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206
Remarks on the Game Laws.

(April 1, every head of game for their own amuse ENTLY SEVERE to deter the poacher, who ment, and that the farmer's crop is de- nightly steals the game wholesale, éitter voured, and he is compelled to warn off from the lord of the manor, whose lands even his own friends." It seems but and plantations protect it, or from the common sense, that if the proprietors of farmer, whose corn feeds and supports Hands preserve the gaine, they should be the game when young; or perhaps we most entitled to it; neither can the far- had better say from the fair sportsman, mer or tenant complain of the hardship who pays an annual tax to government of their lieing requested (it is ridiculous for the privilege of killing game : sud to say compelled) to warn off persons, these poachers afterwards rob their emeven their own friends, because the te plovers (if they have any work the next nant promises and agrees to warn off all day) by pretending to do a day's labour persons on bis taking the farm; and it after their nightly toils. is only performing this promise when Then, sir, to conclude, I beg you will called upon, which is very seldom re allow me to mention (for the consideraquired, when the tenant, and particularly tion of landed proprietors) two kinds of his friend", are accustomed to sport in a punishment that (if enacted by law), proper inauner,

As to the devouring would, in my opinion, much better stop his crop, it generally forms a considera- this growing evil; for since daily labour tion with the tenant on taking the farm. has become scarce, the idle poacher But I particularly beg to observe that it finds himself thrown out of work, and is not the GAME Laws on these points that thence the evil bas greatly increased.are to be complained of as a hardship, it The one is, ibat any persons found wanis the law of the tenant's own signing dering out of the footpathis in plantations with his landlord.

or lands where game is preserved after The next assertion is," that no person daylight until daylight again (and especican be followed by a dog without being ally if detected poaching), should be insulted by, gamekeepers.". Here Pue- taken before two magistrates to account LICOLA again proves himself totally un- for their being so found; and if they do acquainted with the game laws to sup- not give a satisfactory account, the mapose gamekeepers are vested with any gistrates to be empowered to order such such authority by thein; and if he will persons to be publicly whipped the next trouble biurself to look into those sta- market day in the nearest market town; tutes, he will find that this veratious and and on the second offence, to commit the troublesome man, the gamekeeper, is offender to Bridewell, to be tried at the very little spoken of throughout the quarter-sessions, and if guilty, transported whole, except in the authority to be for seven years. 2dly. That no person shall granted to him to kill game for his buy as well as sell any game under the Jord, &c.

penalty of 10l. at least for each offence, I think it quite unnecessary to reply and that the buyer or seller informing fery particularly to the frivolous hard may be good evidence to convict, and ship mentioned by Publicola of re, thereby exempted from penalty, and spectable females being debarred from have a moiety of the same on convicamusing themselves in gathering wild tion.

VERITAS. towers, for I cannot possibly suppose Feb. 5, 1816. any respectable females would be found wandering out of the regular footpaths MR. EDITOR, zu secluded coppices or plantations where AS you were kind enough to insert in game is usually preserved : and as to your number for January some thoughts cottagers' children not being allowed to of mine on the subject of promoting, gather a handful of berries for a pud- even in an imperfect degree, the comforts ding, it is a complaint too frivolous to of the poor, I take the liberty of troubreply to.

ling you with a few more observations on All these onerstrained cases of pre- the same subject. tended liardships brought forward" by It would be highly desirable to koow PUBLICOLA, as well as his presumption some way of securing to the poor the that the game locos render landed pro- fruits of their industrious savings during prietors OMNIPOTENT, are so vaguely set a period of many years. A conscientious forth, and so weakly supported, thai individual would be scrupulous of receive they do not require this paper to refute ing the money, lest he should at any futhem. But it is so obvious that the ture time be unable to repay it; or lest present laws (from the numerous offen- unjust insinuations might be thrown out decslately detected) are NOT SUFFICI• as to his motive for setting op foot a

