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Canals and Roads.) A canal has been projected to unite the head waters of the Illinois with lake Michigan. The Illinois, and the Chicago, a river of lake Michigan, are so connected, that in freshets boats pass readily from one to the other. For the improvement of this navigation the government or the United Stales bas appropriated 100,000 acres of land. This canal will open, probably at less expense than any other, a communication between the great lakes and the Mississippi ; but as there are no settlements of any importance on the shores of lake Michigan, it will probably be some time before this communication will be opened,
Two per cent of the nett proceeds of the United States' lands, lying within the state, are to be expended under the direction of Congress, in making roads leading to the state.
Education. At ihe time of the admission of Ulinois into the Union, in 1818, the government of the United States granted to the state, on certain conditions, one section or thirty-sixth part of every township for the support of schools ; and three per cent. of the nett proceeds of the United States' lands, lying within the state, for the encouragement of learning, of which one sixth part must be bestowed on a college or university. As a farther provision for the university, two entire townships have been given to the legislature.
As the condition of these grants, the convention, which formed the constitution of the state, was required to provide, by an ordiDance which is irrevocable without the consent of Congress, that all lands sold by the United States sball be exempt from every species of taxation for five years from the day of sale ; also, that the bounty lands granted for military services during the late war, shall, if they continue to be held by the patentees, or their heirs, remain exempt from taxes for three years from the date of the patents ; and that the lands belonging to the citizens of the United States residing without the staie, shall never be taxed higher than lands belonging to persons residing therein.-Similar provisions are required of all the new states as the condition 'on which they receive grants of land and money for the support of schools, roads and canals. It is also usually required that all the pavigable waters of the state shall be common highways, and for ever free of toll or duty to all citizens of the United States.
Population.] The population has increased very rapidly within a few years. In 1810 it was 12,282 ; in i818, 35,220; and in 1820, 55,201 ; of whom, 917 were slaves. The setticinents at present are principally confined to the banks of the Mississippi, The Kaskaskia and its branches. There are a few also on the Wabash ant the Ohio. The constitutiun provides that no more slaves shall be introduced into ihe state.
Indians.] There are about 15,000 Indians in this state and Jodiana. The principal tribes are the Sacs, 3,400 in number, ou Rocky river, 4 miles E. of the Mississippi, and 400 above Si. Louis; the Pottawatamies, 2.000 in number, around the souilern part of lake Michigan; the Delawares and several other tribes, on White river in Indiana ; and the Miamies and Eel river Indians, in Indiana, on branches of ibe Wabash.
Government.] The legislative power is vested in a general as sembly consisting of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are chosen for two years and the senators for four years. The number of representatives cannot be less tban 27 nor more than 36, until the number of inhabitants shall amount to 100,000 ; and the number of sepators can never be less than one third nor more than one half of the number of representatives. The executive power is vested in a governor, who is chosen by the people for four years, but he is not eligible for more than four years in any terın of eight years. In all elections, every white male inhabitant, having resided in the state six months, is allowed to vote, and the constitution requires that all votes shall be giver viva voce.
Judiciary power.) The judiciary power is vested in a supreme court and such inferior courts as the general assembly shall from time to time ordain and establish. The judges are appointed by the assembly and hold their offices during good bebaviour, or till removed by the governor on ihe address of two thirds of each branch of the general assembly.
Minerals.] Copper and lead are found in some parts of the state. Coal has been discovered on the banks of Au Vase river; on the Illinois, 260 miles from its mouth, and in places near Kaskaskia and Edwardsville. Salt is made at the United States' saline, on Saline river, to the amount of 200,000 bushels annually, and is sold at the works for 50 and 75 cents a bushel. These salt works supply the states of Indiana and Illinois.
Situation and Extent.) Missouri is bounded E. by Mississippi river, which separates it from Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee ; S. by Arkansas territory ; W. and N. by Missouri territory. The boundary line runs as follows : beginning in the Mississippi river in lat. 36° N. it runs due west along that parallel to the river St. Francis ; thence, up that river, to the parallel of 36° 30' north latitude ; thence, west, along that parallel, till it meets the meridian, which passes through the mouth of Kansas river; thence, north, along that meridian, till it meets the parallel of latitude, which passes through the mouth of Des Moines river; thence, east, along tirat parallel to the Mississippi river; and thence, down the middle of the Mississippi to the place of beginning. It extends from 36° to about 40° 30' N. lat. and from 890 to 94° 10' W. lon. The area is estimated at 60,000 square miles.
Divisions.) The state is divided into 15 counties,
Rivers.] The Mississippi washes the eastern boundary of the state from the mouth of ihe Des Moines alnıost to that of the St. Francis, a distance of more than 500 iniles. The Missouri crosses the western boundary, and running in an easterly direction through the heart of the state, discharges itself into the Mississippi, 18 miles below the mouth of the Illinois, and 193 above that of the Ohio.
The principal tributaries of the Mississippi from this state, are, 1. Sa't river, which joins it 73 miles above the mouth of the Illinois, after a course of several hundred miles, for 200 of which it is navigable. 2. The Missouri. 3. The Merrimack, which enters it 18 miles below St. Louis, after a N. Ę. course of more than 300 miles. It is only navigable about 50 miles, except in high foods in the spring and fall, when most of its tributaries may be ascended with boats.
