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date, we name the following; and in naming them, we shall avail ourselves of our friend Miss Bremer's statements, made after a considerable residence in Copenhagen; and such facts from other sources as will make all that we wish to say complete :

Thorwaldsen is too entirely a world's acquaintance to require much more than naming. In artistic form he adhered to the antique, but in vividness of expression, in freshness, in youthful naïveté, he is the child of "the green isles,” he is the son of Dana. This great artist was one of the fortunate of the earth. He was descended from Icelandic parents, and seemed to inherit the genius of that wonderful island. His father was a carver in wood, but was too poor to give Thorwaldsen the advantages necessary for the development of his talents. These, however, soon attracted public attention, and he was gratuitously educated at the Copenhagen Academy of Arts. His progress there was so satisfactory that he obtained two gold medals, and received a travelling stipend for three years, when he set out for Rome. Without friends, however, and therefore without patronage, his period of State assistance about to expire, and his funds, of course, about to expire with it, he was on the eve of returning in despair to his native country, when our countryman, that munificent patron of art, Thomas Hope-Anastasius Hope-who so essentially encouraged the genius of Flaxman, Chantry and Dawe, saw his magnificent model of Jason in his studio, and immediately ordered it to be executed in marble at a price liberally characteristic of the man. Thorwaldsen had not the money necessary for the purchase of the requisite block of marble, but Mr. Hope at once removed this difficulty, and by that single act the reputation of Thorwaldsen was at once made. Orders, honours and fame flowed in rapidly upon him from this time.

In 1819, after an absence of twenty-three years, Thor

waldsen, in the blaze of his fame, revisited for a short time his native country; here he was received, not only with public honours, but with the universal popular enthusiasm which is the first-fruits of immortality. After being distinguished by the King and nobles with marks of the highest respect, and modelling various royal busts, and works of art of a more public kind, he proceeded to Warsaw to an interview solicited by the Emperor Alexander. He then returned to Rome, where the greatest part of his life was spent. He came back, however, and ended his days in Copenhagen. It is not known precisely when he was born, but he died March 24th, 1844, aged about seventy.

The Danish people have, in Thorwaldsen's Museum, raised to him a monument as honourable to the artist as to themselves, who thus know how to value their own great men. In the centre of the museum is Thorwaldsen's grave, which may often be seen covered with fresh-blowing


The best Danish sculptor before Thorwaldsen, was Wiedevelt, Thorwaldsen's master. The greatest now living in Denmark are Jerichau and Bissen. Of the works of these artists, some specimens were exhibited in the Danish department of the Great Exhibition of 1851, and will be recollected by our readers. By Jerichau there was the group of "Adam and Eve," in plaster; "The Hunter and Panther," in marble; etc. By Bissen, there was the fine figure of "Orestes," "Eros, or Love," "A Fisher-boy Angling," and a bust of Andersen.

Amongst the best painters of Denmark, may be named, Juul, in portrait; and Horneman, in miniature portrait. Eckersberg, historical and marine painter; Dahl, Harder and Möller, in landscape; Gebauer, an admirable animal painter; Lorenzen and Stubb, in historical portrait; Fritsch, Camradt and Martens, flower-painters.

"Denmark," says Miss Bremer, "has, in painting, a young promising school of artists, who, while they confine themselves faithfully to nature, and to the search for truth in all its beauty, still more, seek for it in their own native land, and represent it in their pictures." Those of historical painters are Marstrand, Simonsen and Sonne; of painters of genre-pictures, Schleisner and Monnier; of sea-pieces, Melby and Sörensen; of landscape, Skovgaard, Keirskow and Rump: flower-painters, Jensen and Ottensen; portrait-painters, Gärtner, Schütz, and others. Amongst these must be reckoned a daughter of Poland, and now the wife of the sculptor Jerichau, a woman richly gifted, and whose paintings are distinguished for their effective expression and brilliancy of colouring.

In music, Hartman, Rong and Gade, are the most distinguished, and have introduced the grand old airs of the ancient Kämpe-Viser, and popular songs, into circles where they were never heard before.

