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of fortune, whose wings they thought by but content themselves with a medioc- 150 their self-wisdom to have pinioned. 170 rity of success. Certainly, it is good to
compound employments of both; for that ESSAY XLII. OF YOUTH AND AGE
will be good for the present, because the
virtues of either age may correct the deA man that is young in years may be fects of both; and good for succession, old in hours, if he have lost no time. But that young men may be learners, while that happeneth rarely. Generally, youth men in age are actors; and, lastly, good is like the first cogitations, not so wise for extern accidents, because authority as the second. For there is a youth in followeth old men, and favor and poputhoughts as well as in ages. And yet the larity youth. But for the moral part, 160 invention of young men is more lively perhaps youth will have the pre-eminence, than that of the old; and imaginations as age hath for the politic. A certain stream into their minds better, and, as it rabbin, upon the text, Your young men were, more divinely. Natures that (10 shall see visions, and your old men shall have much heat, and great and violent dream dreams, inferreth that young men desires and perturbations, are not ripe are admitted nearer to God than old, for action till they have passed the merid- because vision is a clearer revelation than ian of their years: as it was with Julius a dream. And certainly, the more a man Cæsar, and Septimius Severus. Of the drinketh of the world, the more it inlatter of whom it is said, Juventutem egit toxicateth; and age doth profit rather (70 erroribus, imo furoribus, plenam. And in the powers of understanding, than in yet he was the ablest emperor, almost, the virtues of the will and affections. of all the list. But reposed natures may There be some have an over-early ripeness do well in youth. As it is seen in Au- (20 in their years, which fadeth betimes. gustus Cæsar, Cosmus, Duke of Florence, These are, first, such as have brittle wits, Gaston de Foix, and others. On the other the edge whereof is soon turned; such as side, heat and vivacity in age is an excel- was Hermogenes the rhetorician, whose lent composition for business. Young
Young books are exceeding subtile, who aftermen are fitter to invent than to judge; wards waxed stupid. A second sort is of fitter for execution than for counsel; and those that have some natural disposi- (80 fitter for new projects than for settled tions which have better grace in youth business. For the experience of age, in than in age; such as is a fluent and luxurithings that fall within the compass of it, ant speech, which becomes youth well, directeth them; but in new things, (30 but not age: so Tully saith of Hortensius, abuseth them. The errors of young men Idem manebat, neque idem docebat. The are the ruin of business; but the errors of third is of such as take too high a strain aged men amount but to this, that more at the first, and are magnanimous more might have been done, or sooner. Young than tract of years can uphold. As was men, in the conduct and manage of ac- Scipio Africanus, of whom Livy saith in tions, embrace more than they can hold; effect, Ultima primis cedebant. stir more than they can quiet; fly to the end, without consideration of the means
ESSAY XLVI.-OF GARDENS and degrees; pursue some few principles which they have chanced upon ab- (40 God Almighty first planted a garden. surdly; care not to innovate, which draws And indeed it is the purest of human unknown inconveniences; use extreme pleasures. It is the greatest refreshment remedies at first; and, that which doubleth to the spirits of man; without which, all errors, will not acknowledge or retract buildings and palaces are but gross handithem; like an unready horse, that will works: and a man shall ever see that when neither stop nor turn. Men of age object ages grow to civility and elegancy, men too much, consult too long, adventure come to build stately sooner than to too little, repent too soon, and seldom garden finely; as if gardening were the drive business home to the full period, I greater perfection. I do hold it, in the (10
100 royal ordering of gardens, there ought to come late, hollyhocks, and such like. be gardens for all the months in the year; These particulars are for the climate of in which, severally, things of beauty may London; but my meaning is perceived, be then in season. For December and that you may have ver perpetuum, as the January and the latter part of November, place affords. you must take such things as are green
And because the breath of flowers is 70 all winter: holly, ivy, bays, juniper, far sweeter in the air (where it comes and cypress-trees, yew, pine-apple-trees, fir- goes, like the warbling of music) than in trees, rosemary, lavender, periwinkle,- the hand, therefore nothing is more fit the white, the purple, and the blue, - (20 for that delight, than to know what be the germander, flags, orange-trees, lemon- flowers and plants that do best perfume trees, and myrtles, if they be stoved, and the air. Roses, damask and red, are fast sweet marjoram, warm set. There fol- | flowers of their smells, so that you may loweth, for the latter part of January and walk by a whole row of them, and find February, the mezereon-tree, which then nothing of their sweetness; yea, though blossoms, crocus vernus, both the yellow it be in a morning's dew. Bays like- [80 and the gray, primroses, anemones, the wise yield no smell as they grow. Roseearly tulippa, hyacinthus orientalis, cha- mary little; nor sweet marjoram. That mairis, fritillaria. For March, there come which above all others yields the sweetest violets, specially the single blue, which (30 smell in the air, is the violet; specially are the earliest, the yellow daffodil, the the white double violet, which comes twice daisy, the almond-tree in blossom, the a year, about the middle of April, and peach-tree in blossom, the cornelian-tree about Bartholomewtide.