1816.) On ameliorating the Condition of the Poor Major André. 207 charitable institution of this description. it impossible for the cottager to obtain The frequent failores of country banks it. In the year 1812, the distress of the render it hazardous to put the inoney of manufacturers in Spitalfields was consithe poor in them, there remain therefore derably alleviated by a seasonable supply only the public funds; and if some mode of mackarel, chiedy through the exer. could be devised for facilitating the pur- tions of this society. Thus fish was rechases to be made in them, for convert- tailed at 1d. a-piece, and such was the ing the interest into principal, &c., it good effect of the measure, that but. would be of great advantage. Some of cher's meat, if I am not misinformed, your readers perbaps can state the me- fell 2d. in the pound in this part of Lonihod pursued in those Saving Banks that don alone. have been already established; any one Nor will the benevolent mind rest sawho does so, may be sure he is performa- tisfied with attending 10 the bodily wants ing an important service; as the diff of the necessitous; its attention will be culty of securing what the poor lay up directed to the mural and religious conhas alone prevented the institution of a cerns of the poor. It will cherish the paSaving Bank in one particular district. rish schools as an useful, nay, most ne

Connected with the scheme of securing cessary appendage to the parish church; to the poor their hard-earned gains as a it will labour to diff ise principles of orprovision for declining lite, is that of der, loyalty, sobriety, and religion among providing for them an increase of cheap the rising generation; and in such occuand nourishing food. It is a melancholy pation, it will seek its peculiar and most fact, that a great proportion of the la- appropriate gratification. I have only to houring poor are without that solid mu- add, that a person who sets out with a triment which can quality them for exer- desire to do good, mast count the cost tion as labourers. If not dieted by their before he begins - must not be surprised employer their food is bread and cheese, if he meet with no co-operation from without any beer. Whether tbis be food many to whom he imparts his schemes of a proper descriprion for a bard-work- must even reckon on encountering the iag inan, I leave to be answered by those speers and taunts of those who are rewho, without undergoing any extreme solved to do nothing-who are ever bodily or mental labour, are yet in the ready to start ditficulties and objections habit of faring sumptuously every day, who anticipate nothing but failure and expending upon their appetites sums, in short, who are the stedfast foes to exa small proportion of which would yo far ertion, because it is a tacit reproach on towards the comfortable maintenance of their own sel6shness and supineness.--I the industrious cottager and his family. A am, &c.

CLERICUS. benevolent society has been lately esta- Feb. 14, 1816. blished in London for the supply of fish in greater abundance, not only in the MR. EDITOR, metropolis, but throughout the kingdom. In the account of Major John André Could their benevolent intentions be among the collections of your aniateur carried inio full effect, I conceive that correspondent, that gallant and unfortuthe welfare of the nation would be auge date officer is said " to have been hung mented in a degree neither small nor un- as a spy by the command of General Arimportant; the fisheries, those purseries nold." How such a gros. blunder could of British seamen, would be encouraged, have dropped from the pen of any person and an employment opened for multi- at all acquainted with the English histotudes of disbanded sailors, who must ry I cannot conceive; and permit me to otherwise have recourse to dishonest sav, that the insertion of it in your repractices, or be induced to enter into the spectable miscellany, betrays a casual service of nations who may at no remote want of care and observation, which it period become our foes; a cheap and will be well in future to guard against. nutritious article of food would be pro- Major André was sacrificed inhumanly vided for the lower orders, who are at hy the American commander in chief, present almust precluded from purchase the celi brated Washington, when ening it. In touching on this subject I caged on a mission to General Arnold, may be escused for stating, that while who had a secret intention of passing * Mackarel is procured in such quantity at over to the British lines. Arnold es

particular maritime stations as to be had caped, and poor André perishe; but for nothing, it is at no great distance the former was despised tisroub life,

froin the coast, that is to say, so 'or 40 while the memory of the sufferer has * olesihlapd, sold at a price fiat renders boon embalmed by the pity and tears of

208

Mr. Taylor on the Philosophy of Plato. . (April 1, all who have read his tragical history, ably, the children shall neither be of a whether in his native country or in that good genius nor fortunate." where he was butchered.

