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right, near the west entrance. The visitor here pays one shilling. The dens are very commodious, and the animals are in general healthy, but not numerous. Their separate dwellings are each about twelve feet in height, being divided into an upper and lower apartment: in the former they live in the day and are exhibited, and in the latter they sleep at night. Iron gratings inclose the fronts of the dens, most of which have been recently rebuilt, with every precaution to prevent accidents.
Spanish Armoury. Here the visiter is shewn the trophies of the famous victory of Queen Elizabeth over the Spanish Armada. Among them, the most remarkable are the thumb-screws, intended to be used to extort confession from the English, where their money and other valuables night be concealed. In the same room is the axe said to have been used for the execution of Queen Anne Boleyn and Lady Jane Grey; and here also is shewn a representation of Queen Elizabeth in armour, as she is supposed to have appeared when she reviewed her army at Tilbury Fort, in 1588. She is standing near a cream-coloured horse, attended by a page.
Small Armoury.-This is one of the finest rooms of its kind in Europe. It is 345 feet in length and 60 wide, and contains complete stands of arms for about 150,000 men. They are disposed in a variety of figures and in the most elegant manner. A piece of ordnance from Egypt, sixteen feet long, and seven inches and a half in calibre, has been added to the collection. This building was begun by James II., and finished by William and Mary, who, on its completion, entertained their court there with a splendid dinner.
Royal Train of Artillery.—Part of this is kept on the ground-floor, under the small armoury. The artillery is ranged on each side, a passage 10 feet in breadth being left in the centre. In this room are twenty columns, supporting the small armoury above, which are hung round with implements of war and trophies taken from the enemy There are many fine pieces of cannon to be seen here; the ornaments of one alone (of brass) are said to have cost 2007.: this was made for Prince Henry, eldest son of James I. Others are extremely curious for their antiquity. Among these latter is a piece of cannon of the kind first
invented, formed of bars of iron, hammered together, and bound with iron hoops: it has no carriage, but was moved by means of six rings, conveniently placed for that purpose.
Horse Armoury. This is a mean-looking brick building, standing east of the White Tower. It contains effigies of the kings of England from William the Norman to George II., in armour, on horseback, which have an imposing effect. Here are also various specimens of ancient and modern armour, including a vast collection of cuirasses found on the field of Waterloo; and near the entrance is shown a Model of the first machine used in England for the manufacture of organzine, or thrown silk. The design of it was brought from Italy by Mr. John Lombe in 1717. The machinery of this invention has since been much improved, and the manufacture is still carried on at Derby, where it was first established. For admission to the several Armouries the price is two shillings each person.
The Jewel Office, a dark and strong stone room, is shewn for one shilling each person, in companies; a single person, has to pay two shillings. Its principal curiosities are: -1. The new Imperial Crown, which is about fifteen inches in elevation; the arches, which rise almost to a point, instead of the inelegant flatness of the former crown, are surmounted with an orb of brilliants, seven inches in circumference. Upon these is placed a Maltese cross of brilliants, set transparently with three pearls at its extremities, of remarkable size and beauty. The arches are wreathed and fringed with diamonds. Four Maltese crosses, formed of brilliants also, surround the crown, with four large diamond flowers in their intervening spaces. On the centre of the back cross is the ancient ruby, which was worn at Cressy and Agincourt, by the Black Prince and Henry V., while that of the front cross is adorned with a unique Sapphire, of the purest and deepest azure, more than two inches long and one inch broad. The er mine is surmounted with a band of large diamonds, emeralds, sapphires, and rubies, and immediately under these is a fillet of beautiful pearls. The lustre of this unequalled crown is heightened by a dark crimson cap of the finest velvet, and its general effect confirms the opinion of all who
have seen it, that his present Majesty is the first British sovereign who has possessed a diadem worthy of this proud and potent empire.
The Ancient Crown is still exhibited, but, though it has been repaired and beautified, has little attraction beyond its recollections, and the contrast which it displays, both in shape and splendour, to the magnificence of the new diadem.
The two Orbs, the Diadems, the Prince of Wales's Crown, the five Sceptres, and the Confessor's Staff, have all been renovated. The ancient Gallic ornaments of the King's Coronation Sceptre have been replaced by golden leaves, surrounding the large amethyst, each bearing the Rose, the Shamrock, and the Thistle, the symbols of the three kingdoms.
The Coronation Bracelets have been newly enamelled, and golden buckles and embroidered velvet straps added to the Coronation Spurs.
The Curtana and the Swords of Temporal and Spiritual Justice have been ornamented with new scabbards, of velvet, splendidly embossed and embroidered, and adorned with gold mountings.