about Bartholomewtide. Next to that in blossom, sweet briar. In April follow is the musk-rose. Then the strawberrythe double white violet, the wall-flower, leaves dying, which [yield] a most exthe stock-gillyflower, the cowslip, flower- cellent cordial smell. Then the flower loo delices and lilies of all natures, rosemary of the vines; it is a little dust, like the flowers, the tulippa, the double peony, dust of a bent, which grows upon the the pale daffodil, the French honeysuckle, cluster in the first coming forth. Then the cherry-tree in blossom, the dam- [40 | sweet briar. Then wall-flowers, which masin and plum-trees in blossom, the are very delightful to be set under a parlor white-thorn in leaf, the lilac-tree. In or lower chamber window. Then pinks May and June come pinks of all sorts, and gillyflowers, specially the matted specially the blush pink, roses of all kinds, pink and clove gillyflower. except the musk, which comes later, flowers of the lime-tree. Then the honeyhoneysuckles, strawberries, bugloss, col- suckles, so they be somewhat afar (100 umbine, the French marygold, fos Afri- off. Of bean flowers I speak not, because canus, cherry-tree in fruit, ribes, figs in they are field flowers. But those which fruit, rasps, vine flowers, lavender in perfume the air most delightfully, not flowers, the sweet satyrian, with the 150 passed by as the rest, but being trodden white flower, herba muscaria, lilium con- upon and crushed, are three: that is, vallium, the apple-tree in blossom. In burnet, wild thyme, and water-mints. July come gillyflowers of all varieties, Therefore you are to set whole alleys of musk-roses, the lime-tree in blossom, early them, to have the pleasure when you pears and plums in fruit, ginnitings, walk or tread. quadlins. In August come plums of all sorts in fruit, pears, apricocks, barberries, filberts, musk-melons, monks-hoods of For fountains, they are a great (110 all colors. In September come grapes, beauty and refreshment; but pools mar apples, poppies of all colors, peaches, [66 all, and make the garden unwholesome melocotones, nectarines, cornelians, war- and full of flies and frogs. Fountains I dens, quinces. In October and the be- intend to be of two natures: the one, ginning of November come services, that sprinkleth or spouteth water; the medlars, bullises, roses cut or removed to other, a fair receipt of water, of some thirty or forty foot square, but without natural plants, that need pruning by fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the study; and studies themselves do give ornaments of images gilt, or of marble, forth directions too much at large, except which are in use, do well: but the main (120 they be bounded in by experience. (20 matter is, so to convey the water, as it Crafty men contemn studies; simple men never stay, eithe the bowls or in the admire them; and wise men use them: cistern; that the water be never by rest for they teach not their own use; but discolored, green or red or the like, or that is a wisdom without them and above gather any mossiness or putrefaction. them, won by observation. Read not to Besides that, it is to be cleansed every contradict and confute; nor to believe day by the hand. Also some steps up to and take for granted; nor to find talk and it, and some fine pavement about it, doth discourse; but to weigh and consider. well. As for the other kind of fountain, Some books are to be tasted, others to which we may call a bathing pool, it (130 | be swallowed, and some few to be 130 may admit much curiosity and beauty, chewed and digested: that is, some books wherewith we will not trouble ourselves: are to be read only in parts; others to be as, that the bottom be finely paved, and read, but not curiously; and some few with images; the sides likewise; and withal to be read wholly, and with diligence and embellished with colored glass, and such attention. Some books also may be read things of lustre; encompassed also with | by deputy, and extracts made of them fine rails of low statues. But the main by others; but that would be only in the point is the same which we mentioned in less important arguments, and the meaner the former kind of fountain; which is, sort of books; else distilled books are like that the water be in perpetual motion, (140 common distilled waters, flashy things. [40 fed by a water higher than the pool, and Reading maketh a full man; conference delivered into it by fair spouts, and then a ready man; and writing an exact man. discharged away under ground, by some And therefore, if a man write little, he equality of bores, that it stay little. And had need have a great memory; if he confor fine devices, of arching water without fer little, he had need have a present wit; spilling, and making it rise in several and if he read little, he had need have forms (of feathers, drinking glasses, much cunning, to seem to know that he canopies, and the like), they be pretty doth not. Histories make men wise; things to look on, but nothing to health poets witty; the mathematics subtile; and sweetness.
(150 natural philosophy deep; moral, grave; 150
logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt
studia in mores. Nay, there is no stondi ESSAY L.-OF STUDIES
or impediment in the wit, but may be
wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases Studies serve for delight, for ornament, of the body may have appropriate exerand for ability. Their chief use for de- cises. Bowling is good for the stone and light is in privateness and retiring; for reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, gentle walking for the stomach; riding is in the judgment and disposition of for the head; and the like. So if a man's business. For expert men can execute, wit be wandering, let him study the (60 and perhaps judge of particulars, one by mathematics; for in demonstrations, if one; but the general counsels, and the his wit be called away never so little, he plots and marshalling of affairs, come must begin again: if his wit be not apt to best from those that are learned. To [10 distinguish or find differences, let him spend too much time in studies is sloth; study the schoolmen; for they are cymini to use them too much for ornament is sectores: if he be not apt to beat over mataffectation; to make judgment wholly by ters, and to call up one thing to prove their rules is the humor of a scholar. They and illustrate another, let him study the perfect nature, and are perfected by ex- lawyers' cases: so every defect of the mind perience; for natural abilities are like may have a special receipt.