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The city contained in 1820, 3,939 inhabitants. Utica is situated on the south bank of the Mohawk, 93 miles W. N. W. of Albany. It is handsomely laid nut in streets and squares, and contained in 1820, 2,972 inhabitants. This village is the central point where the principal turnpikes from various parts of the state unite, and is a thoroughfare of the travel between a large section of the western country and the Atlantic ports. The Erie canal also passes through it and will add to its commercial importance, Roine, on the Mohawk, 15 miles N. W. of Utica, is a place of considerable business. Plattsburgh is op lake Champlain, at the mouth of Saranac riv
In the bay before this town the American fleet under Commodore M'Donough captured a British fleet of superior force on the 11th Sept. 1814, Ogdensburg is 116 miles north of Utica, at the confluence of the Oswegatchie with the St. Lawrence. It has a safe and spacious harbor and is well situated for (rade.
Sacket's Harbor is on Black river bay, a branch of Hungry bay, at the east end of lake Ontario. The harbor is perhaps the best on the lake. It is well situated both for shelter and defence, and is sufficiently deep for the largest vessels. Here are several ships of war, built during the late war, and among them two ships of the line of the first rate. Buffalo is situated at the mouth of Buffalo creek, which discharges itself into Niagara river, just at the point where it leaves lake Erie. It has considerable trade, being situated on the best channel of intercourse between the Atlantic and the regions of the west. It has suffered hitherto for want of a good harbor, Buffalo creek being ob. structed at its mouth by sand and gravel driven in by the wind. Black Rock, on Niagara river, 2 miles below Buffalo, is at present the station for the steam boats and other vessels employed in the navigation of lake Erie.
Auburn, the capital of Cayoga county, is situated at the outlet of Owasco lake, 170 miles west of Albany, on the great western turnpike. It has numerous mills and manufactories, and a state prison large enough to contain 1,000 prisoners. A Presbyterian Theological seminary has been lately established here. Genova is a beautiful and flourishing town on the west side of Seneca lake pear its outlet.
Canals.) For several years past the state has been engaged in the improvement of its inland navigation, on a scale never before witnessed in this country, and with an energy and liberality which excite universal admiration. A grand capal is now in progress, which will open a water communication from Hudson river to lake Erie, and another is already completed, uniting the same river with lake Champlain.
The Erie canal, when completed, will be 350 miles long. The route is as follows: Beginning at Albany, op the Hud-on, it passes up the west bank of that river nearly to the mouth of the Mohawk; then along the south bank of the Mohawk, througla the counties of Albany, Schenectady, Montgomery, Herkimer and Oneida to Rome. From Rome it proceeds in a S. W. direc
tinn, and crosses Oneida creek into Madison county, where it
The capal is 40 feet wide on the surface, 28 at the bottom, and 4 feet deep It was estimated by the commissioners in 1817 ibat the whole expense would be $4,881,733, viz: the western section $1,856,862; the middle section, $853,186 ; the eastern section, $2,196,690 ; and general expenses, $75,000. The canal was commenced on the 4th of July 1817, and the commissioners anticipate its entire completion before the close of the year 1823
Among the benefits of this grand enterprise, it is expected, tbat besides furnishing an ontlet for the agricultural produce of vast aod fertile regions, salt may be supplied to the Atlantic states from the great salt works at Salina, cheaper than from abroad. In the progress of the canal also, gypsum of the best quality bas been discovered, and in sufficient quantities for the supply of the whole United States.
