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pates its course in this state, and falls into the head of Chesir peake bay.
The principal rivers which fall into Chesapeake bay from the western shore are, ). The Parapsco, which rises in the northern part of the state, and running in a southeasterly direction, discharges itself into Chesapeake bay between North point and Bodkin's point. It is navigable to Baltimore, 14 miles, for ships drawing 18 feet of water. About 8 miles above, at Elkridge landing, there are falls. 2. The Severn, a short river, which passes by Annapolis and falls into the Chesapeake 2 miles below. 3. The Patutent, which rises about 30 miles west of Baltimore, and running in a southeasterly direction, discharges itself into the Chesapeake, about 15 miles north of the mouth of the Potomac, after a course of 110 miles. It is navigable for vessels of 250 tons to Nottingham, 46 miles, and for boats to Queen Ann. 14 miles farther.
The principal rivers which fall into Chesapeake bay from the eastern shore are, 1. Elk river, which rises in Chester county in Pennsylvania, and running in a southerly direction passes by Elkton, and discharges itself into Chesapeake bay 14 miles below. It is navigable to Elkton for vessels drawing 12 feet of water. 2. Chester river, which rises on the borders of Delaware, and running in a southwesterly direction passes by Chestertown, and falls into the Chesapeake 14 miles below. 3. The Choptank, the Nanticoke, the Wicomico, and Pocomoke, all of which rise in Delaware and pursue a southwesterly course. The rivers in Maryland are generally very broad near their mouths and may be regarded, for some distance, as bàys or arms of the Chesapeake.
Chief towns.) Baltimore, the largest town in Maryland, and in population the third in the United States, is built around a bay, which sets up from the north side of Patapsco river, and affords a spacious and convenient barbor. The strait which connects this bay with the river is very narrow, scarcely a pistol shot across, and is well defended by Fort M'Henry. A small river, called Jones' Falls, falls into the north side of the harbor, after dividing the city into two parts, called the town and Fell's point, which are connected by bridges. At Fell's point the water is deep enough for vessels of 500 or 600 tons, but none larger than 200 tons can gu up to the town,
The city is generally well built. The houses are chiefly of brick; many of them are handsome, and some splendid. Among the public buildings are the State penitentiary, a theatre, a bospital, 10 banks and 31 houses of public worship, 5 for Roman Catholics, 5 for Episcopalians, 5 for Methodists, 4 for Presbyterians, 3 for Baptists, 2 for Seceders, 2 for Friends, and one each for Lutherans, Independeuts, Duokers, Unitarians and Swedenborgians.
A marble monument to the memory of General Washington has been recently erected, on an elevation at the north end of Charlesstreet. The base is 50 feet square, and 23 feet high, and on it is apother square of about half ibe extent and elevalion. On this
is a lofty culamn, 20 feet in diameter at the base, and 14 at the top. On the summit of this column, 163 feet from the ground, the statue of Washington is to be placed. The battle monument, erected to the memory of those who fell in bravely defending their city from the attack of the British on the 12th and 13th of September 1814, is a handsome structure of stone, situated on a large square io North Calvert-street.
Baltimore is well situated for commerce. It is connected by good toropike roads with various parts of Pennsylvania, and with the navigable waters which run into the Ohio. It possesses the trade of Maryland, and of a great portion of the back country of Pennsylvania, and the Western staies. In amount of shipping, it is the third city in the Uoion. The number of tons in 1815 was 101,960. The growth of the city has been remarkably rapid. In 1770 the population was only 300; in 1790, 13,508 ; in 1800, 26,514; in 1810, 46,555 ; and in 1820, 62,738, of whom 6,966 were slaves, and 10,325 free blacks.
Annapolis, the capital of the state, is 30 miles south of Baltimore, on the south bank of the river Severn, a small distance from its mouth. The state house is a noble edifice, and stands in the centre of the city. From this point the streets diverge in every direction, like the radii of a circle. The population of the city in 1820 was 2,260.
