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increase of the population of Australia be enabled to reduce considerably the
is self-creative ; and we can very outward passage-money for emigrants
briefly show how that principle is to the colony, and thus add to the
likely to operate. We have a large numbers of its population.
amount of tonnage at present em- But we cannot regard the disco-
ployed in the passenger trade from veries which have been made in the
Great Britain to that colony; but we countries of the Pacific as merely
have not as yet sufficient homeward tending to give an impulse to our com-
freight to employ one-fourth of that merce, and to afford increased employ-
tonnage. Since the discovery of the ment to our shipping and to industry
gold-fields the ordinary agricultural at home. We must regard them in a
and other pursuits of the colonists much more extended light. The im-
have been neglected ; and, as we portant change which is taking place
might have expected, the exports of may fairly be termed the opening ont
bulky raw materials and produce, of a new quarter of the globe, rich be-
which constitute freight, have dimin- yond measure in all the products
ished in quantity. Hence our emi- which are valuable and useful to man,
grant ships, except in the case of and the establishment, in its centre,
those of the established lines from of an Anglo-Saxon empire, whose
Liverpool and London, which now re- future destiny and greatness it is
turn direct from that colony, have almost impossible to predict rightly.
had to go in ballast to the Eastern A glance at the position of Australia
Seas, or to the guano islands of Peru, will be sufficient to show its great
to seek cargoes. Where such a commercial importance. To the north-
course has to be pursued, the pas- westward it has the fertile islands of
sage - money outwards must range Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philip-
high-far above the means of the most pines, Ceylon, with the vast continent
valuable emigrants, who are agricul- containing China and Hindostan. The
tural labourers, practical miners, and extreme portions of these are at less
artisans. But this state of things can-

than half the distance which lies benot continue to exist long. The gold- tween them and Great Britain. From fields are sufficiently tempting, no

Melbourne to Madras is little more doubt ; yet there are blanks there as than 5700 miles, whilst the nearer well as prizes. The disappointed islands in the Indian Ocean are only must resort to agricultural and other distant from 3000 to 3500 miles. From walks of industry. The flocks and Melbourne to any portion of the west herds of the squatters in the bush are coast of North and South America the increasing at a most rapid rate-far distance, by the eastward Pacific route, beyond the consumptive demand of is 8000 miles, or little over that from the colony- and the supplies for Great Britain to Cape Horn. It is export of hides, tallow, oil, and wool thus in closer proximity than the must very largely increase. Of the mother country to San Francisco, New latter most important raw material Granada, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, the following were the shipments to Chili, and La Plata. There can no

this country during the past three want occur of any of the products уса

of the tropics, at all events, to a 1851, 41,810,117 lb. country occupying a central position 1852, 43,197,301

as regards such markets as we have Lambs 1853, 47,075,963

named, rich in all that conduces to the

comfort and the luxuries of life ; the total exports of last whilst of those products which are 153,000, of an average of raised in the temperate zone, Austra

Ib. weight each. This lia has soils of her own capable of te would afford return car- providing her with food in abundance, in thirty to forty thousand and raw materials amply sufficient to pping. The yield both of pay for all that she will require to imllow must increase enor- port, without drawing upon her vast few years; and when an stores of the precious metals. These aly of homeward freight is must rapidly become available to crenr emigration houses will ate for her population a capital for the XVI.-NO. CCCCLXVII.

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purposes of commerce, a mercantile principal reason for this, next to our marine, railways, and other improved abominable land-system, was, that the communications, well-built towns, colony could not offer the swarming mass substantial public works, and the of new-comers any domestic comforts. usual accompaniments enjoyed by Now, however, the case is becoming far

different : at Richmond, Prahran, St Kilsettled and prosperous communities.

There can be no doubt that the absence da, and Brighton, the passer-by can gaze of these are amongst the main causes cottages enclosed in their own little gar

everywhere with pleasure upon pretty which retard emigration to the colony dens, cheerful, trim-built English-looking of families belonging to the middle and villas, and some dwelling-houses that may superior classes, and the absence there fairly lay claim to the high-sounding apso generally regretted of what may be pellation of mansions. Each of these called a “home circle." Such a want suburbs, hemming Melbourne in on every keeps back the influx of a female side, constitutes a town of some size ; and population, especially of the class re

we have no doubt that, in a very short quired to make a home comfortable; space of time, they will form part of but it will be supplied in time, and, in Melbourne itself, much in the same manfact, is being rapidly supplied now. don; indeed, St Kilda, Windsor, and Prah

