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THE

us.

1864.]
Military Schools.

115 United States proved recreant to their AMERICAN

trusts, false to their oaths, and treasonable to their government.

The nation for a EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY. time stood aghast at the spectacle of their

wholesale perfidy and their monstrous

crimes. Several of the rebellious States, APRIL, 1864.

who had long meditated and been prepar

ing for the disruption of the Union, had MILITARY Schools.

established and were liberally supporting VE war for the Union has thoroughly military schools; and hence, at the out

awakened the nation from its fasci- break of the war, they enjoyed a vast adnating dream of eternal peace. Its advent vantage in the number and superiority of found us thoroughly unprepared for its their officers for the various branches of stern realities, save in the possession of their military service. unbounded resources of crude and unde- The experience of the last three years, veloped material. We had millions of however, seems likely to be instructive to brave men, but they were untrained to We are arousing to the consciousness the discipline of arms. We had inexhaust- of our great needs, and providing for the ible supplies of iron, but it must be forged more than possible exigencies of our still into swords and guns. Our granaries were greater future. The subject of military groaning under the weight of food for man instruction is already engaging a liberal and beast. Our forests were dark with share of public attention. We need no the shade of the oak and pine, but these greater evidence of this, than is afforded must be turned into ships. In short, we by the numerous attempts to organize priwere almost paralyzed with the conscious- vate military schools, and to teach a smatness of our utter unreadiness for the clash tering of military tactics in our existing of contending hosts on the field of mortal institutions of various grades. These efcombat.

forts are praiseworthy, as indicating the But we have learned a lesson which we right intention, and they may serve a temshall not soon forget. We have been porarily useful purpose as far as they go. taught that the surest guarantee for the But they are totally inadequate to produce reign of peace, is a state of perpetual read- the results desired. A knowledge of taciness for the unrest of war. We are ad

tics is but a small part of the needful acmonished that here, too, an ounce of pre- quirements of a true soldier, and these semivention is better than a pound of cure. military schools can impart only a limited

In no one respect was our utter unreadi- and comparatively superficial amount of ness for the great struggle more apparent this particular kind of information. In than in that of trained soldiers-men com

numerous experiments which have come petent to command the hosts marshalled

under our observation, it has been proved, for the defense of liberty and union-men that while only a superficial training in whose military skill, penetration, and forc- tactics is secured, the pseudo cadets soon sight, qualified them to transform peaceful lose all interest in the dull repetition of citizens into disciplined soldiers, and lead the mere routine-drill of the squad and them against the enemies of public law and the company. In these cases, too, the human freedom. We had but one national showy uniforms, the dress-parades, and, in military school. That had been for years general, the holiday soldiering, practice of under the insidious influence of the plotters the classes, without the checks and balagainst national life, and hence a large pro- ances of actual military discipline, generportion of its graduates in the Army of the ated a spirit of insubordination and imper

tinence, for which the skill im maneuver problem referred to is comparatively siming furnished no adequate compensating ple, and the conditions of its proper soluadvantages. We do not want such sol- tion are direct and easy of fulfillment. diers. We have enough of that sort al- A very able and timely discussion of this ready; and these half-way military schools subject, is presented in “ A Report upon a and exercises are calculated to increase Plan for the organization of Colleges for rather than to abate the evil. This subject Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, with will be further discussed hereafter.

especial reference to the organization of the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania,"

in view of the endowment of this InstituINDUSTRIAL COLLEGES.

tion by the land grant fund donated by

Congress.
To
VHE recent action of Congress, looking

This Report is from the pen of the PresStates of institutions for instruction in Agri- is addressed to its Board of Trustees. We

ident of the Faculty of that Institution, and culture, and the applications of science to certainly commend it to the careful con-. the mechanic arts, will result in bringing sideration of all who are interested in the the question of industrial education promi- organization of these institutions about to nently before the American people, and

be established in so many different States. eventually in supplying a great want in the

The Report sets out with a statistical material enterprises of the country. This table, showing the educational resources want is that of highly educated men as of eighteen of the more prominent Amerispecialists, to lead in the development of

can literary colleges, with a view to deour resources as a producing, manufac- monstrate that very liberal endowments turing, and commercial people. Sixteen are indispensable to the production of great States having accepted the Congressional educational advantages. For example: grants, and hence incurred the accompany- New York University requires an endowing obligation to organize the institutions ment of $250,000, to afford the services of contemplated by the act, the subject has 36 Professors, and the aid of 10,000 volalready assumed a degree of importance umes, to 488 students; its annual income that justifies the earnest and enlightened being $14,011.' Columbia College, with attention of the thoughtful friends of edu- an endowment of $1,650,666, affords the cational progress in the United States. services of 48 Professors, and the use of

