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gress was dissolved, Torre Tagle deposed, and Bolivar proclaimed Dictator. The Colombian forces in Peru amounted to 950) men. The Peruvians, under La Mar, were rather more than 3000. The total amount of the Spanish forces in Peru is not 13,000 men, and they are widely scattered over that immense country. The head-quarters of La Serna were at Cusco, where he had only 500 men. Canterac was at Tarija with 4500; Valdez at Arequipa with 4000; Olaneta had 2000 under him; and there were at Ica 1600. Such are the details of the last advices from Lima, and so far they are more favourable to the Royalists than to the Patriots.
BUENOS AYRES.-Whatever may be the state of things in Peru, there are some facts communicated from other parts of America, which, taken together, seem to contain materials of gratifying interest. Among these may especially be mentioned the friendly reception of the British consul, Mr Woodbine Parish, by Don B. Rivadivia, minister of Foreign Affairs for the republic. Mr Parish, on the following day, presented Mr Rowcroft,
consul to Peru, who was to go to his des tination over land. One of the first fruits of Mr Parish's establishment at Buenos Ayres has been a regulation for the more easy communications of the packets. The captains are allowed to land the mails without waiting for the visit of the portofficer. The postage is reduced onethird. The consul-general is allowed a box in his office for the receipt of British letters, which he may deliver to the captains without the intervention of the general post-office. The British packets are exempted from port duties. A mail is to be dispatched for Chili three days after the arrival of a packet, and is to convey the dispatches to the public agents of the King of England in Chili and Peru free of expence, the consul-general at Buenos Ayres putting them into a separate bag, and sealing it. On the 1st of April, Don Juan G. de las Heras was elected Governor, by twenty-six votes out of thirty-six. It was said that the Charge des Affaires of Colombia was authorised to negotiate a loan at Buenos Ayres for Peru, of 3 or 500,000 piastres, under the guarantee of General Bolivar.
PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT.
HOUSE OF LORDS.-April 2.-The Marquis of Lansdowne moved the second reading of the Bill permitting the celebration of Marriages between Unitarians, by their own Minister, and in their own Chapels. The Archbishop of Canterbury voted for the second reading, with the understanding that the bill should be open to modification in the Committee. He voted for it, because he was willing to - concede, whatever was reasonable to the scruples of the Unitarians. The Lord Chancellor opposed the motion, because, if the principle were recognised in this case, indulgence must be extended to all other sectarians, and a beginning would be thus made to the utter subversion of the Established Church. The Earl of Liverpool objected to the Bill in its present shape, because it went to permit marriages, celebrated according to its particular forms, where one of the parties might be a Member of the Established Church. The Bishop of Chester detailed at some length the particular passages of the Matrimonial Liturgy, which were said to offend the consciences of the Unitarians; and, in doing so, demonstrated the utter futility of the scruples which were the groundwork of the Bill before the House. He objected to the measure, not only as
diminishing the emoluments of the Estab lished Clergy (to a serious extent in populous towns), but as severing a very endearing connection between them and the Dissenters among their parishioners. The Earl of Harrowby and Lord Calthorpe defended the Bill. The Bishop of London, in voting that the Bill should go to a Committee, did not pledge himself to give it any farther support. Lord Holland supported the Bill. The House divided on the second reading, which was carried by a majority of 2.
April 5.-The Silk Duties Bill weat through the Committee, and was reported without any amendment. Petitions against it were presented by the Lord Chancellor from two silk-weaving districts in London, expressive of the fears of the petitioners, that the value of houses and other property in those places would be greatly deteriorated, in consequence of the injury which the bill is calculated to inflict on the numerous population engaged in the silk manufacture.
6. The Silk Duties Bill was read a third time and passed.
8.-State of Ireland. The Earl of Darnley, pursuant to notice, moved for the appointment of a Committee, to inquire how far the measures lately adopted
division, the motion was rejected by a majority of 57 to 17.