The Golden Wine-fountain, the Salt-cellar, the model of the White Tower, the Communion Chalice, and Patin, the Eagle, the Spoon, &c. of the Coronation Solemnity, the massive chased Tankards, and the twelve Salt-cellars, for the last banquet in Westminster Hall, have all been repaired. To these last, twelve golden Plates and Spoons were then added for the first time.
The above is a very faint outline of the present state of the Jewel Room, which never, till the present time presented a spectacle so dazzling to beholders.
The White Tower is a large square building, situated near the centre of the fortress: it was built under the superintendance of the celebrated architectural ecclesiastic of the Conqueror's time, Gundulph, Bishop of Rochester. Its walls are of great strength, being from 12 to 13 feet thick at the basement story, and about 10 feet thick upwards. Within, it consists of three lofty stories, beneath which are large commodious vaults. In the first story are two grand rooms, one of which is an Armoury for the sea
service, and contains arms sufficient for ten thousand seamen; and in the other rooms upon this floor, in closets and presses, are abundance of engineers' tools and implements of death. Here likewise is the Volunteer Armoury, which contains arms for 30,000 men, piled in curious order, together with pikes, swords, &c. in immense numbers, arranged in stars and other figures. In the upper rooms, also, and in the ancient Chapel, on the second floor, are kept the various records of the Court of Chancery, consisting of bills, answers, depositions, and other proceedings of that court in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth, James I. and Charles I. In a part of the chapel are warrants of Privy Seal from the reign of Edward I. to the year 1483, and many of the reign of Richard III.; and in another part are bills under the signet, from the reign of Richard II. to that of Charles I. inclusive. The models of all newly-invented engines of destruction, which have been presented to Government, are likewise preserved in this
The Chapel, just mentioned, is dedicated to St. John, and is extremely curious for its antiquity. It consists of a body and ailes, separated from each other by an arcade of thirteen plain semi-circular arches, which spring from twelve massive columns and two half-columns; the large square-headed capitals are sculptured in the early Norman style. The east end is semi-circular, and above the arcade is a second range of substantial plain arches.
The Record Office is in the Wakefield Tower, opposite to the platform, which derived its name from the prisoners confined in it, who had been taken at the battle of Wakefield. The rolls, from the time of King John to the beginning of the reign of Richard III., are kept here in fifty-six wainscot presses. They contain the ancient tenures of land in England, original laws and statutes, the forms of submission of the Scottish Kings, with a variety of other interesting records, &c. In this tower were detained many of those unhappy victims of religious intolerance, known by the name of the Lollards.
In the Beauchamp Tower, the ill-fated Anne Boleyn, and the hapless Lady Jane Grey, with other illustrious personages, are said to have been immured. The Royal
Apartments of former times were in the south-east angle of the present inclosure.
The Church of St. Peter ad Vincula, within the Tower, which is of very ancient foundation, was rebuilt by Edward I., but it has undergone many alterations. It contained two chancels, one dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and the other to St. Peter; and there were Stalls in it for our Sovereigns. Here are various monuments, the most remarkable of which are those of Sir Richard Cholmondeley, Knt. (who was lieutenant of the Tower in the early part of Henry VIII.'s reign) and his lady; Sir Richard Blount, Knt. and Sir Michael, his son, both lieutenants of this fortress in Queen Elizabeth's time; George Payler, Esq. and the Lady Maria Carey, his wife; and Sir Jonas More, Knt. In this church lie many of the headless trunks of the unfor. tunate persons who suffered decapitation either within the Tower, or on the adjacent hill. Among them were Fisher, Bishop of Rochester; Margaret, the venerable Countess of Salisbury; the Queens Anne Boleyn and Catharine Howard; Lord Rochford; Cromwell, Earl of Essex; Seymour, Duke of Somerset; Dudley, Duke of Northumberland; Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk; and James, Duke of Monmouth, son of Charles II. Here also the bodies of the rebel lords, Kilmarnock, Balınerino, and Lovat were deposited.
As the Tower is open to the public, on Sundays, it is generally frequented on those days by much company, and the parade, near the White Tower, becomes a crowded promenade.
The Mint, Tower Hill.―This is a large and handsome building, erected by Mr. Smirke, jun., with suitable and extensive establishments for the business of the coinage. It is arranged in three stories, and consists of a centre and wings, the former decorated with columns and a pediment, displaying the British arms.
Here are steam-engines, and also various conveniences and mechanical contrivances, which, for a long time, were only to be seen at Soho, near Birmingham, where the coin of the realm had latterly been produced. The edifice is inaccessible to strangers, except on special introduction