ner that Chelsea and Putney do of LonNot much more than six months ago, ran are already connected by a line of Melbourne, the capital of Victoria, houses almost the whole of the way with and the seat of the government of the the town." colony, was in a most deplorable state, and without anything like the accom- A similar state of progressive immodation required for its population provement exists at Sydney, Geelong, or its commerce. Stores and ware- Adelaide, and other towns. The pohouses there were almost none; and pulation in them is becoming a more we heard, by every arrival, of 'mer- settled one ; business goes on in more chandise being sacrificed on this ac- regular channels, and domestic comcount. But more recent advices re- forts are more studied. Substantial port that,

stores for merchandise are also rising “ Melbourne is branching out upon

up on every side ; and importers are

now enabled to hold back their goods every side. Townships spring up in loca- for a more profitable market than the lities where a short time ago there was not a single dwelling of any description ; previous system of selling them on houses seem, in fact, to swarm like mush: landing, whatever might be the state rooms from the ground in a single night. of the demand, would admit of. A little more than twelve months since, The colony, too, is assuming more and North Melbourne was merely the site and more the character, which it is of a few scattered tents ; it now contains destined to possess, of an important a population of several thousands with com- mercantile community; and its comfortable homes, shops, hotels, and schools mercial firms are actively preparing to meet the wants of its inhabitants. The for extensive transactions with the suburbs, that are being formed in the op- rich countries with which they have posite direction, offer a still stronger communication in every direction. proof of the growth of a taste that has always been peculiarly English, and one

The first step towards forwarding that will do more than anything else to such object has naturally been to place the prosperity of this colony upon a

connect with each other the varisecure foundation--namely, a desire for ous ports along the coast, and the home comfort. In former times the pur- towns on the principal rivers; and suit of money was the whole, the engross- accordingly we find established lines of ing passion of the community; so long steamers running from Sydney to the as this object was attained, the feverish leading ports in the other provinces, seeker cast not a thought upon the man- and to the interior at every point ner in which he lived; he appeared to where river navigation is practicable, have an utter disregard of the comforts of and a working community and trade luck, and was successful, what benefit did exist. The same accommodation is he reap from his success He would run provided from Melbourne, Geelong, riot for a time, and spend the hard earn and Adelaide, to other ports and ings of a month in the dearly-bought plea- towns. Several lines of sailing sure of a few hours' debauchery. The packets also offer themselves to the public between the principal ports. In months, and as yet has made no fact, a large coasting-trade is carried dividend. A large portion of this on, both in passengers and merchan- money must be employed either in dise, the route by sea being preferred commerce or in improvements, as the to travelling by land over badly- colonists begin to see their way more formed, and frequently unsafe, roads. clearly. It can never be allowed to In the first instance, some difficulty lie thus unproductively ; yet from the existed in procuring vessels, especially habits of the diggers, and their want for the navigation of the rivers, where of opportunities for investment, there a light draught of water was neeessary, must always be a large amount at as such vessels could not be trusted to their credit in the banks. make the voyage out from Europe or The increased employment given by America. They are now, however, Australia to the shipping of all nabeing gradually supplied by builders tions is not, perhaps, sufficiently estiin the colony. A somewhat larger mated by the public, and certainly class of vessels is regularly employed goes far to account for the prosperity in the trade between New South of the British shipowner, and for Wales, Victoria, and South Australia, the high rates of freight prevailing and New Zealand, Van Diemen's throughout the world. From the 20th Land, and the government settlement of January last to the 23d of March, in West Australia, with a few for San the number of vessels cleared out from Francisco, Callao, Manilla, and the the port of Melbourne, exclusive of near East Indian ports. The enter- coasters and colonial traders, were prise of the mercantile community in 198, and the number of entries inthe colony is being gradually drawn wards 163, making 261 ships arriving towards this trade ; and shipping of and departing in the short period of the class suitable for it is in active sixty days. The bulk of these were demand, both for purchase and charter. large ships, of from 500 to 1000 tons, Attention is also being re-directed to with some even of more than that tonthe staple business of the colony-the nage. The arrivals and departures export of its wool, tallow, hides, &c., from Sydney, Geelong, and Adelaide which will be more cultivated as the would no doubt be greater in number, fever for dealing in gold abates. At although of a less size than those of present, indeed,