9. The presentation of some petitions produced a short conversation upon the suppression of the Freemason lodges in Ireland, effected by the Secret Society Bill of last Session. The opinion of the Lords who spoke, (the Earl of Liverpool and the Marquis of Lansdowne,) seemed to be, that the hardship imposed upon the Free
for the relief and benefit of Ireland had succeeded; and also to consider what measures would be necessary to remedy the existing evils in that kingdom. The noble Earl introduced his motion in a long speech, in which, besides the other topics usually employed upon the subject, he confessed the cruelty and tyranny of England, impeached the administration of justice in Ireland, condemned the police bill, complained of the church establishment, urged the necessity of catholic emancipation, and professed his compassionate respect for the well-disposed but inefficient government in the sister kingdom. The Earl of Liverpool, without disputing the unjust and selfish policy formerly observed towards Ireland, vindicated the present generation of Englishmen from any participation in it, and recited a vast number of generous conces sions, which, since the commencement of the late King's reign, had been made for the benefit of Ireland. He maintained that the present depression of that kingdom was wholly unconnected with the disqualification of the Catholics; and opposed all the arguments upon that subject, drawn from the analogy of other States, by observing, that in Ireland alone was the religious division of the people-accompanied by a parallel division of property, intelligence, and manners. In Ireland, it was notorious that the great bulk of the property, and all the qualifications naturally associated with property, belonged to the Protestants. Much of the suffering of Ireland he ascribed to a premature introduction of the English constitution; but for the omission of one part of the English code-the Poor Laws -he avowed his regret. He professed to hope the best results from the extension of Christian education; but begged to remind the House, that in the nature of things this result could not be very speedily felt. In conclusion, he opposed the motion. The Marquis of Lansdowne spoke at considerable length in support of the motion. The Earl of Limerick earnestly deprecated the introduction of poor rates into Ireland, He said the effect of such a measure would be, to make of the Irish peasantry six millions of beggars; because no Irishman, who could live idly, would work. The Marquis of Downshire, the Earl of Carnarvon, and Lord Clifden, supported the motion. The Earls of Carberry, Mayo, and Roden, opposed it ; the last, in a speech of some length, gave a most gratifying description of the recent progress of education in Ireland. On a
masons was unavoidable.
12. The Marquis of Lansdowne brought in a Bill to enable the English Roman Catholics to vote for the election of Members of Parliament, and to give them the same right of suffrage as enjoyed by the Catholics of Ireland.
13-Lord Bathurst moved the second reading of a Bill to regulate the administration of justice in Newfoundland. The principal provisions of the measure are the enlargement of the Supreme Court by two additional Judges, the appointment of Circuit Courts, and the restoration of the Trial by Jury. The motion was unanimously agreed to.
15. The Bishop of Limerick read a letter of some length from the Archbishop of Dublin, in which his Grace, in allusion to the observations made upon his conduct in the debates upon the Irish Sepulture Bill, denied, in the most distinct and positive manner, that he had ever given any orders, or advice, or intimation of an opinion, on the subject of the performance of the Catholic funeral ceremonies in Protestant church-yards, up to the time when he was accused of having interdicted such celebrations, at which time he was in England. The letter went on to say, that the practice lately attempted by the Catholics was wholly an innovation; no such celebration, according to the experience of all the Protestant Clergy in Dublin, having occurred during forty years. In conclusion, the Archbishop's letter explained, that, when consulted by his Clergy, after the matter had been so angrily agitated, his advice had uniformly been, to abstain from every thing like a forcible resistance to the Catholic Clergy, and to rest contented with a protest against the illegal invasion of the rights of the Protestant church. Before he sat down, the Bishop of Limerick pronounced a glowing and well-merited panegyric upon the learning, genius, and Christian temper of the most reverend prelate (Dr Magee.)
The House adjourned to the 28th of April, when it re-assembled. On that and the two following days there was no im. portant business before the House.