The Champlain canal is 20 miles long, from Whitehall at the mouth of Wood creek, on lake Champlain, to Fort Edward on the Hudson. It is 40 feet wide at the surface, 28 at the bottom, and 4 feet deep. The locks are 90 feet long, and 14 feet wide in the clear. The descent from the summit level to lake Champlain is 54 feet, and from the summit level to the Hudson, 30 feet. The expense was about $260,000. The canal was opened in the summer of 1820, and though the navigation was interrupted for three months, copsiderable quantities of Inmher passed through it. By means of dams, lucks and other improvements, a good boat navigation has been opened on the Hudson, from Fort Edward as far down as Saratoga falls. At Saratoga falls a canal was
commenced in 1820, which is to extend along the west bank of the Hudson to Waterford, at the mouth of the Mohawk, a distance of 27 miles. The whole expense of continuing the Champlain canal from Fort Edward to Waterford, was originally estimated at $621,000, but from a more minute examination of the country, and the discovery of unexpected facilities, the estimate is now reduced to $400,000. It is expected that the wbole will be completed, and a navigation opened from lake Champlain to the tide waters of the Hudson in 1822. Plans have been recently submitted to the legislature of the state for improving the navigation of the Hudson below the head of tide waters, so as to : admit of the ascent of ships 10 Albany,
At Rome there is a canal, one mile and an half long, connecting Mohawk river with Wood creek, and opening a communication through this creek, Oneida lake, and Oswego river, into lake Ontario.
Education.) Columbia college, formerly called King's college, in the city of New-York, was established in 1754. It has a presa ident, 5 professors, 140 students, a library of 3,000 or 4,000 volumes, a valuable philosophical apparatus, and an annual reyenue of more than $4,000. A Faculty of medicine was formerly attached to the institution, but in 1814 it was separated from it.
Union college, in Schenectady, was incorporated in 1794, and is a very flourishing institution. The college edifices are finely situated on an elevated spot of ground, and contain accomodations for more than 200 students. The philosophical apparatus is respectable. The library contains about 5,000 volumes. The officers in 1820 were a president, 4 professors, and 2 tutors. The number of students at the same period was 245.
Hamilton college, situated near the village of Clinton, 10 miles W. Ş. W. of Utica, was incorporated in 1812, and has been liberally patronised by the legislature and by individuals. It has a president, 3 professors, 2 tutors, a library of about 2,000 polumes, and 100 students. The college buildings are about a mile west of the village, on a high hill, commanding a very extensive prospect.
A college of Physicans and Surgeons was establised in the city of New-York in 1807, and in 1814 the Faculty of Medicine which was formerly attached to Columbia college, was united with it. Thus united, the college of Physicans bas 7 professors, and is one of the most respctable and flourishing medical institutions in the country. The Elgin Botanic garden is attached to this institution.
'The Common School sund consisted in 1822 of $1,139,130 and 25,000 acres of land. It yields annually the sum of $77,417, which is appropriated to the support of common schools, and it appears from the report of the Superintendant in 1820, that nine tenths of all the children in the state between 5 apd 15 years of age received instruction. Besides the common schools and the colleges, there are 40 or 50 incorporated academies in the state. All these institutions are under the superintendance of a body of
literary men, called “ the Regents of the University of NewYork." The Regents are appointed by the legislature, and it is their duty to visit the colleges, academies and schools ; to inspect the system of education, and make yearly report thereof to the legislature; to incorporate colleges and academies, and also to distribute among these institutions the income of a fund appropriated by the legislature to the encouragement of literature. The Literature fund amounted in 1822 to $99.535, and yielded an income of $5,142.
Religion.] The denominations of Christians in this state are Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Associate Reformed Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Baptists, Methodists, Friends, German Lutherans, German Calvinists, Moravians, Catholics and Shakers. Religion is not supported by law. All denominations are left at liberty to support their own ministry in such way as is most agreeable to them.
Government.] The Legislature consists of a Senate of 32 members, and of a House of Representatives, who may not exceed 150. The state is divided into four great districts for the choice of Senators. They hold their seats for four years, and one fourth part is elected every year. The Representatives are chosen annually by counties. The Governor and Lieut. Governor are elected for three years. A Council of Appointment, consisting of the Governor and a Senator from each of the four great districts, is chosen annually by the Legislature. The number of officers annually appointed by this Council is enormous; embracing most of the subordinate officers of the state.
