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And through the fount of living flame

He cuts with fierce attack.
Down dropt the goat's head in its gore,
And with a sharp and brazen roar

The writhing lion dies.
The palsied snakes, with stiffened fang,
Like lifeless leaves unconscious hang,

And lose all strength to rise ;
And belching rivers of black gore
Upon the clotted rocky floor

The smoking carcass lies.

A famous man was Glaucus' son

Then when Chimera died ;
In Lycian land like him was none

In glory and in pride.
At public feast beside the king
He sate; him did the minstrel sing

With various-woven lays;
And old men in the halls were gay,
And maidens smiled, and mothers grey,
And eager boys would cease their play

To sound the hero's praise.
The Xanthian burghers, wealthy men,
Chose the best acres in the glen

Beside the fattening river-
Acres where best or corn would grow,
Or vines with clustered purple glow,
These, free from burden, they bestow

On Glaucus' son for ever.
The Xanthian king, to Protus bound,
For other dangers looks around,

And finds, but finds in vain.
'Gainst the stout Solymi to fight*
He set the brave Ephyrian knight,

And hoped he might be slain ;
But from the stiff embrace of Mars
He soon returned, and showed his scars,

To glad the Xanthian plain.
A Lycian army then he led
Against the maids unhusbanded,

Where surly Pontus roars.
Before his spear the Amazon yields ;
The breastless host, with moonèd shields,
Far o'er Thermodon's famous fields

He drove to Colchian shores.
The Xanthian king despairs the strife-
“Let Prætus fight for Prætus' wife ;
I will not tempt the charmèd life

Of valiant Glaucus' son!”
Nor more against the gods he strives,
But with his hand his daughter gives

To brave Bellerophon.


A prosperous man was Glaucus' son

Then when the queenly maid he won, A warlike people in Lycia mentioned by Homer-Σολύμοισι κυδαλίμοισι. The pride of Lycian land: The Lycian lords obey his nod, The people hail bim as a god,

And own his bigh command.
Fearless be lived without annoy,
Plucking the bloom of every joy;

For still, to help his need,
Jove's blue-eyed daughter, when he prayed,
Was present with her heavenly aid,

And lent the winged steed.
His heart with pride was lifted high ;
Beyond the bounds of earth to fly
Impious he weened, and scale the sky,

And sit with Jove sublime.
Upward and northward far he sails,
O'er Carian crags and Phrygian vales,

And blest Mæonia's clime.
The orient breezes round him blowing
He feels; with light the ether glowing;
And from the planets in their going

He lists the sphery chime.
Bursts far Olympus on his view
Snowy, with gleams of rosy hue;

Ånd round the heavenly halls,
All radiant with immortal blue,
The golden battlements he knew,

And adamantine walls.
And on the walls, with dizzy awe,
Fall many a shapely form he saw

Of stately grace divine:
The furious Mars with terror crested,
Poseidon's power the mighty-breasted,

That rules the billowy brine;
And, linked with golden Aphrodite,
*The heavenly smith, in labour mighty,

Grace matched with skill be sees ; And one that in his airy hand Displayed a serpent-twisted wand,

And floated on the breeze,
Both capped and shod with wings; and one

That lay in sumptuous ease
On pillowed clouds, fair Semele's son,

And quaffed the nectar'd bowl;
And one from whom the locks unshorn
Flowed like ripe fields of April corn,
And beaming brightness, like the morn,

Shower'd radiance on the pole ;
And matron Juno's awful face;
And Dian, mistress of the chase ;
And Pallas, that with eye of blue
Now sternly meets the hero's view,

Whom erst she met with love;
And, like a star of purer ray,
Apart, whom all the gods obey,

The thunder-launching Jove.
The ravishment of such fair sight
Thrilled sense and soul with quick delight

To bold Bellerophon ;
Entranced he looked ; his winged steed,
Struck with the brightness, checked its speed,
Nor more would venture on.
Deaf to the eager rider's call,
Who spurred to mount the Olympian wall,

