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In the same year died pope Alexander the Third, in the twenty-second year of his papacy, and on the twelfth day before the calends of October, being succeeded in the papacy by Imbald, cardinal bishop of Ostia, who took the name of pope Lucius the Third. In the same year, Roger, archbishop of York, being attacked with a severe illness, on perceiving the last day of his life at hand, called together the abbats, priors, and other ecclesiastical persons of his diocese, and with becoming considerateness distributed his property for the use of the poor, and among other wondrous deeds of his power,19 to perpetuate his praises, he sent to William, archbishop of Rheims, and the other bishops of the kingdom of France, more than five hundred pounds of silver to be distributed among the poor. In like manner he left a similar sum to the archbishop of Rouen and the other bishops of Normandy; and the same to the archbishop of Canterbury and the other bishops of England. Having thus made distribution of all his property, he removed from Cowda, where he was taken ill, to York, the metropolitan see of his archiepiscopate, where on the tenth day before the calends of December, being Saturday, at twilight, he departed this life, full of days, after having happily ruled his archbishopric twenty-seven years and six weeks. His body was buried by Hugh, bishop of Durham, in the choir of the canons secular of the metropolitan church at York; William, the king of Scotland, still remaining under the sentence of excommunication which the before-named archbishop of York had pronounced against him.
Upon hearing of the death of the archbishop of York, William, king of Scotland, was greatly delighted; and holding a council with the bishops, earls, and elders of his territories, sent Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, and Arnulph, abbat of Melrose, and other wise and discreet ecclesiastics of his kingdom to Rome, to Lucius, the Supreme Pontiff, in order that he might be absolved from the said sentence of excommunication, and that his lands might be released from the interdict, and in order that, if in any way it could be brought about, John, bishop of Saint Andrew's, might be deposed.
When word was brought to the king of England that the before-named archbishop had gone the way of all flesh, he sent his servants throughout all the archbishopric of York, giving orders that all of which the said archbishop in his illness had made distribution should be confiscated; which was accordingly 19 Charity rather, one would think.
done. For the entire devise, which in his illness he had made, was, by the king's command, rendered null and void; as our lord the king asserted that the before-named archbishop of York had pronounced an opinion in his lifetime that it was not lawful for any ecclesiastical person to make a devise except at a time before he was taken ill.
In the same year, count Stephen, the uncle of Philip, king of France, seized the lands of a certain person his neighbour, and withheld them by force, and did homage for them to Philip, earl of Flanders; on doing which, the king of France laid hands on them, and the earl of Flanders claimed restitutution thereof to be made to himself and earl Theobald; and the king of France, refusing to accede thereto, the earl of Flanders entered the territories of the king of France with a hostile hand, and ravaged them. In the same year, Hugh, earl of Chester, departed this life, and was succeeded in the earldom by his son Ranulph.
After the death of Roger, archbishop of York, our lord the king gave orders to his justices in England to make diligent inquisition as to the monies left by the before-named archbishop, and wherever such were discovered, in his name, to make demand thereof. In consequence of this, the said justices demanded of Hugh, bishop of Durham, three hundred marks of silver, which the said bishop had received out of the monies of the archbishop, for the purpose of distribution among the poor; on which he made answer to them:—"I distributed the three hundred marks of silver which you demand of me, during the lifetime of the archbishop who gave them to me, among the lepers, the blind, the lame, the dumb, and the rest of the necessitous, and in the repair of churches and bridges, for the salvation of his soul, according as he himself had ordered; therefore let him who wants them collect them, for by me they will never be collected." Accordingly, an answer of this nature exasperated the feelings of our lord the king beyond measure, so much so, that he ordered the castle of Durham to be seized in his name, in order that the bishop might be harassed by every kind of persecution.
In the year of grace 1182, being the twenty-eighth year of the reign of king Henry, son of the empress Matilda, the said king was at Winchester, in England, on the day of the Nativity of our Lord, which took place on the sixth day of the week. In the same year died the count of Zelders, who had married the eldest daughter of Matthew, earl of Boulogne; also the countess of Flanders, daughter of Ralph de Peronne, and wife of Philip, earl of Flanders. In the same year, Henry, king of England, the father, crossed over from England to Normandy, in consequence of the annoyances and vexations which his son king Henry was causing him. For, having gone with his wife to Philip, king of France, he was devising all the evils he possibly could to the detriment of the king, his father, contrary to good faith and the oaths of fealty which he had often taken to him; demanding of him, in conformity with the advice of Philip, king of France, his wife's brother, the whole of Normandy, or else some other part of his territories, in which he and his wife might take up their abode, and from which he might pay his knights and servants for their services. However, the Divine grace inspiring him so to do, he returned to his father, and swore that for the future he would not oppose his wishes or designs, or demand anything more of him than a hundred pounds of money Anjouin per day for his expenses, and ten pounds per day of the same money for his wife's expenses; in addition to which the king, the father, agreed with the king, his son, that in the same year he would give him the services of a hundred of his knights.