gold, as an article of Melbourne. It is probably not unfair merchandise, scarcely yields a profit, to estimate the entire number of arriso numerous are the buyers of it, com- vals and departures in the colony at peting with each other, belonging to 400 ships; and taking the tonnage at the Jewish persuasion. Employment the low average of 400 tons each ship, for capital must be sought for in an- we have the quantity employed in the other direction, and it is to be hoped two months, 160,000 tons, or 960,000 a legitimate one, otherwise the large tons per annum, by this noble colony. sums now lying idle in the colony may We must not, however, confine ourbe squandered in rash speculations. selves to Australia, although we might At the close of the last quarter, the be excused for dwelling upon it as our Bank of Australia held deposits, not own possession. It is a portion, inbearing interest, to the amount of deed, and the most important one, as £1,998,730 sterling; the Bank of being the centre, and probably the Australasia held at the same period seat, of the great Pacific empire which £2,358,390 ; the Victoria Branch of is to be; but still it is only a portion. the Bank of New South Wales held We have a young and enterprising £760,731 ; the Bank of Victoria, competitor for sway in the southern £988,244; and the London Chartered hemisphere, and one who is even now Bank of Australia £133,200, making making vast efforts to assert that sway; an aggregate of deposits, not bearing a competitor who regards lightly the interest, of £6,239,297 sterling. As geographical formation of the globe might have been expected, these esta- itself, if it offers a barrier to his ambiblishments are dividing amongst their tion. The acquisition, by the United shareholders, forty, fifteen, and twenty States, of the territory of California, per cent respectively. The last men- with its great mineral resources, has tioned has only been established nine given their people a footing in the Pacific, and opened out for them a Merchant's Magazine, republished in trade not only with the fertile coun- the Sydney Herald of February 230, tries of South America, but also with that the following was the provision Australia itself. They outstrip us in made by the United States for their their knowledge of the wants of those traffic with California and the councountries, and in the ample provision tries of the west coast of South which they have been making for their America :profitable supply. Nay, they have even been enabled to bring their own

“Of the American steamers sailing begold-fields, notwithstanding geogra

tween New York and the West Indies,

one of the most important communications phical impediments, actually nearer to

between the former port and Havanna is Great Britain than its own gold

established by the United States Steamyielding colony. On the first dis.

ship Company. By virtue of the law of covery of the mineral riches of Cali

Congress, contracting for carrying the fornia, it became an object with the mails, the steamers of this company are United States people to bring to their commanded by officers of the United Atlantic ports, as expeditiously as States navy. Of the steamers of this line possible, return remittances in gold plying between New York and New Or. for the large shipments of provisions,

leans, embracing the alternate voyages of merchandise, and necessaries, sent by those ships, the aggregate tonnage is them round Cape Horn for the in

4800. The steam-ship ‘United States,'

in her trips from New York to Aspinwall, creasing population of California en

touches at Kingston, Jamaica. The Pacigaged in mining operations, and by fic Mail Steam-ship Company, which, in whom agricultural and other pursuits connection with the United States Mail were almost entirely neglected. In Steam-ship Company, carries the American the first instance this was endeavoured mails to California and Oregon, was estato be effected by the employment of a blished in 1848. It numbers at present line of steamers to make the passage fourteen steamers, built at New York, round Cape Horn to New Orleans, with an aggregate of 15,536 tons. whence mails and specie were con

“ In the transportation of the mails, the veyed by another line of steamers to

United States Mail Steam-ship Company New York. But our quick-sighted Pacific Company. This line, established

on the Atlantic side connects with the and energetic brethren soon disco

in 1848 by Mr Law of New York, comvered that this natural route was too

prises nine ships now on the service, with long for their purposes. The time

one recently launched, and not yet placed occupied by the voyage round the 'on the line. They register in the aggreSouth American continent could be gate 19,600 tons. The steamers of this line saved, if the means could be found of are despatched from New York and New crossing the Isthmus of Panama, Orleans for Aspinwall twice a-month. which, from Panama on the Pacific “ The Nicaragua Accessory Transit side, to Chagres, or Navy Bay, on the Company was established in 1850, by Mr Atlantic, was only fifty miles in width; Vanderbilt, of New York, and he receives and notwithstanding the passage over

twenty per cent of the profits of the comthe isthmus was at first a difficult and pany, This line, forming a communica

tion between New York and San Juan even an unhealthy one, it was adopt- del Norte on the Atlantic, and between ed; and the mails and specie, having San Juan del Sud and San Francisco on been transported across from Panama the Pacific, is composed of ten steamers, to Chagres, were taken on to New with an aggregate of 18,000 tons.