11.-HIGH COURT OF JUSTICIARY. -The Court this day proceeded to the trial of Alexander Guthrie, quarrier, in the parish of Pentcaitland, East Lo thian, accused of the murder of James Newton, who had been in his employment as a labourer. Guthrie pleaded Not Guilty. It appeared from the evidence, that Guthrie and Newton, with four other quarrymen, had gone to the prisoner's house on the evening of Mon. day the 9th of February last, where they drank whisky till a pretty late hour, when the party broke up, leaving Newton and Guthrie together in the house. At that time there had been no quarrel betwixt them. Guthrie's mother also left the house, and went with a neighbour, Mrs Gowans, in whose house she stopped all night. In the course of the night, Mrs Guthrie becoming uneasy, requested Mrs Gowans's daughter to go to her son's house, and see what was going on. She went accordingly, and finding the window of the room open, went in by it, and saw a man, whom she supposed to be Guthrie, lying on the bed, and Newton lying on the kitchen floor, with his head cut, and the floor strewed with fragments of broken bottles, and covered with blood, vomitings, and other filth. Upon receiving this information, Mrs Guthrie, with her neigh bour, Mrs Gowans, returned to the house. They immediately awoke Guthrie, who seemed astonished and sorry at the situation of Newton, and declared he knew no more of it than the dead in the grave. Newton's wound was washed and dressed, and he was put to bed, in which Guthrie assisted. Newton died two days after. The only circumstance which could attach suspicion to Guthrie, was, that his trowsers were stained with blood about the legs; but this was accounted for by Mrs Gowans, who stated, that while she swept the blood and filth from the floor towards the hearth, Guthrie was sitting by the fire; and that from the state of the floor no one could walk on it without having their shoes soiled with blood. All the witnesses, on their crossexamination, gave Guthrie a good character, and deponed to his bearing no illwill to Newton; but, on the contrary, they had heard him speak frequently in praise of him as a servant. Mr Lloyd, superintendant of police for the county of Haddington, had examined Guthrie's
house, and found the door of the kitchen much shattered, and also the outer window-shutter split, seemingly by a blow from the outside. Mr M'Neill said, that he did not, under these circumstances, feel himself warranted in asking a verdict against the prisoner, and he there. fore gave up the case. The Jury returned a verdict of Not Guilty; and Guthrie, after a solemn advice to abstain from the use of spirits, was dismissed from the bar.
The next case was that of Alexander M'Farlane. The indictment charged him with having, on the 16th of February last, stolen from the shop of Richard Allan, grocer in the Potter-row, a kit of butter; and, when apprehended a few hours after, of having, in the Park-Place watch-house, seized a pair of large iron tongs, with which he assaulted James Stirling, grocer in the Potterrow, who kad assisted in his apprehension, and struck him a dreadful blow on the head, by which his life was endangered. M Farlane pleaded Guilty of the assault, but Not Guilty of the theft, and the Jury having found him Guilty accordingly, he was sentenced to a year's hard labour in Bridewell, and farther till he find security in 500 merks to keep the peace for three years.
Benjamin Ross, shoemaker in the Lawn-market of Edinburgh, who had been out on bail, now appeared at the bar, to answer to a charge of assaulting, striking, and wounding Jean Williams, or Ross, his wife. He pleaded Not Guilty. His wife stated, that he had frequently abused and hurt her; but on the night of the 31st December last, they had some words, and Ross lifted the tongs and struck her on the temple with them, to the effusion of her blood. She went to a neighbour's house, and by his advice returned, and, having washed the blood from her face, went to bed with her husband. Next morning, being un. able to rise, she refused when her husband commanded her to do so; and he then struck her with a large ellwand across the legs; and afterwards, when she got up and said, "Benjy, you're surely not going to murder me!" he struck her on the left side of the head, knocked her down, and cut her. As soon as she was able to rise, she went up stairs in her shift to a neighbour's, who wrapped a covering over her, and went for a sur geon. She was afterwards twelve days
throw upon the more prominent ground on which it first attracted the attention and indignation of mankind. But it will finally be effectually suppressed; for after its discomfiture on the great public stage, every succeeding defeat within its weaker entrenchments must hasten, with tenfold force, the great catastrophe. The insolence of office must be acknowledged to be something more than an injury which affects only the feelings of the mind: it is a component part of a general system of positive wrong and oppression,of a deprivation of right, as it affects both the happiness and fortunes of the injured party. It is never dispensed but by the vile and unfeeling, -it is never inflicted but upon the helpless victims of misdirected power. It is, therefore, of that class of evils which it is an especial effect of an advanced stage of civilization to overthrow.
trollers, secretaries, the middle men between the great lords of office and the inferior workmen,-are still in possession of inordinate, but concealed, unobserved power: their respective departments are kept in expensive disorder, in subservience to their interested purposes; unnecessary business is designedly in constant course of accumulation; and as an inevit able consequence of a practice having its foundation in fraud and deceit, pride, partiality, and cupidity are engendered and encouraged, making altogether that complicated description of grievance denominated the "insolence of office." Where an abuse so deteriorative of public economy still subsists, after all the bustle and parade it has from time to time created, sufficient proof is shewn of the peculiar inadequacy of the means by which it has hitherto been attempted to be destroyed. The fact is, Parliamentary inquiries, upon matters of this nature, conducted, as they too frequently are, under the controul of a machinery impervious to the public eye, are altogether fruitless of good effects, and only serve to perpetuate the old system of deception and mismanagement. But it is impossible long to delude an enlightened age by expedients as shallow as they are iniquitous: a better day must at length arrive,—one less notorious for what in vulgar parlance is called political humbug, more sincerely favourable to improvement; and perhaps no surer means can be devised of hastening its introduction, than frequent and seasonable appeals to the Press, which are never entirely destitute of utility, even when they appear in the slight form of desultory Essays, of which the present is a feeble and unworthy example.
