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The meek intelligence of those dear eyes,
(Blest be the art that can immortalize,
The art that baffles Time's tyrannic claim
To quench it,) here shines on me still the same.


Allegory, Antithesis, Allusion.

153. An ALLEGORY is a series of metaphors continued through an entire narration, and represents one subject by another which is analogous to it. The subject thus represented is not formally mentioned, but will be easily discovered by reflection.

Thus, the Psalmist represents the Jewish nation under the symbol of a vine;"Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt; thou hast cast out the heathen, and planted it. Thou prepared'st room before it, and didst cause it to take deep root, and it filled the land. The hills were covered with the shadow of it, and the boughs thereof were like the goodly cedars. It sent out its boughs unto the sea, and its branches unto the river. Why hast thou broken down its hedges, so that all they who pass by the way do pluck it? The boar out of the wood doth waste it, and the wild beast of the field doth devour it."

154. In an allegory, as well as in a metaphor, such terms only must be employed as are literally applicable to the representative subject; nor must any circumstance be added that is not strictly appropriate to this subject, however justly it may apply to the principal, either in a figurative or in a proper sense. Thus, if in the example just given, instead of describing the vine as wasted by the boar out of the wood and devoured by wild beasts, the Psalmist had said, that it was afflicted by heathens, or overcome by enemies, this would have destroyed the allegory, and produced the same confusion that has been remarked in those meta

phors in which the figurative and the literal sense are confounded together.

155. Allegories are the same as fables or parables, which, in ancient times, formed a favourite method of imparting instruction, and what is called the moral, is the simple meaning of the allegory.

156. An ANTITHESIS is the contrast or opposition between two different objects or qualities, that their difference may be rendered more apparent. This figure is mostly employed in the delineation of characters, particularly in biography, history, and satire. The following is an instance : "He can bribe, but he cannot seduce; he can buy, but he cannot gain; he can lie, but he cannot deceive."

157. When objects are compared or contrasted, the resemblance or the opposition must be denoted, not only by the words, but by the structure of the sentence.

a. Thus," A friend exaggerates a man's virtues, an enemy his crimes." Here, the actors and objects are contrasted; the verb exaggerates being common to both is expressed in the first clause and understood in the second.

b. "Between fame and true honour a distinction is to be made. The former is a blind and noisy applause; the latter a more silent and internal homage."

A continued succession of antitheses must be avoided, otherwise our expressions will appear too studied and laboured, conveying an impression that greater attention has been paid to the manner of saying a thing than to the thing itself.

158. An ALLUSION is a figure by which some word or phrase in a sentence recalls to our mind, either some well-known fact in history, or fable in mythology, or the sentiments of some distinguished writer. In all allusions, the subject alluded to should be readily perceived, otherwise a deeper shade will be cast on those objects which were intended, by this means, to be illuminated.

"A writer in the Edinburgh Review," to quote the words of Professor Newman, "thus remarks on the poetry of Milton :


Change the structure of the sentence; substitute one synonyme for another, and the whole effect is destroyed. The spell loses its power; and he who should then hope to conjure with it, would find himself as much mistaken as Cassim, in the Arabian tale, when he cried Open Wheat,' 'Open Barley,' to the door which obeyed no sound but' Open Sesame."" Here the allusion is to one of the popular plays of the day, and hence it is pleasing and easily understood.


159. Neatly transcribe the following Examples, underlining the words exemplifying the Figure, and subjoining to each Example a few Remarks tending to show the propriety of each :

1. Allegory;-Wise men ne'er sit and wail their loss,
But cheerly seek how to redress their harms.
What though the mast be now blown overboard,
The cable broke, the holding-anchor lost,
And half our sailors swallow'd in the flood?
Yet lives our pilot still. Is't meet that he
Should leave the helm, and, like a fearful lad,

With tearful eyes add water to the sea,

And give more strength to that which hath too much;
While in his moan the ship splits on the rock,

Which industry and courage might have sav'd.

2. Antitheses;-a. Alfred seemed born not only to defend his bleeding country, but even to adorn humanity.


b. Fame floats on the breath of the multitude; honour rests on the judgment of the thinking. Fame may give praise, while it withholds esteem; true honour implies esteem, mingled with respect.


c. Robertson sums up the character of Martin Luther in the following words:

"Zeal for what he regarded as truth, undaunted intrepidity to maintain his own system, abilities, both natural and acquired, to defend his principles, and unwearied industry in propagating them, are virtues which shine so conspicuously in every part of his behaviour, that even his enemies must allow him to have possessed them in a very eminent degree. To these may be added, such purity and even austerity of manners, as became one who assumed the character of a reformer; such sanctity of life as suited the doctrine which he delivered; and such perfect disinterestedness as affords no slight presumption of his sincerity."


d. How poor, how rich, how abject, how august,
How complicate, how wonderful, is man!
Midway from nothing to the Deity!

An heir of glory! a frail child of dust!
Helpless immortal! insect infinite!
A worm! a god! I tremble at myself,
And in myself am lost!


e. Two principles in human nature reign; Self-love to urge, and reason to restrain; Nor this a good, nor that a bad we call; Each works its end to move or govern all. Remarks.



160. An HYPÉRBŎLĚ is a figure that represents things as greater or less, better or worse, than they are in reality; thus, David, speaking of Saul and Jonathan, says, "They were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions."

161, a. Hyperbolical language is frequently the effect of passion; for, the passions, whether love, terror, amazement, indignation, anger, or grief, throw the mind into confusion, and exaggerate their objects. Hence,

hyperboles generally appear in tragedy during the storms of passion, or in the higher kinds of poetry and oratory.

b. An hyperbole should never be used in prose in the description of any thing ordinary or familiar; and when used, it should be expressed as briefly as possible. In instances, however, of humour and drollery, hyperboles are frequently introduced purposely to magnify or degrade the subject. In poetry, also, a greater latitude may be allowed than in prose, but even here, we should be on our guard lest the figure degenerate into bombast.

162. a. IRONY is a figure in which we utter the very reverse of what we intend should be understood, with a view to add force and pungency to our observations. Thus, when we style a thief, "A mighty honest fellow indeed," we speak ironically. The real sentiments of the speaker are evinced by the sneering accent, the air, the extravagance of the praise, contrasted with the wellknown character of the person or thing addressed.

b. This figure is generally employed in satirizing the vices and follies of mankind; for, those individuals on whose minds the soundest arguments would have no effect, are not proof against the poignancy of wit and raillery. We therefore find, that the most serious persons have, on proper occasions, had recourse to the use of this figure. Thus, the prophet Elijah, sneeringly challenges the priests of Baal to prove the truth of their deity in these words, "Cry aloud: for he is a god; either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is on a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked."

163. Sarcasm, a kind of irony, is a keen satirical expression, intended to insult and mortify a person; thus, The Jews, when they derided Christ, insultingly said, "He saved others; himself he cannot save.


164. Paralepsis or omission is a figure by which we pretend to omit what we are really desirous of enforcing; as, "Your idleness, not to mention your impertinence and dishonesty, disqualifies you for the situation."

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