The problem of the hour in reference to 18,000 volumes, to 689 students, at an anthis matter, is, as to what shall be the plan nual expense of $79,269. Harvard Univerof organization and course of instruction sity requires an endowment of $1,613,884, in the proposed institutions. The entire with an annual expenditure of $153,431, question of their success or failure, turns to give to 833 students the benefit of 56 upon the solution to be given to this prob- Professors and 149,000 volumes. The lem. But the plan of organization and bearing of these facts upon the necessity course of study, must somewhat depend of preserving the unity and integrity of upon the particular form which the insti- the land-grant fund, is too obvious to retution shall take. If it be an appendage quire comment. To those who are not to some other establishment, whose aims familiar with expenses involved in carryare different, its organization and curricu- ing on first-class institutions, these figures lum must be modified to suit these circum- will be surprising. And they will be still stances. If, on the contrary, it is to be more surprised to learn that some of these established upon an independent basis, and seats of learning are actually running into with special reference only to its peculiar debt annually, by reason of the excess of oljects, secondary to no other aims, the their expenses over their incomes.

SUS

1864.] Business.

117 We regret that our space will not per- recognizes the existence of a class of beings mit us to give, at this time, an intelligible belonging to the genus homo, which, in synopsis of this valuable Report. We shall common parlance, are denominated bores; endeavor to do so hereafter. It proceeds and it was especially designed to operate to consider “the resources required as a gentle check upon their remorseless tain Agricultural and Industrial Colleges," depredations. Business men know and arriving at the conclusion that an extensive feel the value of time. They are made to system of industrial education, “ embracing know and feel it, through the stern teachthe entire range of the Natural and Physi- ings of experience, and they are compelled cal Sciences, can be efficiently carried out per force to act upon their convictions. A only on a large and liberal plan, supported fortune may be lost or won through the by endowments equal to those of the best negligence or diligence of one brief hour. Educational Colleges in the country.” An A credit, which it has required years of elaborate plan for the organization of this

earnest effort and unremitting toil to esclass of colleges is then presented, includ- tablish, may be ruined by the loss of a sining the college-buildings, apparatus, mu

gle minute on the way to the bankingseums, library, etc., and a consideration of house. A policy of insurance expires. Its the Course of Study, Professorships, Assist

renewal is postponed until tomorrow. ants, and other officers, with detailed es

The devouring flames of the intervening timates of the expenses attending the ad- night swallow up the hard-earned treasures ministration of an Institution of 400 Stu- of a laborious lifetime. Hence the value dents, 16 Professors, 10 Assistants, and a

of time; and hence, too, the keen appreciaFarm-superintendent. It is estimated that

tion of it by men of business. the entire grant to Pennsylvania, amount

But again. Men of business work for ing to 720,000 acres, will not realize an

material results. Their reward, their gains annual income of more than from $10,000

or losses, are made to appear in palpable to $20,000. The Report closes with a con

forms from day to day, from hour to hour. sideration of the preposterous claims put And these results bear a strikingly appreforth by some of the literary colleges of ciable ratio to the effort put forth during the country for this grant, or portions of the time employed. It is thus that busiit. It takes the most decided ground

ness becomes so efficient as an educating against this pretension, arguing that such a diversion of the fund would be destruc- power. It is thus that the men of business

become the men of action, of energy, and tive to all the interests involved.

of resource.

We wish that teachers and professional Business

educators, as a class, could by some means

be brought up to the requirements of the E have seen conspicuously posted terse maxim which we have quoted above.

in some of our counting-houses, a We wish that teachers could be made to card, bearing the following inscription, or

feel more keenly the value of time, not something akin to it:

only in their professional labors, but in

their intercourse with their fellow-men, “Call upon a man of business in hours of business, only upon business; transact

We wish that they would learn to call on your business and go about your business,

men of business only in hours of business, Jeaving him time to attend to his business." and that they would learn to transact

their business in a business-like way, and This is a business maxim, put in a de- then go about their business.

It is no cidedly business-like way. There is no mis- mean accomplishment for one to know how taking its import. It evidently owes its ori- to put his case, how to bring it to a point, gin to the pressure of a great necessity. It and how to desist when the point is

reached and decided. In other words, it ble editor of that periodical, upon his own is a great thing to know when one's busi- literary performances. ness is done, and how to act accordingly, If “book publishers did not start” the It is a great thing to know when business Journal, it is obvious that one or two of ends and boring begins.

them contrive to run the best part of the Whoever will impart this sublime power machine, if there be such a dubious fracof discernment to the masses of the people, tion, now that it is "started." will be a benefactor of the race. It can For example, the leading editorial, on be done only through the educators of the the first page, is an advertisement of a people. To this end, teachers must them- forthcoming book. The third article in selves learn and practice it. They must

the editorial columns, is a personal puff learn to do business in a business-like man- of sundry individuals, including “we.” ner. They must respect business maxims Turning over exactly two leaves, we come in practice as well as in theory. They to the “Book Notices," introduced by a must refrain from the boring process. piteous appeal to “book publishers” to They must not be loungers, and gossipers,

send in “standard works on general science and busybodies, in hours and places of and literature," and not "confine their adbusiness, or at other times and places. vertisements and books sent for notice, Thus will they demonstrate their disposi- merely to the school-room class!” The tion and capacity to impress upon the

book notices thus paraded in the most minds and hearts of the generations to prominent part of the Journal, occupy come, those rules of conduct which regu- three pages, all but one column of which late the life of an enterprising and truly being monopolized by two “book publishcivilized society.

ing” houses.

