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has often heard, and which will inspire truth, and yet be unwilling to put forth him with alternating and even passion corresponding effort in order to their ate emotions of admiration and horror. removal. It has sometimes been urged

The author (a respected congrega- in explanation, not to say defence, of tional minister in a northern county), their inactivity, that they have been appropriately commences his task by too much concerned for spiritual relisketching the character and career of gion to engage in polemics. But Wiclif Wiclif, the “morning star of the Re- was too intelligent, notwithstanding all formation.”

In admirable terms he the disadvantages of his times, to admit illustrates the secret of the confessor's the justice of such a plea. He well boldness in attacking error, how formid- knew that, if the gospel of the New ably soever defended; and of the re- Testament ever triumphed, it must be luctance of many good men, in the by its friends bringing it fearlessly present day, to commit themselves by and ceaselessly into contact with every taking part in the pending conflict. pretension; and therefore he sought “Errors and truths,” he observes, “ were the special aids of the Spirit, not to alike expounded by one simple princi- comfort him in soft repose but to ple, THE

SCRIPTURE. strengthen him for conflict. Who can Wiclif seized the truth, and it became listen to his devout pleadings without in his hand a thunderbolt. His blood emotion ? “Almighty Lord God, most was up, and he wrote daringly and, for merciful, and in wisdom boundless, himself, dangerously. It is not for since thou sufferedst Peter and all ordinary minds to conceive of the im- apostles to have so great fear and petuosity of an ardent soul which has cowardice at the time of thy passion, caught fire from a 'present truth, that they flew all away for dread of especially if it happen to be one which death and for a poor woman's voice ; has been long undiscovered. It is and since, afterwards, by the comfort more than conviction : it is an inspira- of the Holy Ghost thou madest them so tion. Colder men may censure ; unbe- strong that they were afraid of no man, lieving ones may doubt. Prudence may nor of pain, nor death ; help now, by summon a halt, and fear may draw gifts of the same Spirit, thy poor serback aghast. But such a man sees his vants who all their life have been goal, and opposition only stimulates the cowards, and make them strong and high purpose of his noble nature. bold in thy cause, to maintain the gosRushing on to the conflict, Wiclif was pel against antichrist and the tyrants not always careful on what or on whom of this world !”—P. 25. This is surely he trod. But he uplifted his standard, the language of a Greatheart, who unand fearful as have been the attacks derstands the nature of religion and upon it, it has never been removed. the obligations it entails. Ile set up the truth which the experi- The second chapter delineates the ence of centuries has but served to "writhings of the down-trodden." maintain, that, whether against popes Among the victims of this early period or cardinals, against law cliurches or were many whose views of Christian ecclesiastical organizations, the only ordinances coincide with our own. Why test of truth is the word of God."- Mr. Miall should have denominated P. 17.

them “anabaptists” (p. 43) we know Good men may, however, be aware of not. If thus spoken of by the authorithe existence of evils, and of their ties from whom he derived his informinjurious influence on the interests of lation, he was under no obligation to

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retain their terminology, except when on questions of religion.' * They asked quoting their language ; especially as again, ‘Whether it be not better for us he designates the pædobaptist exiles at that a patent were granted to monopoFrankfort by the modern phrase of “ a lize all the cloth or corn, and to have it congregational church” (p. 45.) In this measured out unto us, at their price chapter the Hampton Court Conference, and pleasure, which were yet intolertogether with the names of Hooper and able, as for some men to appoint and Rogers, Latimer and Ridley, Cartwright measure out to us what and how much and Coverdale, and many others “of we shall believe and practise in matters whom the world was not worthy,” come of religion ? If the magistrate must under review. We scarcely think that punish errors in religion, whether it Cranmer is entitled to be placed in the does not impose a necessity that the same category: historical justice will magistrates have a certainty of knowconsign him to a much inferior classifi- ledge in all intricate cases ? And cation,

whether God calls such to that place "Contests with Despotism,” “Pio- whom he hath not furnished with neers of Liberty,” and “ Aimings at the abilities for that place ?

And if a Impossible," are the descriptive titles magistrate in darkness, and spiritually of succeeding chapters; and ample blind and dead, be fit to judge of light, and illustrative materials are furnished of truth, of error? And whether such by the occurrences of the last Tudor be fit for the place of the magistracy ??? and the earlier Stuart's reigns. The Pp. 172, 173. Star Chamber and High Commission Inquiries like these, addressed to the Court, Whitgift and Laud, are titles of Westminster Assembly, were not unplaces and men which intrude them- | likely to disturb the reverend subscribselves, like evil spirits, on the attentioners of “the solemn league and coveof the reader in connexion with this nant." Good Maister Baillie, one of period. The deeds which their respec- the Scotch clerical commissioners, gave tive owners witnessed or perpetrated, expression to his displeasure in a volume, were such as made the nation groan ; the general tone of which may be which will cover the protestant episco- easily guessed at by the terms of the pal church with indelible infamy; and title-page, which will awaken the indignation of virtuous minds through all coming time. In describing the proceedings of the