My comment on this passage is as Feb. 5, 1816. BIOGRAPHICUS. follows:-All the parts of the universe

are unable to participate of the proviMR. EDITOR,

dence of divinity in a similar manAS the doctrine of the periodical mu- ner, but some of its parts enjoy this tation of things in the sublunary region eternally, and others temporally ; some forms one of the most interesting doymas in a primary, and others in a secondary of the philosopby of Plato, I send you degree: for the universe being a perfect for insertion in your valuable Magazine whole, must have a first, a middle, and the following elucidation of it. which I a last part. But its first parts, as having trust will be acceptable to all your ma- the most excellent subsistence, must thematical and philosophical readers. always exist according to nature; and

The passage in which this doctrine is its last paris must sometinės subsist accontained is in the Republic, and is as cording to), and sometimes contrary to follows:

naiure: bence the celestial bodies, wbich “ It is indeed difficult for a ciry thus are the first parts of the universe, perconstituted to be chinged; but as every petually subsist according to naturé, thing which is generated is obuoxious to both the whole spheres and the multicorruption, neither will such a constitu- tude co ordinate to these wboles; and tion as this remain for ever, but be dis the only alteration which they experisolved And its dissolution is this: not ence is a inutation of figure, and variaonly with respect to terrestrial plants, tion of light at different periods ;- but but likewise in terrestrial animals, a fer- in the sublunary region, while the spheres tility and sierility of soul as well as of of the elements remain, on account of body takes place when the revolutions of their subsistence as wboles, always acthe heavenly bodies complete the peri- cording to nature, the parts of these phery of their respective orbits, which wholes have sometimes a natural, and are shorter to the shorter-lived, and con- sometimes an unnatural subsistence; for trarywise to such as are the contrary: thus alone can the circle of generation and with reference to the fertility and unfold all the variety which it contains. sterility of our race, although those are The different periods in which these wise that you have educated to be go- mutations happen are called by Plato, vernors of cities, yet will they never, by with great propriety, periods of fertility reason in conjunction with sense, observe and sterility; for in these periods a ferthe proper seasuns, but overlook them, tility or sterility of men, animals, and and sometimes generate children when plants, takes place; so that in fertile they ought not. But the period to that periods mankind will be both more nuwhich is divinely generated is that which merous, and, upon the whole, saperior the perfect number comprebends; and in mental and bodily endowments to to that which is generated by man, that the men of a barren period : and a simiperiod in which the augmentations sur lar reasoning must be extended to anipassing and surpassed, when they shall mals and plants. The so much celehave received three restitutions and four brated heroic age was the result of one boundaries of things assimilating and of these fertile periods, in which men dissimilating, increasing and decreasing, transcending the herd of mankind both shall reuder all things correspondent and in practical and intellectual virtue effable; of which the sesquitertian pro- abounded on the earth. geny, when conjoined with the pentad, With respect to the epithet divinely and thrice increased, affords two harmo- generated, it is well observed by the nies. One of these, the equally equal, Greek scholiast, “ that Plato does not a hundrer times a bundred; but the mean by this either the whole world, other, of equal length indeed, but more though the epithet is primarily applicaoblony, is of a hundred numbers from ble to it, nor the celestial regions only, eflable diameters of pentads, each being nor the sublunary world, but every thing deficient by uniry, and from two nuin which is perpetually and circularly bers that are ineffable, and from a hun- moved, whether in the heavens or under dred cubes of the triad. But the whole the moon; so far as it is corporeal calle geometric number of this kind is the ing it generated, (for no body is selfauthor of better and worse generations; subsistent,) but so far as it is perpetually of which when our governors being igno- moved, divine,--for it imitates the most rant, join our couples together unseason- divine of things, which possess an ever

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1816.]
Mr. Taylor on the Philosophy of Plato.

