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relation, make it a rule that everything be transacted in the same formal business-like manner that would be adopted if he were a stranger. Were this rule attended to, frequent annoyances, much expense, and many family quarrels would be avoided. In disputed cases, resulting from the absence of a business-like understanding, friends and relations may become satisfied by mutual concessions and confidence in one another's integrity; but when they die, their Executors are bound to act by the hard judgment of the law,

Saleable Title.-When Shares or Land are made over to you by a relation or others, ask your legal adviser to see that all necessary steps are taken for making your Title a saleable one, so that you can sell it whenever you may desire to do so, without trouble or extra expense.

Security. If you lend money as an investment, always have safe security for it from the

Borrower-viz. a Mortgage of Land or other Property, worth at least, in the case of Land, one-third more, and in the other case, half as much again as the sum you lend.

Receipts from Friends.-Always take a Receipt from a relation, as from a stranger, for borrowed money. Should your relation die, his Executors could not pay you unless you had a Receipt to show or he had named it in his Will. Executors

must act only by the directions of the Will: they cannot use their own discretion.

If you have lent a person money, when he pays it back, you will have to return the Receipt he gave you. If this is done through the Post, or through another person, take the precaution of tearing it into two and defacing it before sending it.

If a Deed or Map of your Property is borrowed, desire the person who borrows it to give you a Receipt for it. An old Map of Land is often

a most important document to determine boun



When you want to buy or sell a Share in a Railway, Canal, Gas or Water Works, it is usual to write to a respectable Stock-broker to do it for you, for which he charges a per-centage. In buying into the Stocks or Exchequer Bills it is often more convenient to ask your Banker to do it. Your Banker will always be able to recommend a Broker or to undertake the business himself. Full information about Bankers and Brokers is given in the next two Chapters.

Money on Deposit.-When you sell any Shares, &c., place the money in a Bank till you have found a new investment. If it is to lie in the Bank for any length of time (two or three months, or longer) it is better to put it into Deposit, for

which the Bank will pay you a small Interest. If it is a very large amount you can put it into the Funds or buy Exchequer Bills.


Never allow your name to be put down as a Director of a concern unless you attend personally to it, or you may be liable, by the acts of others, to lose the whole of your property. You also mislead, by making the public fancy you attend to the concern.



WHEN you have fixed upon a Banker, and placed some money in his hands, he will give you a book, called a Pass or Bank Book.


The Banker will enter on one side of this book all the money that is paid into the Bank to you or for you, and on the other side he will put down from time to time the money you have drawn out of the Bank, by Cheques, or Orders.

Never write anything yourself in your Passbook, for it is written up by the Banker from time to time from his Ledger, of which it is considered

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