The principal tributaries of the Missouri from this state, are, 1. The Gasconade, which enters it about 100 miles from its confuence with the Mississippi, after a northerly course of 200 miles. The current is rapid, and affords by its fall many mill seals; boats and rafts may descend with ease, but the ascent is attended with great labor. 2. the Osage, which rises in Missouri territory near the 96th degree of west longitude, about 100 miles north of the banks of the Arkansas, and after meandering in an east and northeast direction for a distance of 900 miles, unites with the Missouri, 133 miles from its confluence with the Mississippi. It is Davigable for boats 600 miles. 3. Grand river, which rises in Missouri territory, and running in a southeasterly direction, joins the Missouri about 100 miles above the mouth of the Osage. It is navigable for boats 600 miles.
Black river rises near the sources af the Merrimack and the Gasconade, and running in a southerly direction is joined by Current, Thomas, Spring and Strawberry rivers, after which it crosses the southern boundary of the state into Arkansas territory and forms a junction with White river.
T'he St. Fruncis rises in the southeastern part of the state, and running in a southerly direction into Arkansas territory, falls into the Mississippi after a course of 500 miles. The navigation is obstructed by a raft of trees, brush, &c. about 250 miles from its mouth.
Face of the Country.] The lands immediately on the banks of the rivers are level, but as you recede from them towards the interior, the country rises, passing sometimes gradually and sometimes abruptly into elevated barrens, flinty ridges and rocky cliffs. This portion of the state is, therefore, unfit for cultivation; but it is rich in mineral treasures. The highest land is in a ridge which commences on the banks of the Merrimack, near the head waters of the St. Francis, and extends in a south-west direction to the bauks of the White river, io Arkansas territory, a dis. tance of about 400 miles, and occasionally rises into peaks of mountain height. This ridge serves to divide the waters of the Missouri from those of the Mississippi, the streams on one side running south into the latter, and those on the other, runaing north into the former.
Soil.] The soil is either very rich or very poor; it is either bottom land or cliff, either prairie or barren; there is very little of an intermediate quality. The lands immediately upon the banks of the rivers are generally rich, producing corn, wheat, rye, oats, flax, hemp and tobacco in great abundance.
The lands bordering on the Missouri, during its whole progress through this state, are rich beyond comparison. They consist of a stratum of black alluvial soil, of unknown depth, partaking largely of the properties of marl, and covered with a heavy growth o! forest trees.
The banks of the Gasconade afford but a small proportion of arable lands, being bordered with rocks and sterile bills. The rocks are, however, cavernous and afford saltpetre, and the bills are covered with pine timber, which is sawed into boards and plank. In these two : rticles the commerce of the river will always priocipally consist. On this stream are already situated sereral saw mills, where boards and plank are cut for the St. Louis market, and several saltpetre caves are worked.
Osage river affords in its whole length large bodies of the choicest prairie land, interspersed with wood laod, and occasionally with hills. Its banks afford also exhaustless beds of coal, and some iron and lead are found. A part of the country on this river has been recently purchased by the United States from the Indians, but there are as yet few settlements of whites.
The lands on Salt river are noted for their fertility, and the settlements on its banks are rapidly progressing. Much of the land on the Merrimack is poor; and pear its sources are large forests of pines.
There is much excellent land on the St. Francis, mixed with some that is rocky, and bordered, near its mouth, with much that
is sivampy, low, and overslown. The banks of Black river, and of all its tributaries, afford strips of rich alluvial land.
Climate. Situated between the 36th and 40ih degrees of north latitude, the state of Missouri enjoys a climate of remarkable serenity and temperate warmth. It is equally exempted from the hot summers of the sonth and the cold winters of the north, à medium happily calculated to favor the pursuits of agriculture, commerce and navigation. A clear blue sky is characteristic of the country, and an atmosphere of unusual dryness exempts the inhabitants from those pulmonary couplaints which are so frequent in some of the Atlantic States.
Productions. The climate is favorable to the productions of the vegetable kingdom, and it would be difficult to point out a section of country which affords a more interesting field for the botanist. The prairies and barrens are covered with a profusion of wild lowers, shrubs and plants, and the cultivated fields yield to the planter a great proportion of the useful vegetables of the 'earth. Corn succeeds remarkably well: no country surpasses the banks of the Missouri for the vigor of its crops. Wheat, rye, oats, flax, and hemp are also raised with allvantage. Tobacco is an article recently introduced, but is found to succeed well, and the lands are said to be as well adapted to its growth as those or Kentucky and Virginia. Cotton is raised in the southern part of the state for family use, but is not an advantageous crop for market. The climate and soil are also adapted to the growth of the sweet or Carolina potatoe, and to fruit trees of various kinds. The luxuriant growth of grass in the woods affords ample range for cattle and horses, and they are constantly kept fat. Hogs also are suffered to run at large, and in the fall are killed from the woods. There is perhaps no country in the world where cattle, hogs and sheep can be raised with so little trouble and expense as in some parts of this state.
Minerals.] The most remarkable feature in Missouri is its lead mines, which are probably the most extensive on the globe.. They occupy a district between 37 and 38° N. lat. and 89° and 92° W. Ion. extending in length from the head waters of St. Francis river in a N. W. direction to the Merrimack, a distance of 70 miles, and in breadth from the Mississippi, in a S.W. direction, 45 miles. They comprise a considerable part of the counties of Washington, Genevieve, Jefferson and Madison, and cover an area of more than 3,000 square miles. The ore is of the richest and purest kind, yielding in the large way from 60 to 70 per cent of pore metal. It exists in quantities sufficient to supply all the demands of the United States, and allow a large surplus for exportation. The processes of working the mines have hitherto been very imperfect, and conducted without skill, system or economy, yet Mr. Schoolcraft estimates the annual produce at more than 3,000,000 pounds, which at four cents a pound is worth $120,000. The number of mines now worked is 45, and the number of men emploved is more than 1,100.
Chief Towns.] St. Louis, the capital of St. Louis county, and the largest town in the state, stands on the west side of the Alis