations be discovered, than the identity, nautical purposes, particularly in ascerthe siinilarity, the correspondence of taining the position of certain stars much their several peculiar dialects.

nearer to the north pole than any known" The earliest traders, navigators, or to other nations; of naval war, writing, adventurers, of whom, from either his- arithmetic, hook-keeping, measures and tory or tradition, we have any account, weights, &c. Of these branches of sciwere the inhabitants of the eastern shores ence many were doubtless highly imof the Mediterranean sea. The central proved by the Phænicians; but their portion of this tract, called Phæniciu (or principles were most probably derived more properly Phænicè,) a long but nar from the Babylonians, Indians, or other row region, confined between the sea eastern nations. on the west and the lofty range of Mount To pass over the expeditions of CeLebanon on the east, was in general crops and Cadmus from Phænicia into mountainous and unproductive. The Greece, it appears that about 1,450 years activity of the natives of such a coun- before our era, in consequence of the try, and in so genial a climate, was na invasion of Canaan by the Israelites unturally directed to maritime enterprise; der Joshua, numbers of that devoted particularly as their mountains presented people, particularly the inhabitants of in abundance the best and the most du- the coasc (that is to say, the Phenicians) rable materials for ship-building. The abandoning their homes, becook themmighty cedars of Lebanon have been selves to their ships, and, in the process celebrated from the earliest periods of of time, established colonies on various bistory; and even much later we learn points all round the Mediterranean. Or from Pliny (Hist. Nat. xvi. 40) that the ihe position and the date of these seveRomans employed cedar for their ships, ral establishments all the information for want of fir, of which their vessels which vast erudition and indefatigable had been usually constructed. Of the industry could collect, will be found in wonderful durability of cedar, however, the Chanaan of Bochart. the Romans were not ignorant; for the It is very probable, that as early as same author speaks of beams of that the year 1234 B.C., or 50 years before timber as still existing in a teniple at the fall of Troy, the foundation of CarUtica near Carthage, which had lasted thage in Africa was laid by the Tyrians; pearly 1,200 years. Lebanon most pro- but it was not until above 350 years bably furnished those beams; for Ulica afterwards that the reinforcements of was one of the earliest foreign settle- Tyriaus passed thither, under the auments of the Phænicians.

spices of Elissa, better known by the VirThe principal ports and trading cities gilian fable and designation of Dido. of the Phænicians were Sidon and Tyre. About 130 years after the original settleOf the former, the more ancient of the ment of Carthage, the Phoenicians, attwo, the foundation is carried back above tracted by the cominodious position, the 2,000 years before the Christian era; climate, the productions, vegetable and and even the latter, a daughter or colony mineral, of the parts of Spain bordering of Sidon, is mentioned as a place of on the strait uniting the Mediterranean strength (see Josbua, ix.) at the time of and the Atlantic, there founded a numthe invasion of Canaan by the Israelites, ber of commercial colonies, of which about 1,450 years prior to the same the chief was Gadir, now Cadiz, on the epoch: As to commercial industry and western extremity of an island lying close enterprise alone these cities were in- to the continent. debted for their importance and splen In the course of the varioas voyages New MONTHLY MAG---No. 28.

VOL. V.

