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as their ultimate ganglion. The remaining fibres from the posterior parts of the medulla oblongata pass behind the commissure of the cerebellum, but not in the same manner: they have no ganglion there. They pass into what was formerly regarded to be the thalami of the optic nerve, and are spent on the organs of the sentiments and propensities. The fibres of the cerebellum originate also in the medulla oblongata. The commissures of the brain, corpus cellosum &c. are the means of the converging fibres, whereby the parts of two hemispheres are brought into communication. I purposely avoid being particular in the anatomical description, as well in order that people may examine Dr. Spurzheim's work, as for want of room. The origin of the optic nerves from the anterior part of the corpora quadrigemina, the office of the old thalamus as an apparatus of increase ; and in general the total difference in the views of the brain and nerves which this short observation must excite, will, I hope, invite and facilitate this enquiry. The anatomical reader will of course remember, while I am speaking of the organs, that all the parts are double, there being two hemispheres, though they are brought into communication.
I have heard that some professional persons, who are averse to the new doctrines, have even gone so far as to deny the correctness of some parts of the anatomical descriptions. I have examined them completely and repeatedly, both by a perusal of the large work of Dr. Gall and Spurzheim, and by corresponding dissections of the brain ; and I am convinced of their correctness. And I think that more may yet be done by the repeated investigations of future anatomists. I beg leave also to refer the reader to the collateral testimony of my friend Dr. Leach, Zoologist at the British Museum, in a familiar letter from him, which I shall insert at the end of this pamphlet. Avoiding, for reasons before assigned, a minute account of the anatomy of the brain, I may advert, before I proceed to the consideration of the organs, to the circumstance, that before I ever heard of the discoveries of Gall, and while pursuing comparative anatomy by dissection, I was much struck with the generic forms, if I may so express myself, of the heads of animals; and though I knew not the reason why in particular genera certain parts of the brain were particularly developed, being then unacquainted with the organology, I nevertheless felt persuaded, and used to say, that if the structure and functions. of the brain were properly known, they would become the basis of all systematic classifications of animated beings. While studying the brain, and deploring how little minute anatomists had done towards a physiological history of the mind and its faculties, founded on the anatomy of the brain ; and hearing the futility of the enquiry so often descanted on in lectures, I was not aware that at this very time a beautiful and satisfactory development of the structure of the brain was made in Germany, and preparing for publication in France.
IV. Of the material organs of the manifestations of the
The brain has always been regarded as the organ of the mind. And the ancient opinions respecting this organ, which were drawn from conjecture and analogy, differ from those which Gall and Spurzheim have drawn from anatomy and experience, inasmuch as the latter regard it not as one simple organ, but as an assemblage of different organs, which are the material instruments of the various manifestations of the mind. There is no proportion between these organs. They vary both in size, activity, and mutual influences in different individuals, and the diversity of organization, combined with the influence of education, constitutes the innumerable varieties of character both of men and of animals. They are divided into 1. the organs of the propensities ; 2. those of the sentiments; 3. those of the knowing intellectual faculties; and 4. those of the reflecting intellectual faculties.
1. OF PROPENSITIES.
I. The organ of amativeness, or physical love, is the most important. ' Nature has accordingly made the whole of the cerebellum or little brain, the seat of this propensity. And the relative strength of the passion varies directly as the size and activity of the cerebellum. No fact in physiology seems more clearly determined than this. We judge of it on the outside by the size of the scull, just
at the insertion of the muscles into the occiput. The same is observed in animals. Want of room, and the nature of this pamphlet, will not admit of my adducing the proofs which have been obtained of the organs. The curious reader must attend Dr. Spurzheim's lectures, if he wishes for the detail of proofs. This organ gives the propensity to erotic feelings, and excites the organs of generation to the performance of their ultimate functions in coition.
II. The organ of Philoprogenitiveness,' or love of offspring, is situated above the former, and when large, gives a prominent and full occiput. It is the seat of the instinct hy which we feel attached to offspring, and desirous to protect children and young creatures in general: and it is found to be larger in female than in male animals, and generally larger in women than in men. Though, as in all other cases, there are exceptions.