Fredericktown, the capital of Frederick county, is on a branch of Monocasy creek, 42 miles west of Baltimore. It is a flourishing town and carries on considerable trade with the back country. Population, in 1820, 3,640. Hagerstown or Elizabethtown, the capital of Washington county, is on the west bank of Antielam creek, 27 miles N. W. of Fredericktown. It contains about 300 houses, principally built of brick aod stone. The trade with the western country is considerable. Cumberland, the capital of Alleghany county, is on the Potomac, at the junction of Will's creek.
Elkton, the capital of Cecil county, is situated at the forks of Elk river, 13 miles from its mouth. The tide flows up to the town, and there was formerly a brisk trade between Philadelphia and Baltimore through this place. Snow Hill, the capital of Worcester county, is on the Pocomoke, more than 20 miles fronr its mouth. It is a place of considerable trade, and in 1816 the amount of shipping was 7,364 tons.
Education. There are several literary institutions in the city of Baltimore. A medical college was founded in 1807. In 1812 the institution was enlarged, and received a new charter. It is now styled the University of Maryland, and embraces the departments of languages, arts, sciences, medicine, law and divinily. The medical department has 6 professors, and is in a very flourishing state. There are no professors as yet in the other departments. St. Mary's college, also in Baltimore, has a valoable library, a chemical and philosophical apparatus, and about 150 students. Baltimore college has 2 instructors and about 60 siudents.
Canal.] A company was incorporated many years since by the states of Delaware and Maryland, for opening a communication
between Delaware bay and the Chesapeake by means of a canal from Christiana creek in Irelaware to Elk river in this state, When completed it will be 22 miles long, and is intended for ves sels of 70 tons. The expense is estimated at $850,000.
Roads. ] Excellent turnpikes proceed from Baltimore in vari. ous directions. There is a turnpike from Baltimore to Cumberland on the Potomac, a distance of 135 miles. From Cumberland to Brownsville on the Monoogahela, in Pennsylvania, there is now completed by the U. Stat:3 a free turnpike road of the most superior construction. The distance is 72 miles, making the whole distance from Baltimore to Brownsville 207 miles. The road has recently been continued from Brownsville to Wheeling on the Ohio. This is the shortest and best coinmunication yet opened between the tide water of the Atlantic and the navigable western waters.
Population.] The population of the state in 1790 was 319,728 ; in 1800, 319,632; in 1810, 380,5-16 ; aod in 1820, 407,350, of whom 1107,398 were slaves and 39.730 free blacks. The slaves are most numerous in the southern half of the state, and in some of the counties they are more numerous than the whites, but in the counties which border on Pennsylvania, they form only one eighth part of the population.
Religion.] Maryland was originally settled by Roman Catholics, and they are still the most numerous denomination of Christians. The other denominations are Episcopalians, who had in 1811, 3) churches and 35 clergymen; Baptists, Friends, Presbyterians, &c.
Manufactures and Commerce.] Furnaces have been erected in various places for the manufacture of iron and iron ware. Glass, paper, and whiskey are also made in considerable quantities. The value of the manufactures in 1810, was $11,468,794. The principal exports are flour and tobacco. The value of the exports for the year ending Sept. 30, 1820, was $6,609,364, of which $1,927,766 was foreign produce. Maryland is the third state in the Union in amount of shipping. In 1815 the number of tons was 156,062.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
Situation and Extent.] The district of Columbia is a tract oi country, 10 miles square, on both sides of Potomac river, 120 miles in a direct line from its mouth. It was ceded to the Uoited States by Maryland and Virginia in 1790, and in 1800 became the seat of the General government. It is under the immediate gove ernment of Congress.
Divisions. The District is divided into 3 cities or towns and 2 Counties.