In view of these facts, we think the foreTHE AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY :

going notice is as rich a specimen of the For the School and Family. 32 pages, pharisaical style of literature as can be double column, medium size, 8vo. Issued found. When our leading articles or edon the first of each month, at $1.00 per itorials are “devoted to noticing and adannum, in advance. Editor not named. Published at New York by Schermerhorn, vertising our own publications, and those Bancroft & Co., 130 Grand-street.

connected with them,” or when we litThe January or first number of this new erally thrust our book notices into the magazine has reached us, and it seems to faces of our readers, "giving just enough have more promise of permanence and use- of educational matter to attract the attenfulness than its predecessors of the same

tion of teachers” at the caudal extremity class. For years, book publishers have been in the habit of starting periodicals of this

of the monthly, we will meekly confess, kind, with just enough of general educa

that in respect to literary taste, professional tional matter in them to attract the attention devotion, and mechanical skill, we are in of teachers, but with the main purpose of danger of competing with our neighbor. noticing and advertising their own publica- However, we always receive even small tions, and those connected with them. This

favors thankfully. The Journal finally is the best specimen of the kind we have

comes to the conclusion that “this is really There are some really good articles in it, and it is worth a dollar.

the best specimen of the kind that it has

seen; that there are some good articles in E find the foregoing patronizing no- it, and that it is worth a dollar." We wish

tice in the February number of the we could say as much for the Journal. “Pennsylvania School Journal.” To all We hope our Keystone neighbor will take who may happen to see that number, this notice that we give from forty-eight to precious scrap will appear like a ghastly sixty-four pages for that same dollar, and joke, perpetrated by the proverbially amia- that we do not mean to offend good taste

seen.

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1864.]

Editorial Correspondence.

119

We

by tolerating a slip-shod mechanical ex- are only nominally State schools. ecution of our work, nor impose upon our should like to see the Keystone State apreaders by displaying “Book Notices," propriate liberally to her Normal Schools, personal compliments, and showy adver- as being the most efficient instrumentali. tisements, where they have a right to ties in the whole scheme of popular educalook for something more instructive and tion. useful.

T'

WE

THE number of Normal Schools recog- E publish in the present number, an nized as State institutions in Penn

article on the “Old and the New sylvania, is three, instead of one, as report in Education,” from the pen of a gentleed in a recent article upon that subject. man who has had a long and successful There are so many schools bearing this experience as an educator. It well de title in that State, that it is not easy al- serves the attention of the thoughtful ways to distinguish between the State and reader. Although there may be some difprivate institutions. The article referred ference of opinion respecting the theory to, stated that there was one, and not but of our correspondent in regard to the subone. It told the truth, but not the whole ject-matter of our popular reading-books, truth. The private Normal School at there will be found in this paper much Westchester, is one of the best in the food for profitable reflection. We shall be State. We are under the impression that glad to see the subject thoroughly dis- • no appropriations are made to any of these cussed, and our columns will be open for schools, but that they are sustained by pri- the presentation of brief and well-digested vate enterprise alone. If this be so, they papers upon both sides of this question.

EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE.

LANSING, Mich., Feb. 22d, 1864. expended over one hundred thousand dolTo the Editor of the American Educa

lars; and the current expenses are met, tional Monthly :

from year to year, by appropriations di

rectly from the State treasury. This the I perceive that a writer in your journal, State will continue to do, until an endowfor the present month, “ believes' Penn- ment shall be realized from the sale of sylvania the only State in the Union that lands granted by Congress. The amount has an Agricultural College “open at this granted to Michigan, is 240,000 acres; time.” Permit me to correct this error, which eventually must produce a fund of as far as our State is concerned.

over half a million dollars. In the spring of 1857, the State Agricul- We therefore consider our Agricultural tural College of Michigan, opened with College a fixed fact for all coming time; one hundred students; many others being perhaps destined to rival in importance unable to gain admission for want of ac- our State University, with its half million commodations. The location is three miles fund and eight hundred students. from the Capital, upon a farm of 600 acres. Since the Rebellion culminated, the numAt the outset, this was nearly all heavily ber of students has diminished about onetimbered with beech, maple, oak, &c. half; many having left for the army. A Now it is about half under cultivation; goodly number from this Institution are in and if you know any thing of the labor of the Regiment of Engineers, which, for two clearing up our forests of the West, you years, has made itself famous for bridgewill believe that the College has not been building in Kentucky and Tennessee. But without students; for all this work has the school is constantly growing in favor been performed by them.

with the farmers of the State, and as soon For the land and buildings, the State bas as the war is over, many will be refused

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