2 Q

298 Mr. Dougall on the Ancient Language of Multa. [May 1, over the Mediterranean, requisite for their distinguished descendants the Cars the conduct of their multiplied commer- thaginians also had intercourse and seta cial enterprizes, and for maintaining tlenients, and even dominion in Malta. proper intercourse with their pumerous This is inanifest from various incidents settlements along its shores, it was im- of their long and ruinous wars with their possible for Malta and its adjoining isles invidious and unrelenting enemies the long to remain unseen or unknown to Romans, who, although glorying in their the Phænicians. The nearest land to own freedom from a foreign yoke, seem Malta is the south-east corner of Sicily, to have been actuated by a peculiar near Cape Passaro, distant only about and insatiable hostility to the indepen45 geographic or 52 English miles, in a dence of other nations, especially wlien north-cast direction; a navigation on founded and maintained on the peaceeven the open sea by no means beyond ful basis of commercial industry. the spirit and skill of a Phænician navi The Phoenician language, or that gator. That Malta was visited, and spoken over the land of Canaan, was a perhaps colonised by that enterprising sister dialect of the Hebrew, or that of and useful people, twelve, or even four the Israelites; both daughiers of the teen centuries before our era, is there- primitive Chaldee. The perfect freefore liighly probable; such is also the dom of communication subsisting beopinion of Cluverius, founded on a tween the individuals and nations, speakcomparison of the best ancient authori- ing these different dialects, places this ties." See his Sicilia Antiqua.

fact beyond all doubt. The common Early, however, as those events oc- language of the Carthaginians, or the curred, still Malta was not found unpos- Punic, must also for ages have borne a sessed : for from passages in Homer, in strong resemblance to the parent tongue Thucydides, in Appollonius, in Diodo- of Tyre and Sidon, from which it origirus Siculus, and in other ancicnt writers, nally proceeded. The language init appears that the island was inhabited posed on the inhabitants of Malta, by by an indigenous race of men, among their masters from Asia and Africa, whom the eastern strangers incorporated must therefore have been radically themselves, and formed a permanent Phænician. establishment. The central position of The residence of the Phænicians in Malta, with regard to the Mediterranean Malta and the adjacent isles is not and the maritime commerce of the merely a fact depending on the faith of Phoeniciavs, the number and the excel- ancient history : it has been fully ascerlence of its ports, the fertility and pro- tained by the discovery in those islands, ductions of the soil, all rendered the of monuments of various sorts, evidently possession of the island an object of the belonging to that people. Towards the greatest importance to the Phænicians; middle of the last century was found in and this importance was duly appre- Malta an antique candelabrum of wbite ciated by them. It is also to be observed, marble, on which was one inscription that Malta and the adjoining islands in Punic or Phænician, followed by Gozo, Curnino, and Cuminotto, seem to another in Greek; published by Gori in have been in former times, much more his defence of the Etruscan alphabet. extended than they now are. Nay, it is Another candelabrum of the same sort, not improbable that all the four were but uninscribed, was found at the same onee united in one single island. The time. The Greek part of the inscřipencroachments of the sea on their shores tion, itself evidently very ancient, ap. are continually manifest. Ancient roadspeared to have been added posterior to may be traced to the coast, but now the Punic, the date of which was thus terminating in inaccessible precipices carried back to a very remote period. over the water. The level of the sea it. In the capitol (campidoglio of Rome, self seems also to bave risen: for artific was not long ago preserved another doucial channels for the conveyance of fresh ble inscription in Punic and Greek, on water may now be seen under the waves; a slab of white marble, carried thither as also steps cut in the rocks to facili- from Malta, wliere it was discovered. tatc access to the island, are now con- The inscriptions recorded the donation stantly covered by the sea. The more of a silver statue to his paternal or extended therefore was Malta, the more country divinities, Aglıbolos and Mareadily would it be discovered at sea, lachbelos (Ayalewal wat Makazu hat Siena and the more valuable would it appear atpwong) by Heliodoras of Palmyra in to the Phænicians.

the desert of Syria, distinguished by its Not the original Phænicians only, but foundation as Tadmor under Solomon,

1816.)

Mr. Dougall on the Ancient Language of Malta. 299 and its overthrow under Zenobia. These ble, we should be obliged to mount op inscriptions were comparatively modern, to a very early period, much before the being dated in the year 547 of the era of first Libyan Baitus, to find a king of the Alexander, corresponding to the year same name in Malta. In the third book 224 of our era. The language of Palmyra, of Ovid's Fasti, verse 567, we have as of Syria in general, was nearly akin to these lines: the Phænician or Punic; but their al- “ Fertilis est Melite sterili vicina Cosyræ phabetic characters were different: it Insula, quam Libyci verberat unda freti. was therefore from complaisance to the Hanc petit hospitio regis confisa vetusto. Maltese, that Heliodorus inscribed his Hospes opum dives rex ibi Battus erat,”. tablet in their characters, and not in Near poor Cosyra fertile Malta lies, those of Palmyra.