INDEPENDENCY, SANTINOMY, Westminster Assembly, Mr. Miall does


FAMILISME, honour to himself by doing justice to AND THE MOST OF THE OTHER ERROURS the baptist denomination. This is no more than might have been anticipated THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND, UNSEALED, from a gentleman of his intelligence and candour. He says, “To the ana- But we must not linger, although baptists, as they were then termed, the

other chapters and topics press for conhigh praise is due, that at this period and before it, they had been clear in

* Religion's Peace! or, a' Plea for Liberty of the principle, that it is not only un- Conscience. By Leonard Busher. First printed in merciful, but unnatural and abominable, 1614. Reprinted by Hanserd Knollys Society. yea, monstrous, for one Christian to

+ Necessity of Toleration in matters of Religion.

By S. Richardson. 1647. Reprinted by Hanserd vex and destroy another for difference Knollys Society.









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sideration, fraught with important | ing to stem the torrent of Rationalism, lessons of instruction in reference to with which Germany had been desocivil and religious liberty, religious con- lated. What Sir Walter Scott once victions and divine truth. The writer said of literature, looking at it in a conducts his readers through a period pecuniary point of view, that it was a of English history extending over seve- good staff, but a bad crutch, may with ral centuries, at once the most pro- propriety be said of the biblical works foundly painful and interesting. The of these scholars, as translated for the limits he assigns himself, necessarily use of English students : he who is preclude lengthened details or remarks. strong enough to walk without them His style is, however, vivacious and may avail himself of their help advanagreeable ; his topics are judiciously tageously, but he who has to depend selected ; his practical deductions are upon them for support is likely to suffer important; and his whole volume for his implicit faith. The matured (which we cordially commend) worthy divine, who is well established in the of a cultivated and devout mind. “The truth as taught by the best British conclusion of the whole matter," may teachers, will read their writings with be thus expressed :—“ Had the church advantage ; but they are not likely to been, as the principles of the Reforma do good to the public at large. In tion demanded, dissevered from the Germany, these works are adapted to state, into what comparatively small raise the public mind to a healthier dimensions would "The Acts and state than that which has been prevaMonuments of British Martyrs' have lent; in England they will excite been reduced ! Papal, episcopal, puri- scepticism in minds which had received tan,—the degrees of intolerance may correct opinions, and debilitate that vary ; but the fact of persecution, belief which needed to be strengthened. under any state church, is in variable."

We received, however, this volume on the Apocalypse with pleasure. There are difficulties connected with the in

terpretation of that book which we The Revelation of St. John, Expounded for have never been able to surmount com

those who Search the Scriptures. By E. pletely, and if men looking at it from a W. HENGSTENBERG, Doctor and Professor different position from that to which of Theology in Berlin.

Translated from

we have been accustomed, can throw the Original, by the Rev. Patrick FAIR

any new light upon it, we are prepared BAIRN, Author of Typology of Scrip

to receive their assistance gratefully. ture, ;" Ezekiel, an Exposition,"Jonah,"

The first sentences of Hengstenberg's &c. Volume 1. Edinburgh : T. and T. Clark. 8vo. Pp. 480.

preface will doubtless excite the sym

pathy of many of his readers. “The The name of Hengstenberg is not Revelation of St. John,” he says, unknown to our readers. Translations for a long time a shut book to me. That of his learned work on the Antiquities it was necessary here to lay open a new of Egypt, and of his Commentary on path ; that neither the course pursued the Book of Psalms, have afforded us in the older ecclesiastical, nor that of opportunities to introduce him to their the modern Rationalistic exposition was notice. He is one of the band of whom to be followed, I never entertained a Neander, Olshausen, and Tholuck are doubt. The constantly renewed atperhaps best known in this country, tempts at fresh investigations resulted who have, for some years been labour-only in a better understanding of par

-p. 44.


ticular points, but accomplished nothing to that early period. But," he adds, as to the main theme. I was not the “it is one of the fundamental defects of less persuaded, however, that the blame the theology of the present day, that of this obscurity lay not in the book criticism is brought into play before itself, with the divine character of which exegesis has sufficiently done its part, I was deeply impressed, but in its ex- and that the crudest thoughts are proposition; and I did not cease to long claimed with naive confidence as 'the for the time when an insight might be result of the more exact and more granted me into its wonderful depths." perfect exegetical investigations for