209 vigilant life. But with respect to the nished, or more than perfect and imperperfect number mentioned here by Plato, fect, we must not only direct our attention to Things correspondent and effable, are a perfect number in vulgar arithmetic,- boundaries which correspond in ratio for this is rather numhered than number, with each other, and can be expressed tends to perfection, and is never perfect, in numbers either integral or fractional, as being always in generation,--but we -such as these four terms or boundamust survey the cause of this number, ries, 27, 18, 12, 8, which are in sesquial.. which is indeed intellectual, but compre ter and subsesquialter ratios; since ihese hends the definite boundary of every mutually correspond in ratio, and are period of the world."

effable: for effable quantities are those With respect to the numbers in this ex- wlrich can be expressed in whole numtract from the Republic, the obscurity of bers or fractions; and in like manner them is so great as to have become prover- ineffable quantities are such as cannot bial among the ancients, and they are be expressed in either of these, and are not elucidated in any of those invaluable called by modern mathematicians surds. remains of Grecian philosophy which In the next place, let us consider what have survived to the present time. What we are to understand by the sesquiterfollows is an attempt to remove the veil tian progeny when conjoined with the under which they have been so long con- pentad, and thrice increased, uffording cealed.

two harmonies. By the sesquitertian proIn the first place, then, let us consider geny, then, Plato means the number 95: what Plato means by augmentations sur- for this number is composed from the passing and surpassed; things assimilat- addition of the squares of the numbers ing and dissimilating, increasing and de- 4 and 3, which form the first sesquitercreasing, correspondent and effable. tian ratio, (viz. 25,) and the number 70,

Augmentations surpassing, are ratios which is composed from 40 and 30, and of greater inequality, viz. when the therefore consists of two numbers in, a greater is compared to the lesser, and sesquitertian ratio :-hence, as 95 is are multiples, superparticulars, super- composed from 25 and 70, it may with partients, multiple-superparticulars, and great propriety be called a sesquitertiati multiple-super partients. But multiplex progeny. This number conjoined with 5, ratio is when a greater quantity contains and thrice increased, produces ten thoua less many times; superparticular ratio sand and a million; for100x100= 10,000, is when the greater contains the less and 10,000 X 100=1,000,000. But it quantity once, and some part of it be- must here be observed, that these two sides ; and superpartient ratio is when numbers, as will shortly be seen, appear the greater contains the less quantity to be considered by Plato as analogous once, and certain parts of it like- to two parallelopipedons, the former, wise. Again, multiple-superparticular viz. ten thousand, being formed from ratio is when the greater contains the 10 X 10 X 100, and the latter from less many times, and some part of it 1,000 X 10 x 100. These two numbers besides; and multiple-superpartient ratio are called by Plato two harmonies, for, is when the greater contains the less the following reason :--Simplicius, in his many times, and also some of its parts. commentary on Aristotle's book, De But augmentations surpassed are ratios Cælo, informs us that a cube was denoof less inequality, viz. when the less is minated by the Pythagoreans harmony, compared with the greater quantity; as because it consists of 12 bounding lines, for instance, submultiples, subsuperpar. 8 angles, and 6 sides; and 12, 8, and 6, ticulars, subsuperpartients, and those are in harmonic proportion; for the difwhich are composed from these threc. ference between 12 and 8 is to the diffeThose numbers are called by Plato assi rence between 8 and 6 (i.e. 4 is to 2) as miluting and dissimilating which are de- the first term to the third, viz. as 12 to nominated by arithmeticians similar and 6, which, as is well known, is the law of dissimilar; and similar numbers are those whose sides are proportional, but

are 1, 2, 3, which are equal to 6, and the dissimilar numbers those whose 'sides parts of the latter are 14, 7, 4, 2, 1, the are not proportional. But he calls those aggregate of which is 28,) so a diminished numbers increasing and decreusing which is parts, as 8 whose parts ar 4, 2, 1, the

number is that which is less than the sum of they denomnite aboundingi and dimi

aggregate of which is 7; and an abounding * As pertect numbers are those which number is that which is exceeded by the are equal to their parts collected into one, sum of its parts, as 12, whose parts are 6, such as 6 and 28, (for the parts of the former 4, 3, 2, 1, the sum of wbich is 16. NEw MONTILY Mac,--No, 27.