Beat by the Libyan wave: thither she fees, In the year 1761, in an antique se- Trusting to ancient friendship, for there pulchre under ground, at a spot towards reigned the south side of Malta, called khasam The wealthy Battus. ta byn Hysae (the field or possession of Cosyra, now called by the Italians Jesus or Joshua) was discovered an in- Pantalluréa, is a small island certainly scription in characters conceived to be not near to Malta, as the poet, says, Phænician. It consisted of forty-seven buc lying directly in the way of a ship letters arranged in four lines. From the bound thither from Carthage; distant decay of the stone the first three lives 64 English miles east from Cape Bon, were differently read by ditferent learned the ancient Hermæan promontory formmen: but the last line all agreed to read ing the eastern point of the bay of Carin these words hal byn bat malek, which, thage or Tunis ; and 124 English miles in the present language of Malta signify, WNW from the centre of Malta. The for the son of Bat the king. The pre- inhabitants of Pantallaréa speak the composition hal in Maltese, is equal to in, mon Maltese dialect. contra, ob, per, pro, for, on account of; It was already stated, that Carthage byn is filius, son, like the Hebrew ben ; was probably founded by the Phænicians bat is a proper name, and such words about 50 years before the fall of Troy, in Maltese are always the same without and that fresh colonies went thither with regard to case; malek is rex, king, but Elissa or Dido above 350 years afterinot now used in Malta, having been su- wards. Whichever of these epochas we

perseded by another oriental term, sul- choose for the reign of that princess in lan, of similar but not equal import. Carthage, it is evident that her inter

Who the king Battus mentioned in view with Æneas existed only in fiction. this sepulchral inscription might be, it is Agreeably to that fiction, however, Ovid impossible to say: but the name is not represents Anna, after the death of her unknown in history. In the island of sister Dido, and the attack on Carthage Thera, now Santorini, one of the Cy- by Iarbas, king of Getulia, to have fled clades in the Archipelago, Polymnestus, for protection to Battus, the friendly a wealthy citizen, had a bold and am- king of Melitè or Malta. This ancient bitious son who, impatiently enduring friendship between Battus and the queen an ungraceful hesitation in his speech, of Carthage was most probably founded applied for a cure to the oracle of Dels on the original descent of both from phi. Instead of directly answering his Phænicia, whither he proceeded direquest, the oracle saluted him by the rectly from that country, or rather from appellation Battos, and exhorted him to Cyrene, where his namesakes were kings, leave his native island and conduct a and where Phænicians were settled long colony to Libya, or the north of Africa, prior to the adventure, real or imagie This happened in the second year of the nary, of Battus of Thera. Cyrenè (Ku37th olympiad, or in the 631st year be- rene) is not of Greek origin; but it exfore our era. Such is the account con ists in the ancient Hebrew, as in the veyed to us by Herodotus in the fourth modern Maltese, in which kur signifies book of his history, who adds, that the a wall, building, or fortification, nearly term battos in the Libyan tongue signi- equivalent to bosra, the citadel of Carfied a king. The name Battos was often thage, a Phænician or Punic term, correpeated among the princes of Cyrene rupted by the delicate and fanciful in Libya; for the fourth prince of that Greeks, from its resemblance, ioto byrsa, name was deposed in the year 460 be signifying among them the hide of an anifore our era, about the time when He- mal: and on this idea was founded the rodotus flourished.

well-known story of the origin of Car· Were we to give credit to poetic fa- thage ; a story which has found an imi