In medical science, the names of Bang, Trier and Stein, stand pre-eminent, both at home and abroad. In botany, Professor Schouw is famous for his geography of plants.

In geography there is a name which most readers believe to be French, that of Malte Brun. It is, however, the merely Frenchified name of a real Dane, Malthe Conrad Bruun, who has chiefly resided in Paris, where he was one of the founders of "La Société de Géographie," and its chief secretary.

In philology and literary antiquities, no nation boasts greater names than Rask, Grundtvig, Molbech, Finn Magnusen, and Warsaae. Of Grundtvig we have already spoken. Rask was one of the greatest philologists that ever lived. A fair account of him and his labours in tracing the origin and principles of languages, and in dragging from the dust of antiquity, the buried knowledge

of past ages, would form a large volume of itself. He made a journey with Professor Nyerup, at the royal cost, to Sweden and Norway, to study Swedish, Finnish and Lappish. He took a voyage to Iceland, to make new researches after its ancient manuscripts, and study its language, travelling during nearly two years over the greater part of that singular island. Some years afterwards, he set out on a far greater journey—that is, through Russia, Georgia and into the regions of the Caucasus, to trace out, if possible, the original soil and language of the ancient Gothic tribes. He continued his journey to Tartary, India, Ceylon, studying everywhere with amazing industry, the languages: amongst others, Russian, Persian, Sanscrit, Zendest, Pehloist, Hindostanée, Tamul, Pali, Zingalese, etc., and collecting heaps of manuscripts-many on the native palm-leaf-and copying inscriptions. This journey consumed five years. His invaluable collections belong now to the library of the University, and the great Royal Library. He translated Snorre's Edda, and with Afzelius, that of Sämund. Besides these, he has left grammars and treatises, on almost all existing languages. An Icelandico-Latino-Danish Lexicon; Anglo-Saxon, Zingalese, Frisian, Italian, Danish, and English grammars, with reading-books; Chronologies of Hebrew and Egyptian. He left numbers of treatises on these subjects; assisted Grundtvig in translating "Biowulf's Drape," from the Anglo-Saxon; published "Locman's Fables," and in that did the work of a whole generation of men. He visited Scotland in the course of his tours, and was honoured by being made a member of almost every learned society in the world, the English Royal Society amongst the rest.

Of Professor Molbech we ought to speak with gratitude, for from no quarter have we received more assistance

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in reviewing the Danish literature than from his "Poetical Anthology," and his numerous criticisms. Molbech is one of the Northern literati whose industry astounds us. His great Danish Dictionary is work enough for one person's life he is the Johnson of Denmark. Besides this, he has published a Dictionary of Danish Dialects; a "History of the Stuarts on the Throne of England;" History of King Erik Plogpenning;" has edited "The Danish Rhyme Chronicle;" the oldest Danish translation of the Bible, Holberg's Comedies; translated Schiller's "Don Carlos" and other dramas; written lives of Evald and other eminent men; various volumes of travels; of lectures; numerous selections from the Danish authors, for the use of schools; has edited several periodicals, and written a perfect host of criticisms.

Of the labours of Thorlacius, Müller, Nyerup, Finn Magnusen, Werlauff, Simonsen, Thomson, Abrahamson, etc., in the archæology and antiquities of the North, it is impossible to speak too highly. Most of these learned men, with Monrad and Schlegel, were engaged in bringing out the Arne-Magnæan Society's magnificent editions of the Eddas. Finn Magnusen, besides re-translating and illustrating the Elder Edda with notes, also translated it into Latin for the great Arne-Magnæan edition, and added his invaluable treatise on the "Eddalæren og dens Oprindelse," or a complete and learned Commentary on the Odinic Mythology. Professor Warsaae has followed ably in the steps of these great men, and has just conferred a distinguished benefit on this country by his "Danes and Northmen in England."

In intellectual philosophy and theology, Denmark has a new and distinguished race of theorists, who seem by no means inclined to follow in the German fog, mist and find-nothing school. They have a decided Christian ten

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