III. The organ of Inhabitiveness, or local attachment, is above the former. I do not consider this organ as sufficiently established in Man. Refer to Dr. Spurzheim's recent work on the Physiognomical system. IV. Organ of Adhesiveness, or attachment. Situated laterally on each side No. 2, is the seat of friendship, moral love, &c. V. The organ of Combativeness, behind the ears, is the seat of courage, of anger, &c. The activity of this faculty is necessary to many compound feelings, to revenge, &c. VI. The orgun of Destructiveness above the ears, gives the disposition to kill or to destroy in general. When uncontrolled by education and the other faculties, it makes cruel and destructive characters. Children with this organ large show an early inclination to destroy small animals. It has been found much developed in wanton murderers, and those who in paroxysms of disease have destroyed persons. VII. The organ of Constructiveness, or the propensity to construct or build, is denoted by the largeness of the head behind the external angle of the eye towards the temples. Gall noticed this in persons who had a great desire and propensity to build, construct, &c. The proofs of it are numerous, and it is found in the beaver and other animals who build. Birds construct their nests, and beasts
1 Dr. S. has constructed a nomenclature of new names with terminations founded on the idiom of our language.
? One vol. 8vo. with 19 plates, Baldwin and Co. London, 1815.
their dens from the instinctive propensities of this organ. VIII.
. The organ of Covetiveness, or appropriation, situated higher up than the former, gives the strong inclination to aggrandize property, to have of one's own. Animals which lay up stores for winter, or who make collections in general, are more endowed with this propensity than other animals. In Man, the abuses of this faculty are covetousness, jealousy, envy, &c. Certain persons are known to have a violent propensity to steal, from the size and activity of this organ unchecked by other faculties, and by morality.
IX. The organ of Secretiveness gives the inclination to conceai. Like all the other faculties, this is useful in a degree and when moderated. Its great activity makes slyness, and when added to the want of the superior faculties and education, causes people to become liars, deceitful, &c. Many animals, as those which conceal themselves and steal their prey by surprise, have this organ much developed
2. THE SENTIMENTS
are-X. The organ of Cautiousness, or fear, is marked by the prominence of the middle part of the parietal bone. It makes cautious characters; its abuses are fear and cowardliness, its unpleasant affections, sorrow, anxiety, &c. XI. The organ of Approbation is in the upper posterior, and lateral part of the head. It gives ambition, vanity, and the desire of popular applause. XII. The organ of Haughtiness, self-love, or pride, is between the organs of vanity and above inhabitiveness. XIII. Organ of Benevolence, marked by elevation of the forehead in the middle, just above the commencement of the hair. The vitiousness of horses and other animals often depends on the want of the part of their brain corresponding to this organ.
XIV. Organ of veneration, an elevation in the middle of the upper part of the head, produces a disposition to veneration. Persons, with this too large, are often religious enthusiasts; when it is defective, are irreligious. This, like other faculties, should be moderated and directed by education : religion may direct it in its object. Many persons have objected to the consequence of admitting this and certain other organs as material. They should remember, that if the Deity ordain that Man shall have any faculty or action, he gives him instruments whereby to perform it. This is the instrument of divine veneration. It cannot become an argument against revelation, because revelation professes to instruet and direct a faculty of prayer and veneration, and pre-supposes a faculty as pre-existing, capable of such direction. I refer the reader to what I have said of education. XV. Organ of Hope is on each side veneration, and gives the sentiments which its naine indicates.
XVI. Organ of Ideality, or imagination, marked by the largenes of the head above the temples. I consider the nature and functions of this organ as very peculiar and interesting. It gives the feelings of the poet Qui nascitur, non fit, produces all imaginatiou aud fancy. We must regard it as an organ whose functions consist in its particular kind of influence on other organs. For example, when we imagine a horse of definite form and color, this organ influences that of form and color, whereby alone we conceive these qualities. Ideality also influences space and size, if we consider the horse as having bigness and locality or place. I could descant through volumes of this faculty. But the limits of our paper will not permit.' When the parts of the brain between this and hope are much developed, persons are mystic and addicted to superstition. XVII. Organ of Righteousness, or justness, said to be peculiar to Man, situated on each side the next organ. XVII.
Organ of Determinateness, or perseverance, on the crown of the • head, and behind veneration, gives that quality of mind, which, when
exerted in a bad cause and uninfluenced by arguments, is called obstinacy; when in a good one, perseverance. We now proceed to the
S. INTELLECTUAL QUALITIES.
XIX. Organ of Individuality. Situated in the middle and inferior part of the forehead just above the nose, between the organs of Space, &c. This faculty is necessary to the knowledge of the external world : it knows objects in their individual capacity. Per1 This organ
I think should be subdivided. It seems to perform two sorts of functions.