300 Mr. Oliver on the Means of Removing Hairs. [May , tation even in the history of England, stone into a kind of cake, by means of If now we allow, 'with Virgil and Ovid, some resinous and glatinous substances, the destruction of Troy and the founda- which was to be robbed over the face tion of Carthage to have been coeval without soap or water, and would perevents, we shall have a Battus reigning form all the purposes of shaving. The in Malta twelve centuries, before our Turks use quick lime tempered for the era, and nearly six anterior to the Libyan same purpose. The West Indian ladies expedition noticed by Herodotus. use the Anuchardia Occidental, or cas

The term Battos was supposed by the shew nut, in the following magner: they Greeks to signily a king: this inay, how gently scrape off the outside, and with eyer, have been founded in their igno- the stone rub their faces, which imme rance of the language of their masters diately swell and grow black; and the the Phænicians. The name of the sup- skin being poisoned with the caustic posed founder of Cyrend was repeated oil contained therein, will in the space in that of his successors; and what was of five or six days, come entirely off is in fact a proper name, miglit by stran. large flakes, so that they cannot ap gers come to be taken for a title or pear in public in less than a fortnight, office. Of a practice nearly similar an by which time the new skin looks as fair exanıple exists, at the present day, re- as that of an intant. J. OLIVER. specting the head of the German em. Kennington, March 13. pire, imitating the custom of the later emperors of Rome, Cæsar, the name MR, EDITOR, of the founder of the empire, was at last ON reading the account of the dreademployed to designate the second in dig- ful accident that took place at Felling nity to the emperor; and in Germany Colliery, near Sunderland, in the county Cæsa (Kaiser ) now indicates the em- of Durham, on the 25th May, 1812, by peror himself. But the geovine mean the explosion of what is commonly called ing of Batios may be traced in the pre- fire-damp (carburated bydrogen gas), sent Maliese, in which bat, with diffe- when ninety-two persons lost their lives, rent terminations signifies slow, inuc. I was led to turn my attention towards tive, useless. Thera and the other Greek devising methods to prevent the accumuisles were very early colonised by the lation of this gas in subterraneous works: Phænician); and it would be to think but as the bad air that infests (be coalvery meanly or the talents of the mana- works in this neighbourhood 15 of a quite gers of the oracle, to imagine they were different quality from that already meounable to communicate their responses, tioned, being what is commonly called in the language of each particular appli- choak-damp, or foul air (carbonic acid cant. The oracle conscious of its inabie gas), and as I had not opportunities at lity to renove lois defect of speech, sa- that time to bring my schiennes to the Juted the Therian youth with a word ex- test of experiment, I was presented from pressive of that defect; and advised him laying them before the public. Obseryto seek bus fortune in a strange land, ing, however, that two eminent chewhere his success would much inore de- mists, Sir Ilumpbry Davy and Dr. Mur pend on the activity of his arm, than on ray, have each laid before the public an the Auency and energy, or the slowness ingenious method of lighting colheries and imperfection of his discourse. Bat- that are liable to explode, without bringtos, therefore, meant only slow of speech. ing their methods to the test of experi; (To be continued.)

ment below ground; I shall follow their

example, by giving an outline of the MR, EDITOR

methods that bad occurred to me for * IN your 22d Number, p. 319, an in preventing the accumulation of this inquiry was made concerning some method flanımable gas, in under-ground works, of removing such superfluous hairs as with a few remarks on Dr. Murray's inperchance might grow upon the chin of genious cased lamp. feinales. I shall submit to your corre- It may, however, not be improper to spondent's consideration the following mention here, that the carbonic acid methods. In the first place, I should gas, known to miner's by the name of consider eradication to be the best foul air, or choak-damp, wbich extinmeans possible of preventing the evil guishes flame and animal life, comboth for the time present and to come. mences first upon the pavement or floor In June 1804, a patent was obtained by of the workings, and while not in great Mr. Marcus Hyman, Exeter-strcet, for quantity, suffers the atmospheric air, a method of working up iron pumice which is lighter, to swim upon it; as

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