Chief Towns.) WASHINGTON CITY, the metropolis of the United States, is pleasantly situated on the N E. bank of the river Potomac, at the point of land formed by the junction of the Eastern branch, 300 miles from the mouth of the river, and 3 below the head of the tide. It is separated from Georgelown on the N.W. by Rock creek, and Tyher creek. passes throngh the middle of the city. Washington is regularly laid out in streets running due north and south, intersected by others at right angles. Besides these streets, which are from 80 to 110 feet wide, there are avenues from 130 to 160 feet broar!, which diverge from centres in various parts of the city, crossing the other streets transversely. At the points from which the avenues diverge are spacious squares. The ground embraced in the plan of the city is very extensive, but only a small portion of it is yet occupied with buildings.
The principal public buildings and establishments are, 1. The Capitol, which is finely situated on an eminence, commanding a view of every part of the city, and a considerable portion of The adjacent country. According to the original plan, it is to be composed of a central edifice and two wings. The two wings were in a state of considerable forwardness in 1814, when the British army onder General Ross gained possession of the ciry and de. stroyed them, together with the President's house and other public structures and an extensive library which had been purchased for the use of Congress. The wings of the capitol are now rebuilt, and the central building has been commenced. The wings are each 100 feet square, and the whole building, when completed, will be a magnificent editice, presenting a front of 362 feet. 2. The President's house, situated about a mile and a half west of the capitol, on the avenue leading to Georgetown. It is 170 feet by 85, and two stories high. 3. Four spacious brick buildings erected in the vicinity of the President's house, for the accommodation of the heads of the great departments of
4. An extensive naty yard, situated on the Easiern Branch, which forms a safe and commodious harbor. 5. A fort, which, from the extreme sonthern point of the land on which the city stands, commands the channel of the Potomac, and 6. The general post-office, a hrick editice, about a mile W. N. W. of the capitol. The style of the architecture of the capitol is Corinihian, and that of ibe Presideot's house, Ionic ; and both buildings are constructed of free stone. The capitol square is inclosed by a strong and handsome iron railing; and being planted with trees, and otherwise
ornainented, will afford a delightful walk for the inhabitants and visitors of the city. The amount expended hy the United States on the public buildings previously to their destruction by the British in August 1814, was $1,214,291, and there have been appropriated towards rebuilding ihe same, $1,207,788.
Besides the buildings and establisbments above enumerated, Washington contains a city ball, a theatre, a college, 4 banks, several manufacturing establisbments, and 12 houses for public worship, 3 for Presbyterians, 2 for Episcopalians, 2 for Baptists, 2 for Methodists, 2 for Catholics and i for Friends. There is a bridge about one mile long over the Potomac, three over the Eastern branch, and 2 over Rock creek. The population of Washington in 1800 was 3,210; in 1810, 8,208; and in 1820, 13,247, of whom 3.741 were blacks.
Alexandria is pleasantly situated on the west bank of the Potomac, 7 miles south of Washington. It has a commodious harbor, sufficiently deep for the largest ships, and is a place of extensive trade, especially in the article of flour. Population, in 1820, 8,218.
Georgetown is pleasantly situated on the east side of the Potomac, at the junction of Rock creek, which separates it from Wasbington city, 3 miles west of the Capitol. It contains a college and five houses of public worship, 2 for Episcopalians, 2 for Methodists, and one for Presbyterians. Population, in 1820, 7,360.
Education.) The Columbian college went into operation at the commencement of the year 1822. It has a president, 4 professors and 2 tutors. A large brick building has been erected for the accommodation of students, on the high ground north of the city of Washington, in a remarkably healthy situation, 3 miles from the capitol. A Baptist Theological seminary is to be connected with the institution.
The Roman Catholics have a college in Georgetown, established in 1799. It has 2 spacious brick edifices, finely situated, with a library of 7,000 volumes, and about 150 students. In 1815 it was raised by Congress to the rank of an university, and author. ized to confer degrees.
Situation and Extent.] Virginia is bounded N. by Pennsylvania ; N. E. by Maryland; E. by the Atlantic; S. by North Car: olina and Tennessee; and W. by Kentucky and Ohio, from the Jast of which it is separated by the river Ohio. It extends from 36° 30° to 40° 43' N. lat. and from 75° 25' to 83° 40' W. lon. The area is estimated at 64,000 square miles.