It stood like lifeless stone
A moment—then, with sudden wheel,
Earthward its flight it'gan to reel;
For awful now were heard to peal

Sharp thunders from the pole,
And lightnings flashed, and darkly spread
O'er that rash rider's impious head

The sulphurous clouds did roll.
With eager gust the fiery storm
Resistless whirled his quaking form

Down through the choking air.
Loud and more loud the thunders swell-
Him with blind speed the winds impel;
Three times three days and nights he fell

Down through the choking air.
At length, in mazy terror lost,
Him the celestial courser tossed

With fiercely-fretted mane ;
And, by the close-involving blast
Impetuous hurried, he was cast

On the Aleian * plain.

Senseless, but lifeless not, he lay.

The gods had mercy shown
If they had slain, on that black day,

The blasted Glaucus' son :
But all the gods conspired to hate
The man, with impious pride elate,

Who dared to scale the sky.
Year after year, from that black day,
He pined his meagre life away,
Weak as a cloud or vapour grey,

And vainly wished to die.
On a wide waste, without a tree,
The unfrequent traveller there might see

The once great Glaucus' son.
Far from the haunts and from the tread
Of men, a joyless life he led ;
On folly's fruitage there he fed,

Dejected and alone;
Even as a witless boy at school,
Would sit and gaze into a pool

The blank Belleropbon ;
Or to bring forth the blindworm red
That, creeping, loves a lightless bed,

Would turn the old grey stone.
And thus he lived, and thus he died,
And ended to the brute allied,

Who like a god began ;
And he hath gained a painful fame,
And marred immortal praise with blame,
And taught to whoso names his name,


J. S. B.

* So Homer. Arrian, in his life of Alexander (ii. 5), alludes to this plain, or one bearing the same name, near the river Pyramus in Cilicia.