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Mr. Taylor on the Philosophy of Plato. (April 1, harmonic proportion. As a parallelo- are also of this kind; and as we shal pipedon, therefore, has the same num- see, appear to be the numbers signified ber of sides, angles, and bounding-lines, by Plato. In the last place, he ades, as a cube, the reason is obvious why the "and from a hundred cubes of the triad," numbers 10,000 and 1,000,000 are called viz. from the number 270; for this is by. Plato harmonies : hence also it is equal to a hundred times 27, the cube of evident why he says:

" that the other of 3. The numbers, therefore, chat form these harmonies (víz. a million) is of 10,000 are as below: equal length indeed, but more oblong"

1386 for if we call 100 the breadth, and 10

7 the depth, both of ten thousand and a million, it is evident that the latter num

9709 ber, when considered as produced by

15 1,000 X 10 X 100, will be analogous to a

13 inore oblong parallelopipędon than the

270 foriner. Again, when he says, " that the pum

10,000 ber 1,000,000 consists of a hundred viz. 1386 heptads, two ineffable numnumbers from effable diameters of pen- bers, (15 and 13,) and a bundred times tads, each being deficient by unity, and the cube of 3, i. e. 270: and the whole from two that are ineffable, and from geometric number is a million. a hundred cubes of the triad," bis mean One Massey, who published a Greek ing is as follows. The number 1,000,000 and Latin edition of The Republic, at consists of a hundred numbers, (i.e. of a Cambridge, in the year 1713, observes hundred such numbers as 10,000,) each respecting this most obscure passage, of which is composed from effable dia- “ that what Plato distinctly means by it meters of pentads, &c. But in order to he neither knows nor cares; since it ep. understand the truth of this assertion, it pears to him that what affords so much is necessary to observe, that there are difficulty has but little weight."_" Quid certain numbers which are called by in hoc loco distinctè velit Plato profecto arithıneticians cffable diameters. These nescio, nec curo. Quod enim tantum also are twofold: for some are the dia- difficultatis præbet minimum ponderis meters of even squares, and others of habere suspicor.” This is in the true odd squares; and the diameters of effa- spirit of a mere verbal critic, viz. of a ble even squares, when multiplied into man of no intellect, and of great imputhemselves, produce square numbers dence.* The reason also which he assigns double of the squares of which they are for this carelessness is admirable; since the diameters, with an excess of unity. on the same account the higher parts of Thus, for instance, the oumber 3 multi- the mathematics ought to be rejected. plied into itself produces 9, which is What Achilles, bowever, says of those double of the square number 4, with an in IIades, may be aptly applied to such excess of unity; and therefore 3 will be then as these: the diameter of the even square 4. But Ω ποποι, η ρα τις εσι και ειν Αίδαι δομοισι the diameters of effable odd square num Ψυχη και ειδωλον, ατας φρενες ουκ εν παμπαν, bers are in power double of the squares

Iliad, lib. xxiii. v. 123. of which they are the diameters, by a O strange! in Pluto's dreary realms to find deficiency of unity; thus the number 7, Soul and its image, but no spark of mind. multiplied into itself, produces 49, which

Thos, TAYLOR is double of the odd square number 25

Manor-place, Walworth. hy a deficiency of unity. This being Such is the critic in the Monthly Review, premised, it follows that the number who takes occasion, (I am told) in review10,000 will consist of a certain number ing the translation of the Paraphrase of an of heptads; for 7 is the effable diameter Anonymous Greek writer on the Nicomaof the square number 25: and from what chean Ethics of Aristotle, by Mr. Bridgman, follows it will be found that this number to defame me,- because Mr. Bi, in the preis 1986.

face, had, from motives of gratitude, acknowBut the number 10,000 not only con- from me in the translation of that work; for

ledged that he derived considerable assistance sists of 1386 heptads, but Plato also this reviewer begins with saying, “We borded adds, « from two numbers that are in

no good of the present performance, when effable," viz, from two numbers the roots

we saw the name of Mr. Thomas Taylor in of which cannot be exactly obtained nor the writer's preface." --See the malevolence, expressed, either in whole numbers or ignorance, and pride, of these Monthly Re. fractions, such as the roots of the aum viewers fully exposed at the end of my trans bers 2 and 8. The numbers 15 and 13 lation of Proclus on Euclid.

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