The preliminary researches of our which the age is distinguished ;' whence author have issued well. He not only the path is at once taken to the region professes his conviction that the book of criticism, and the most solid arguwas written by the apostle John, and ments, both of an external and internal that the visions were seen by him in nature, are unscrupulously set aside. the isle of Patmos, but also that the This is certainly not the scientific mode older theologians were correct in their of proceeding, however commonly it belief respecting its date, when they boasts of being so.”—P. 36. assigned it to the reign of Domitian. In his remarks on the Seven Epistles, Into this question, which is of im- which occupy more than a hundred portance in determining “ the historical pages, much will be found to repay the starting point,” he has gone very fully ; attention of one who is endeavouring to and in opposition to the theories of understand those interesting portions of some of his own celebrated countrymen, this mysterious book. But when we adopted greedily by some Englishmen, arrive at the strictly prophetical parts, he argues satisfactorily, that the book subsequent to the invitation, “ Come up could not have been written so early as hither, and I will show thee things the days of Nero, or of Galba, but that which must be hereafter,” we meet the testimony of Irenæus is true, “ It with little else than disappointment. was seen not long ago, but almost in our There are two particulars, especially, generation, towards the close of Do- in which the author differs from those mitian's reign.” Thus he at once sets interpreters who have always appeared aside the hypothesis, which has recently to us to have made the nearest apbeen advocated both here and in Ame- proaches to a satisfactory elucidation rica, that the prophecies had refe ce of the Apocalypse. In the first place to the destruction of Jerusalem, by he does not regard it as predicting Titus. “He who takes this properly events: there is no such thing as an into account, will in the first instance event brought out; there is only a reat least assume for his starting point iteration of general truths, as applicable the period of Domitian, as that which to one era as to another. Every thing has so many solid grounds to support it, is vague and indefinite. Thus, with and will consider whether he may not regard to the seven seals, the opening thence gain an insight into the whole by of which is recorded in the sixth chapunbiassed and earnest inquiry, and ter, they are made to present “an exespecially may find the passages in hibition of the victory of Christ over question brought into their true light. the world.” The book, it is remarked, The result will then be gained, that justly, is primarily a book of consolathese passages could not refer to the tion for the church. The first seal, ther, period before the destruction of Jeru- teaches that “ This in all its feebleness salem, far less that they must be referred and tribulation shall be revived by having the image of its heavenly King, tions which our author draws from the placed before its eyes, as he goes forth seals ; but we do deny that the church with invincible might to win a sure needed an Apocalypse to teach these and glorious victory." The second things, which had been taught fully and teaches, that when wars and terrors convincingly in the Old Testament scripoverspread the earth, the Christian tures; and we do believe that the should see in them the dawn of the symbols were intended to foreshadow church's triumph. The third shows things much more specific, though our that bad crops and scarcity are in the defective acquaintance with history and hand of God, with which he chastises other causes may at present leave us in unbelief and enmity to Christ and his some degree of doubt respecting their church through the whole course of precise meaning. centuries, and punishes and breaks the Another cause of our author's small arrogance of an apostate and rebellious success in the interpretation of this world, so as to prepare the way for book is to be found in his rejection of Christ's dominion. The fourth indi- what seems to us to be the well estacates that pestilence, and other things blished opinion respecting its structure. that tend to produce a general desola- By those whom we have deemed the tion, are directed to the one point of best expositors of this book it has long chastening and breaking the pride and been deemed indisputable that its strucinsolence of the world, restraining its ture is this :'-—There are seven seals persecuting zeal, and converting out of it which are opened successively; the last what is to be converted. The substance of them contains seven trumpets which of the fifth seal, we are told is, " such are sounded successively; and the last catastrophes as bring to view the final of these introduces to view seven vials judgment on the world, and in con- which are poured out successively. Innesion with that the glorification of the dependently of interpretation, strictly church.” The sixth seal is a descrip- speaking, this seems to be the plan of tion of the feelings of mankind in an- the prophecy; and thus we have been ticipation of the final catastrophe which led to suppose that we are furnished takes place under the seventh. But the in it with intimations respecting things interpretation of the seven trumpets is which should come to pass, affecting even more indefinite than that of the the interests of the church, from the seven seals. The first indicates war- time of the last of the apostles to the not any particular war, but war in time of the general judgment. Henggeneral. The second indicates war- stenberg, on the contrary, rejects the not any particular war, but war in idea of a continuous series ; he regards general. The third indicates war-not the visions as totally independent of any particular war, but war in general. each other in reference to time, and Respecting the fourth, we are told, is constantly recurring to the same “Here we can only think of the alarm- starting point. ing and distressing times of war.” The The work is at present incomplete. fifth is a “frightful image of war, as When we see the second volume perhaps the awful scourge with which God chas- we shall form a more favourable opinion tises the apostate world.” Now we do of the author's scheme than we can connot deny that wars generally have been scientiously express at present. One in every age made conducive to the observation, however, we may make divine purposes ; nor do we impugn now. We are surprised at the ignorance the correctness of the general observa- of English theology which Hengsten

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