After this, the king, the father, held a conference, at which were present the king of France and the earl of Flanders; on which occasion an arrangement was made between them to the following effect; that the lands of which the earl of Flanders demanded restitution to be made to himself, should be restored to the knight who had lost them, and that the earl of Flanders should make good for the king of France the injuries that he and his people had done in France, with reference to the destruction by fire, and the booty that had been carried off. In addition to this, the said earl quitted claim to the king of France of the services of the count of Claremont, and delivered up to the king of France the city of Amiens with its appurtenances, and all the lands extending thence to the waters of the Lys after his own decease, together with his niece, the daughter of the earl of Hainault; and the said earl made confession that lawfully Peronne with its appurtenances was only in pledge to himself, and agreed that the king of France should have possession thereof for sixty thousand pounds of silver. At the same conference, the said earl of Flanders delivered into the possession of the king of England, the father, the agreement entered into in writing by the king his son, and released him and his brothers from all covenants made between them in the time of the war. In the same year, pope Lucius the Third ordained John Cumin priest, on the third day before the ides of March, at Veletri; and afterwards consecrated him archbishop of Dublin at the same place, on the sixth day before the calends of April, being Palm Sunday. In the same year, at the urgent request of the envoys of the king of Scotland, namely, Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, Arnold, abbat of Melrose, Osbert, abbat of Kelso," and Walter, prior of Saint Columba of the Isle, pope Lucius the Third absolved William king of Scotland from the sentence of excommunication, and his kingdom from the interdict, at the palace of the Lateran, at Rome, in presence of his cardinals, namely, Peter de Pavia, bishop of Tusculanum, the bishop of Praeneste, Albert, his chancellor, Jacinto, Hugesun, Peter de Bova, master Vivianus, Reiner the Great, Chinchechapel, Reiner the Little, Hardesrun, Hardewin, and Matthew of Anjou. After having so done, he delivered letters of absolution to the before-mentioned envoys of the king of Scotland, to the following effect:—
The letter of pope Lucius on the absolution of William, king of Scotland.
"Lucius, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his venerable brethren the bishops, and the abbats, clergy, and people throughout Scotland, health and the Apostolic benediction. Inasmuch as the Apostle has directed that deference shall be paid to kings as being of exalted station, it is worthy and consistent with reason that we should pay them the highest honor as our most dearly beloved sons, and, in performance of our duty to Saint Peter and the holy Church of Rome, give all attention to their just desires. And whereas we have heard that because our dearly beloved son in Christ, William, the illustrious king of the Scots, was inexorably opposed to the election and consecration of our venerable brother bishop John, by virtue of letters of pope Alexander, our predecessor, of holy memory, Roger, archbishop of York, of happy memory, and the before-named bishop pronounced sentence of excommunication against him and his realm, and certain persons in his kingdom. And whereas our venerable brother Jocelyn,
« Called "Kelron" in the text. The abbat is called "Kalkoensis" shortly after.
bishop of Glasgow, and our dearly beloved sons, Arnold, abbat of Melrose, Osbert, abbat of Kelso, and Walter, prior of Saint Columba of the Isle, after coming for the said purpose to the Apostolic See, have, by their declarations, made proof and shewn before us and our brethren that the sentence of excommunication pronounced by the said archbishop upon the king, and that of interdict upon his kingdom, and the sentence of excommunication pronounced by the said bishop upon certain persons of his kingdom, ought reasonably and upon numerous grounds to be set aside. Wherefore, paying due deference to the before-named king as our most dearly beloved son in Christ, we have, by the common consent of our brethren and with the Apostolic authority, remitted all the sentence which was pronounced by the before-named bishop22 for the cause before-mentioned, against him or his people, or his kingdom, and have enacted that he and his people shall not be held to be excommunicated, nor his kingdom to be under interdict, in consequence of our sentence above-written. Wherefore, we do by our precept, by these Apostolic writings, command the whole of you that you will in no way hesitate to treat with him as a Catholic king and as holding communion with the Apostolic See, but will rather in all things pay him the honor that is his due. For the more assured we feel of the sincerity of his duteousness to the churches and ecclesiastical persons of his realm, the more abundantly do we wish him to be honored in all things in which, with due respect to God, we can be honored. Given at Velletri, this sixteenth day before the calends of April."
In the same year, the king of England sent his envoys, namely, William de Mandeville, earl of Aumarle, and some other persons of his household, to Frederic, the emperor of the Romans, in order that, if possible, they might avert his anger and displeasure from Henry, duke of Saxony. Although this could not be fully brought about, the emperor granted to all who had chosen to depart with him, leave to return to their country. In addition to this, the said emperor granted to Matilda, duchess of Saxony, in consideration of the love he bore to the king of England, her father, permission to remain at perfect liberty and under his protection, and to enjoy all her dowry freely and quietly; and the emperor further agreed that, if she should prefer to go into exile with her lord, he
82 Bather "bishops," although the bishop elect alone was now surviving. It is singular that the bishop of Durham is not mentioned.