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tions and unacknologia ly our laws, giving his ascent to therto un
legislation, for quartering large ludico garmid troups among ces;.
for protecting them ly a mork-trial from punishment for any munking

they should commit on the inhabitants of these stated;
for cutting off our trade with all parts of the world,
for improving taxes on us without our convent;
for deprowing is of the benefits of trial

mong by query; for hrane posting us bayond yezo to he tried for przekeneled Henes:

the free wystem of courglastelares in a mhicphonry prournee concerning thominum arbibang perempuan andenlenme te letras cores

er introducing Tabolishing

our most emportent Laws for taking away our charters,

sero Waltering fundamentally the forme Jour garnment for suspendery our own legislatures de declaring thermoelers inerested with power is legislate for

in all cases whatower.

by declaring out of his bachion Weapon or afeinst us. he has abdicated government here, withdrawing his governors, & declaring

of his allegiance & protection] he has plundered our seas, ravaged our coarts, burnt our towns & distroyed the

lives of our people : he is at this time transporting large armies

of foreign mercenaries to complet the works of death desolation le tyranny, already begun with circumstances

searealy paralleled in the most barbeaus als and totally bu barede gruelty & perfidywneworthy the head of a wired nation. he has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless hohen whose known rule of warfare is an undist

warfare is an undistinguished distichond ages wereo, & conditions) existence,] he has incited treasonable insurrections of our

fellow.citizens with the
alluremento e forteifure V. continuation et
te haü cöğiz' ini lawatağaînot human nature itself.violating itsmest na

the program tersing to eyes
-vsed mghts of life
. Wliberty in the persons na distant people who reces

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fended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemis

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whese, or to incur mierable death in their transportation thither, this piratical warfare the opprobs. reum of infidelpowers, is the warfare of the Christian king of Great Pulain (dobermined to keep opena market where MEN hould be bought & cold he has prostituted his negative for wagening, zwery legislative attempt to prohibit or to sustain this

: escerable commerces and that this assemblage of horrors might want nofact of distinguished dre, he is now exciting those very people to nse in arms amorgus, and to preschase that liberty of which he has deprived their by murdering the people upon whom he also atrusted them. This prayny

A former crimes committed against the liberties fome people, with crimes

which he urges them to commit against the lives of another] inery stagéother oppsesionowe have petitioned for sedrew in the most humble kerms our repeated potitions have been anowered by repeated injunes, a prince whose character is the markedly every act which may define e tyrant' is unfit to be the neler of a people who mean to be free" juture

mean to the free future ages will scare believe that the hopdinejo dare mais aqverhurea within the short compassoftweke years

to foundation for broad &undisquired for tyranny one of of termen de Langt over a people fostered Y fised in principles of talenty freedom

Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren: we have sarned them from time to time djattempts by their legislature to extend a juris -diction over there or steredd we have reminded them of the circumstances of orur emigration & settlement here, Imo one of which could warrant vouhangea pretension: that these were effected at the expence fourown Wood & heasure, unasriskd lay the wealth or the brength of Great Torikairo: that in constituting indeed our several forms of government, we had adopted one common king, thereby laying a foundation for perpetual leaquet amity with them: Vrit that valmission to this parliament was no part of our constitution.

nor ever in idea if history may be

&we have comuned handy

nication of grandeur & of freedomitato olon is open to notoo, we will had it.


at this very

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since they

eredited: ano]unetappealed to their native justicet magnanimity as well as to the tries pour common kirared to disavow these usurpations whichfwere likely to invernant ove comespondence komotion they too have been deaf to thevoie d justice & gconcanguinity. when real women have been given the regular

se of their laws of removing from their councils the disturbers of our harmony, they have by their their pee electionze-cobablished them in power.

time too they are permetting their chief magistrate to vendover not only volbien pour blood, but Scotch & Foreign mercenaries te incade menthe. therefact have given the last seal to agonizing affection, and manly spirit bidous tex. crownce forever these unbesling brethren. we meest endeavor to forget our former love for them, and to hold them as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in in peace frendo wemight have been a free Va great people together; but a common

is below their dynity

, be it so will have it: the most to your heppihet aveguertitzats, and requiesce in the necessite which were monnees current

to we was tortage dansk Efemrat]veparation!

We therefore the regesentaties of the United State of Americawn General com-spejs aitimális, de un Kinane #ly authority of the good people of these filatus] [reguet and renomee all allegiance Houbiection to the kings of Great Britain Gall others who

may hereafter claimly, tloough. or under them, we dissolue of track of all political connection which may boome heretette vul. -sidled between us the people or parliament of Great Bilann; and

and finally we do assertiond declere these colonies to be free and independantykates

, and that as free kinoegrendant viates they that for after have power to lay wor conclude peace, contract allianceo, colablish commerce, & to do all other acte and things which independant útako may of heht do and for support this declaration]we mutually pledge to each other our lives, out forhines & our sacred honour.

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ing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and, when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature; a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly for opposing, with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time after such dissolutions to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining, in the mean time, exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and Payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our People and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to, the Civil Power.

He has combined with others, to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States;

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world;
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent;
For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury;
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences;

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring
Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging

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its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies;

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering, fundamentally, the Forms of our Governments;

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves in. vested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here by declaring us out of his Protection, and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the Lives of our People.

He is, at this time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation,

He has constrained our fellow Citizens, taken Captive on the high Seas, to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions, We have Petitioned for Redress, in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free People.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We bave reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them, by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence

. They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, -Enemies in War,-in Peace, Friends.

WE, THEREFORE, the REPRESENTATIVES of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in GENERAL CONGRESS Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name and by the Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly PUBLISH and DECLARE, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES; that they are

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