Having predicted the eventual decline of a species of wrong so hard to be assailed, because so generally overlooked, we are, in conclusion, to advert to the means by which that effect is to be accomplished. The Press will take the lead in this as in other salutary improvements; but its full attainment must be preced ed by a complete reformation of the mode of conducting the public business. After all the multifarious discussions upon the subject of official abuses, it is astonishing how lit tle has in reality been hitherto done towards this end: mismanagement of the grossest kind still prevails throughout the various departments; and there has not even an approxima tion been made towards an enlight ened system of official economy and regulation. Commissioners, comp
WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.
Speedily will be published, an Account of the Royal Hospital and Collegiate Church of St. Katharine, near the Tower of London, by J. B. Nichols, F.S.A. F.L.S.
The Second Part of the Modern History of Wiltshire, containing the Hundred of Heytesbury, by Sir R. C. Hoare, Bart. is printing.
The Czar, an historical tragedy, by J. Cradock, Esq. M.A. F.S.A. formerly of Gumley, in Leicestershire, will appear in a few days.
A Selection of the most remarkable Trials and Criminal Causes is printing, in five volumes. It will include all famous cases, from that of Lord Cobham, in the reign of Henry the Fifth, to that of John Thurtell; and those connected with foreign as well as English jurisprudence.
Shortly will be published, a Grammar of the Coptic or Ancient Egyptian Language, by the Rev H. Tattam, A.M. F.R.S.L. chaplain to the English Church at Amsterdam.
A Supplement to the London Catalogue of Books, published since October 1822 to the present time, will appear about August.
The Rev. T. Arnold, M. A. late fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, has been for many years employed in writing a History of Rome, from the earliest Times to the Death of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. The first volume, from the Rise of the Roman State to the formation of the second Triunvirate, A.U.C. 710, B.C. 44, will soon be published.
The Butterfly-Collector's Vade Mecum, or a Synoptical Table of English Butterflies, illustrated with coloured plates, in a pocket volume, is in the press.
Shortly will be published, in two volumes, uniforın with the French Classics, and with an authentic portrait of M. Jouy, engraved by E. Scriven, Le Petit Hermite, ou Tableau des Maurs Parisiennes, extracted from "L'Hermite de la Chaussé d'Antin,' "Le Franc-parleur," "L'Hermite de la Guïane," and "L'Hermite en Prison," with explanatory notes, and an essay on the life and writings of M. Jouy, by L. T. Ventouillac, editor of the " Choix de Classiques Français."
A Diagram illustrative of the Formation of the Human Character, suggested by Mr Owen's development of a new view of society, will speedily be published.
Dr Forbes, of Chichester, will shortly publish his Translation of Avenbrugger, and a series of original cases and dissections, illustrating the utility of the Stethoscope and Percussion.
M. Laennec is preparing for publica. tion, a new edition of his celebrated Treatise on Mediate Auscultation, with considerable alterations and improvements. In consequence, Dr Forbes has postponed the second edition of his translation.
Speedily will be published, an Enquiry into the Duties and Perplexities of Medical Men as Witnesses in Courts of Justice, with cautions and directions for their guidance, by J. G. Smith, M.D.
The Scotsman's Library, announced in a former Number, will be ready in August.
The Mechanic's Oracle, or Artizan's complete Laboratory and Workshop, is in the press.
The Hermit in Italy, or Observations on the Manners and Customs of the Italians at the Commencement of the Nineteenth Century, will soon appear.
A Chronological History of the West Indies is announced, by Capt. Thomas Southey, commander, Royal Navy, in three volumes, octavo.
A Compendium of Medical Theory and Practice, founded on Dr Cullen's Nosology, which will be given as a Text-book, and a translation annexed, is in preparation, by D. Uwins, M.D.
Tales of a Traveller, by the Author of the "Sketch Book," and "Knickerbocker's New York," will appear in a few days.
A Tale of Paraguay, by R. Southey, LL.D. &c. is announced.