Of York via Jamaica, by the United these, two sail from New York twice States Mail Steam-ship Company. a-month for San Juan del Norte, and five By the adoption of this route, the dis- are plying on the Pacific side. tance from San Francisco to New

“ The New York and San Francisco York was reduced to 5450 miles, of Steam-ship Company comprises foursteamwhich 2100 miles was accomplished ers, with an aggregate of 7400 tons; the

United States,' 1500 tons; and another, by steaming on the Atlantic, 3300 miles on the Pacific, and 50 miles by Cortes,' 1500 tons, plying between Pan“The Empire City Line was established in her soil. We doubt, however, the in 1848, and is composed of three steam- truth of the prophecy that the United ers, of an aggregate of 6800 tons. The

the 'Winfield Scott,' 2100 tons; and the overland conveyance across the isth

ama and San Francisco. They are equally mus, and the time reduced to about divided upon the Pacific and the Atlantic three weeks. In September last, we sides. All of these vessels were built in find from an article in the New York New York,

States is likely to be soon “the mis• Empire City' and the 'Crescent City'

tress of the Pacific;" to prevent, in were the pioneers of this line, and were

fact, the trade between Australia, two of the first steamers engaged in the California trade.

China, the East Indies, &c., and San From the foregoing estimate of the Francisco, being carried on by AusCalifornia steam-ships in connection with tralian enterprise, aided by British the port of New York, it will be seen that capital. Fortunately the same enterthe number of steamers engaged in that prise, aided by the capital of this trade is forty-one, including four ships of country, might be so directed as to Law's Line, which were formerly engaged confer a vast boon upon Great Britain in the California trade, but which now run herself. One of the leading sources between New York, New Orleans, and of her present influence in the Pacific Havanna – viz., the 'Empire City,' 'Cres

is evidently considered by the writer, cent City,” Cherokee,' and 'Falcon. The

from whom we have quoted above, to aggregate tonnage of these forty-one ships be the adoption by America of the is 67,336. But this is not all. There are ten American steamers plying between

short route to the Pacific via Panama. San Francisco and Stockton; there are

That route, however, is equally as ten also plying between San Francisco available to the commerce of Great and Sacramento. The latter are for the Britain and Australia as it is to most part of a larger size than those on that of the United States; and the San Joaquin river, and make the trip the fact leads us to the consideration of a hundred and twenty miles in from of one of the greatest wants of Ausseven to eight hours. In the elegance of tralia, which has very materially retheir accommodations, and the luxuries tarded its progress, whilst it has also of their larders, they might compare fa- been severely felt by the mercantile vourably with any passenger vessels in the world. There are ten other steamers

community of this country-viz., the plying from Sacramento to different places

want of a regular, frequent, and exabove that city. One year ago, there was

peditious mail-communication between but one steamboat in Oregon, the 'Co

Great Britain and her southern cololumbia;' now there are eleven steamboats nial empire. We have already stated of different kinds running in the Columbia that during the past spring serious and Willamette rivers, not including the commercial losses have been occasionPacific steamers, 'Sea Gull' and ' Colum- ed by the want in question, no Governbia,' running between Oregon and Cali

ment mail having been received in this fornia. At this rate of progress the country from Australia during a period United States will soon be mistress of the

of four months, up to the 27th July Pacific American steam-ship lines will,

last, whilst we have been exporting in a few years, be running from San Francisco to Australia, China, and the East

actually at random. The colony and Indies."

this country have been mocked by

postal arrangements, proposed, but There can be little doubt of the truth never efficiently carried out.

The of one of the prophecies with which “ Peninsular and Oriental Company our extract concludes, that American have been subsidised for the purpose steam-ship lines “will, in a few years, of conveying mails once a-month ; but be running from San Francisco to Aus- their efforts have been a failure. Not tralia, China, and the East Indies ;" once in three times have we had a but what a great future for Australia mail without a mistake occurring at does this suggest! There must spring some point of the route. Sometimes up a vast trade between her popula- the steamers employed from Australia tion and the entire Pacific seaboard of have arrived at Singapore or Point South America. When her agricul- de Galle a day or two after the tare is more fully developed, it is not steamers for England have started. at all doubtful that, whilst supplying Occasionally a few letters have come, even California with breadstuffs, &c., whilst the newspapers, containing the she may also supply the west coast of most important news for the publicSouth America with the products of shipping and market intelligence the temperate zone, and with the have been left behind. A while ago, copper and other minerals abounding we heard of the “Chusan” steamer

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