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ing, then, the exercise of the organs, we see why precept seldom improves much the moral character; and why, in both moral and intellectual attainments, those persons succeed best whose native genius has been called forth by accidental excitements to action. We see, too, how right it is in general to let young persons follow the bent of their genius; and that the great development of any particular organ, should direct the professional studies of those who desire to excel in their particular calling.
The study of partial genius is very interesting ; it leads to several important considerations respecting the origin of the arts and sciences. When an organ is large, it remembers well, and executes and often composes on the subjects of its particular function. Thus Mozart would under almost all circumstances have been a musician; J. Buxton everywhere a calculator. But if an organ be extremely large and active, then, it seems, it may originally conceive its particular science. Building, music, painting, and many others, seem to have originated in the accidental great developenient of the parts of the brain in certain individuals who were born into the world from time to time, and to have been thus as it were revealed. We have on record numerous proofs of the energetic conception and desire of building, making music, calculating, coloring, and so on, corresponding to the great developement of the parts of the brain allotted to those sciences, that no doubt is left of the fact. Indeed, the whole history of the new doctrine of the brain from its commencement, and the anecdotes of facts which support it, are so interesting that I hope Gall or Spurzheim will some day or other publish a history of the science. A few of the facts which support, and which caused originally the local division of the brain into the particular organs, are stated in Dr. Spurzheim's recent work; and many more are related in the lectures, but the reason why all are not stated is, that they are so numerous as to render such a detail only tedious to general readers; and cases of exception to the rules never having been brought forth by any of the adversaries of the doctrine, vor discovered to exist, such a detail is quite unnecessary. Every day has added experience; and every marked case furnished new proofs 'to me since I first studied the science. I have even been surprised myself at the correct. ness of pronunciations of character, which has appeared from external signs, when I have heard from parents, schoolmasters, &c. of the correspondence between what the organs indicated, and their known habits of mind. My friend, Dr. Leach, who has also paid particular attention to the subject, has expressed the same. Galland Spurzheim consider from their long experience, that the external indications of character are established beyond all doubt. Thus, as in animals we consider their actions as arising from their particular instincts; so now we regard those of men as arising out of more complicated instincts, influenced by sentiments and intellect of a higher order.
From the establishment of the above statements, which time may either ratify or bury in oblivion, we must expect great alterations in the education of youth. We shall see, too, that absurd doctrive exploded, which teaches, that a man of genius may employ his talents with equal advantage in different pursuits. We shall see, that though men may all be trained to obey the dictates of religion and morality, and to subserve to the laws of their country, yet they cannot think, feel, reason, or act exactly alike; and that we must cease to measure other people's minds by our own, and erect a standard of perfection on our own particular feelings, which is, in fact, to make an idol in our own image. For Nature operates everywhere on a principle of diversification, and is active in producing innumerable varieties of form; no two are alike anywhere. Thus is the mind lost in the contemplation of a principal variety and infinite combination, on which the Creator exerts his power, as far as we know, through infinite space, and for time eternal.
VI. Of Punishment. Phrenology will lead to important considerations regarding criminal punishnient; particularly in houses of correction. It will enable us to distinguish, not only between those who have naturally strong evil propensities, from those whom distress or other contingencies may have hurried on to crime ; but will point out the particular nature of many evil propensities to be corrected. It is hoped that the learned authors of this system will more fully develope, in some future publication, its particular application to punition.
VII. Of Insanity.-Conclusion. In Dr. Spurzheim's recent work, he has said, adverting to the treatment of lunatics, and the places of their confinement, that they may more properly be called mad houses than houses for madıen. The treatment of insane persons is certainly at present very defective, and often disgusting to humanity. The discoveries of Gall aud Spurzheim seem really to promise some amelioration of their medical treatment. They constitute the only scientific source of knowledge about the varieties of these interesting kinds of diseases. I have seen inany instances of persons mad in organs, which may happen to be the strongest sometimes ; for example, pride, religion, and others. A very large development of the organs of ideality frequently, under circumstances of disordered action, at present little known, produces the strange imaginations of some madmen.