Population. The population of New York has increased with astonishing rapidity for the last 70 years. In 1756 it was 110,317; İB 1790, 340,120 ; in 1800, 586,050 ; in 1810, 959,049; and in 1820, 1,372,812, of whom 10,088 were slaves and 29,289 free blacks. The whole population has thus more than quadrupled within the last 30 years. The Dutch were the original selilers of the state, and their descendants constitute still a respectable portion of the population ; but probably two thirds of the present inhabitants are emigrants from New-Eogland or their immediate descendants. Next to the New Englanders and the Dutch, are the English, Irish, Scotch and French.
Indians. There are about 5,000 Indians in this state. They are principally the remains of the Iroquois or Six Nations, a powerful confederacy of Indians, whu formerly occupied a great part of the state. The names of the tribes are, Mobawks, Senecas, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Tuscaroras. The Mohawks live at present on Grand river in Upper Canada; the Senecas, on Genesee river, Alleghany river, Buffalo creek, and other places in the western part of the state ; the Oneidas, at Oneida castle, near Oneida lake; the Onondagas, principally at Onondaga village, near the lake of the same name, and the Cayugas near Buffalo; and the Tuscaroras, at a village a few miles south of Oneida castle. The Stockbridge Indians, about 400 in number, live in a place called New Stockbridge, 7 miles S. of Oneida castle.
Revenue and Debt.] The expenses of the canals are defrayed from monies obtained on loan. For the payment of the interest, a canal fund is provided, consisting of auction duties, duties on salt, canal tolls, and 5,000 dollars as a commutation for a tax on steam boat passengers ; all of which together yield at present about $200,000 annually. The general fund of the state, exclusive of the school fund, the canal fuod and the literature fund, amounts to $3,077,857, principally in bank stock, and bonds and mortgages. T'he revenue for the year 1822, was estimated at $469,928. Independently of the general fund, the state owns nearly $1,000,000 acres of land. The public debt, besides the canal debt, amounts to $1,280,000, for which a yearly interest of $76,800 is paid.
Commerce and Manufactures. The exports consist principally of pot and pearl ashes, wheat, lodian corn, rye, beef, pork, and lumber. Their value, in 1816, was $19,690,031; in 1820, $13,163,244, about one third of which was foreign produce. The exports from New York exceed those of any other state in the Union, and 1815 it paid more than one third of the revenue of the United States, and more than twice as much as any other state. In amount of shipping it is surpassed only by Massachusetts, and in the value of manufactures only by Pennsylvania. The value of the manufactures, in 1810, was $25,370.289 ; the amount of shipping, in 1815, 309,290 tons; and the revenue paid in 1815, $14,491,739.
Islands. ] Long island extends in an easterly direction from the city of New-York, 140 miles in length. Its arerage breadth is 10, and the area is estimated at 1,400 square miles. The eastern end of the island is indented by a deep bay, and the most eastern point is a cape, well known to mariners, called Montauk point. The north side of the island is rough and hilly, but the soil is well calculated for raising grain, hay and fruit. The south side lies low, and has a light, sandy soil, but is well adapted to Indian corn and various kinds of grain : on the sea-coast are extensive tracts of salt meadow. The island is divided into three counties, King's, Queen's and Suffolk. King's county, at the west end of the island, is inhabited chiefly by the Dutch. This county and the western part of Queen's have been rendered fertile and productive hy husbandry. The greater part of Suffolk has a ihin soil, yet it is well furnished with wood, and large quantities of this article are sent to the New-York market. Along the south side of the island for 100 miles, there is a narrow beach of sand and stones, between which and the shore is a long narrow bay, 3 miles broad in the widest places. There are various inlels through the heach, which admit vessels of 60 or 70 10ns.
Staten island forms the county of Richmond. It is 14 miles long and 8 broad, and lies 9 miles S, W. of New York city. It is separated from Long Island by the Narrows, and from the Jersey shore by a narrow strait called Staten island sound. New-York bay is on the N. E. and Amboy bay on the south.
Grand island, in Niagara river, is 12 miles long and from 2 to 7 bread, and contains 48,000 acres. It commences three miles