From the earliest records of what cently with a few adventurous colonhas been termed profane history, isers going out to cultivate its undown to the present day, we have trodden wilds, and, amidst privations been accustomed to regard Europe and arduous toil, to wring from its as the centre of civilisation and of soil the means of living, which they wealth. From Asia, Greece and had been jostled out of on that of Rome in early times, and the com- their own densely-peopled fathermerce of European nations more re- land. cently, exacted tribute and rich pro- A mighty change, however, has ducts. Two centuries ago the pre- come over us—unlooked for and uncious metals and tropical yield of dreamt of—the issue of which the South America and the West Indies wisest can scarcely imagine for himexcited the rapacity of adventurers self; for it is plainly not the unaided from this and other countries; and work of man which has brought towards the close of last century we about that change, but an overruling had to recognise the germs of a great Providence, carrying out a preorAnglo-Saxon power occupying the dained decree that one of the fairest Atlantic shores and territory of North portions of the globe shall be a soliAmerica, which we now see compet- tude no longer. In most of the ordiing actively with us for a share in in- nary revolutions which have taken fluencing the affairs of the world. place in the world, human agency is Still both Asia and the American directly traceable. We have witcontinent were regarded as merely nessed in Europe the hardy tribes of the feeders of the commercial and the north overrunning the fertile soils, political greatness of Europe. Africa and subjecting to their rule the dewas and remains comparatively an generate populations, of the south. unknown continent, whilst the inhos. We have seen similar changes in pitable regions of the north are Asia; and one of these is now proshunned by all, save the hardy ma- gressing in Africa, the northern proriners engaged in the pursuit of the vinces of which are being subjected whale and the seal, the former for its to the Gaul. Colonisation and emiindustrial usefulness, and the latter gration are rapidly peopling the westas affording us articles of comfort ern states of the northern continent and luxury. The extreme southern of America. But to produce such a hemisphere had, indeed, been ex- change in the condition of those farplored by Cook, Vancouver, Four- distant countries, whose shores are neaux, and others; and its clusters washed by the Pacific Ocean, and of islands were laid down in our which are comparatively inaccessible charts, and some of them claimed as to the ordinary movements of migracalling-stations for the shipping em- tory populations, whilst they held ployed in our commerce with India, out little to invite conquest, an extrawhilst others were appropriated for ordinary stimulus was required. That their valuable tropical productions. stimulus has been lately afforded in But beyond this the Southern Pacific abundant and overpowering measure. and Antarctic Oceans were compara- A popular outburst, excited by the tively unknown and unvalued. Below love of territorial aggrandisement, the latitude of Cape Horn, the Cape of which is inherent in the nature of the Good Hope, and the Indian Ocean, people of the United States, and their waters were an unbroken soli- which, indeed, is inseparable from tude, save that occasionally a ship the very character of their institubearing the British flag might be seen tions, led to the seizure by them of steering for our penal settlement of a portion of the territory of Mexico Australia, there to deposit its living on the shores of the North Pacific freight of criminal outcasts beyond Ocean. Under ordinary circumreach of contact with the populations stances the acquisition was almost of the civilised world; and more re- valueless. By land it was well-nigh unapproachable. A wild and moun- and privation; and the tide of adtainous territory, occupied by various venturers flowed on with increased Indian tribes, intervened between volume as every day added to the California and the settled States of assurance that the attracting cause the Union. Commercially it was was a permanent one. It cannot unimportant, and likely to remain be forgotten by the commercial peoso for years, if not for centuries, ple of this country how vast was whilst, as an agricultural territory, it the impulse given to the industry, was inferior in fertility to those States. and the agricultural, manufacturing, It had certainly the advantage of and maritime interests of the Amenearer proximity to India and China; rican Republic, by this state of things. but there was scarcely along any por- Her people almost ceased to care tion of the west coast of either the about supplying Europe with farm United States or South America suf- products. The wealthy settlers in ficient population to render that ad- her golden territory could now afford vantage of value. But in 1848, only to consume what had formerly been a few months after its acquisition by exported as a disposable surplus. the model Republic, the world was Their monetary circulation was being startled with the news that gold had largely expanded; and to a correbeen discovered upon the Sacramento sponding extent they were enabled to River, within a short distance from extend their commercial operations the port and bay of San Francisco; to every country. Their shipping, and further advices informed us that having earned large freights by the the deposits of that mineral extended transport of passengers from the over a territory five hundred miles in Atlantic 'ports round Cape Horn to length by forty to fifty miles in California, could afford to make the width; and that, in fact, it promised run across the Pacific in ballast to to be inexhaustible in amount, as it India and China, whence they comwas unrivalled in fineness. A popu- peted with us in homeward freights lation immediately began to flock to on terms almost ruinous to the San Francisco by every possible route British shipowner. And although from the United States, from the west they became, and have since concoast of South America, and from the tinued to be, larger consumers than islands of the Pacific. Even China formerly of our products of every was attracted by the flattering ac- kind, it is very questionable whether, connts promulgated of the richness in the long run, this increased conof the mines, and began to pour forth sumption would have compensated its population towards the scene. us as a nation for the advantages The emigrating population of Great which America had obtained over us, Britain swelled the tide ; and, within through the possession of this new twelve months of the first discovery territory, with its mineral riches, in of gold, we beard of nearly three hun- carrying on the traffic between our dred sail of shipping being assembled eastern possessions and China and in San Francisco bay, deserted by the various markets of Europe. their officers and crews, who had The route westward, by the North joined their cargoes of passengers,

Pacific to the Indian Ocean, was and run off to partake of the rich thus for the first time established as harvest provided for them. The a great maritime highway by the ensufferings and privations endured terprising mercantile community of by some of the early adventurers the United States. We had our- the crime, the outrage, and utter selves long previously used the route lawlessness, which spread over the via Cape Horn and the South entire territory-were recorded in Pacific in our trade with Chili, Peru, vain. No warning was heeded. and other countries on the west The passion for gain is one of coast of South America. the strongest in our nature. Men reserved for us for the first time to heard of fortunes being earned in open out for the commerce of the a day of the poorest becoming world an eastern route from the suddenly rich ; of revelry and wild Atlantic and from Europe across enjoyment ensuing after severe toil the South Pacific Ocean; in fact,

It was

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