I think that already something has been done towards the eluci. dation of insanity, by the new discoveries into the brain. In the first place, the sculls of madmen are found to be much heavier, aud of a more dense kind of substance than those of sane persons. This thickness and weight is probably produced by the action of slow and continued inflammation of the cerebral parts, and of the scull, by that sympathy, which is known to exist between the containing and contained parts. I do not yet know, whether partial insanity has produced thickness of the particular part of the scull inmediately over it. How little had bitherto been done in the history of these disorders! How much to be done, now that we have a clue to their varieties in the discovery of the independent existence of different faculties.'
The disproportionate development of different organs explains
The exact meaning of this expression can hardly be well understood by those who have not studied the anatomy of the nervous system. Indeed, throughout these observations I have felt a great deal of that difficulty of rendering my mcaning clear, which, from never having learnt the English grammar, or studied elocution, I always feel in expressing my thoughts on paper. The reader must make these allowances, and study for himself the subjects to which these remarks point.
the tendency of certain persons to particular kinds of visions and superstitious opinions. Indeed, dreams and visions are explainable by Phrenology. In dreams, certain organs are awake, while others sleep. People often dream on subjects which their strongest òrgans incline to. Painters dream of pictures ; people with the organ of color large, have visions of colors.
How is the organ of color affected in ocular spectres ? These things can only be hinted at present. Volumes might be well bestowed on the natural history of these sorts of phantoms of the mind. And a complete history of Insanity should trace every variety compared with the organization, temperament, and external excitement of the patient, from mere dreams and visions, up to the fixed mania of incurable madmen.
I must here observe; that the term Lunacy seems to have originated in an observation of the periodicity of disorders of mind. This is not mere fancy, though the place of the moon does not appear to be the immediate cause. There are certain periods which disorders observe; and indeed, in general, there is a periodical irritability more extensive than is generally imagined in people ; the cause of which is at present unknown. Dr. Spurzheim has noticed it in his work; Darwin has described many cases; popular language and opinion confirm it. And I noticed it, and put down many observations on the supposed nature of its cause in varieties of atmosphere, in my Researches about Atmospheric Phenomena.' I beg leave here to call the attention of Philosophers to the following circumstance. At the periods of irritability alluded to, I have noticed a very unusual arrangement of the clouds, indicating, I think, a great disturbance in the atmospherical electricity. The singular distribution of the electric fluid in the atmosphere, I infer, often occasions the multiform and everchanging configurations of the clouds, particularly the Cirrus; for these are now admitted to be electrical phenomena."
I may in conclusion advert to the metaphysical results of the recent investigations into the physiology of the organs of animal
1 I must refer to my Researches about Atmospheric Phenomena, Baldwin, and Co. London, second Edition; and to Cabanis Rapport du Phy
life, with a view to lead to that comprehensive system of the philosophy of the mind, which is the legitimate deduction from premises which an examination of these functions has established. It tends to show,
1. The nature and limits of the influence of external impressions in the production of our ideas; which result, 1st, from the reaction of the organs in consequence of external impressions, adapted by nature to them, constituting perception—or, 2dly, from the inherent or internal activity of the organs, acting by themselves without external impressions, or from some internal stimulus, constituting variously, as modified by mutual influences, and by the nature of the internal action of the original conceptions of particular genius; which are, as it were, revelations of sciences and arts, from the great size and activity of particular organs. This consideration also explains visions and dreams, which are the consequence of the internal activity. Indeed, a very curious history of the varieties of dreams, and other internal affections, might be made from considering what organs are active in different cases, and by noticing the effect produced towards waking, when the organs of the reflecting powers begin to act.
2. We see from the physiology of the organs, the nature of true and false perceptions. True ideas or perceptions result from the conformity of the action of the organs to the nature of the impressions from without, to which they are adapted. Memory,—a repetition of actions originally excited by external things. Imagination,-new combinations produced by the influence of a distinct and separate faculty on other organs. Genius, or original composition,---the great internal activity of an organ: this is influenced more or less by the organ of ideality, &c. And lastly, we see that false ideas or impressions must be referred to irregular or disordered action of the organs; which disordered health and misguided education may excite on an organization, erroneous in the proportionate developement of the different organs. This leads to the consideration of the different mental derangements hereafter to be spoken of
3. The physiology of the organs shows where certain metaphysical philosophers were right, and where wrong, in certain opinions; explains the relation between the Berkleian philosophy, which de