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things themselves, I would be understood to mean those qualities in the objects which produce them in us.
. $. 9. Qualities thus considered in bodies Primary qua. lities.
4e are, first, such as are utterly inseparable
from the body, in what lestate soever it be; such as in all the alterations and changes it suffers, all the force can be used upon it, it constantly keeps; and such as sense constantly finds in every particle of matter which has bulk enough to be perceived, and the mind finds inseparable from every particle of matter, though less than to make itself singly be perceived by our senses, v. g. Take a grain of wheat, divide it into two parts, each part has still solidity, extension, figure, and mobility; divide it again, and it retains still the same qualities; and so divide it on till the parts become insensible, they must retain still each of them all those qualities. For division (which is all that a mill, or pestle, or any other body docs upon another, in reducing it to insensible parts) can never take away either solidity, extension, figure, or mobility from any body, but only makes two or more distinct separate masses of matter, of that which was but one before: all which distinct masses, reckoned as so many distinct bodies, after division make a certain number. These I call original or primary qualities of body, which I think we may observe to produce simple ideas in us, viz. solidity, extension, figure, motion or rest, and number.
$. 10. Secondly, such qualities which in Secondary qualities.
truth are nothing in the objects themselves, . but powers to produce various sensations in us by their primary qualities, i. e. by the bulk, figure, texture, and motion of their insensible parts, as coTours, sounds, tastes, &c. these I call secondary qualities. To these might be added a third sort, which are allowed to be barely powers, though they are as much real qualities in the subject, as those which I, to comply with the common way of speaking, call qualities, but for distinction, secondary qualities. For the power in fire to produce a new colour, or consistency, in was or clay, by its primary qualities, is as much a quality in fire, as the power it has to produce in me a new idea
or sensation of warmth or burning, which I felt not before, by the same primary qualities, viz. the bulk, texture, and motion of its insensible parts.
§. 11. The next thing to be considered How primas is, how bodies produce ideas in us; and ry qualities that is manifeftly by impulse, the only way produce th which we can conceive bodies to operate in. de
$. 12. If then external objects be not united to our minds, when they produce ideas therein, and yet we perceive these original qualities in such of them as singly fall under our senses, it is evident that some motion must be thence continued by our nerves or animal spirits, by some parts of our bodies, to the brain, or the seat of sensation, there to produce in our minds the particular ideas we have of them. And since the extension, figure, number and motion of bodies, of an observable bigness, may be perceived at a distance by the sight, it is evident some singly imperceptible bodies must come from them to the eyes, and thereby conyey to the brain some motion, which produces these ideas which we have of them in us.
§. 13. After the same manner that the ideas of these original qualities are pro- dary. duced in us, we may conceive that the ideas of secondary qualities are also produced, viz. by the operations of insensible particles on our senses. For it being manifest that there are bodies and good store of bodies, each whereof are so small, that we cannot, by any of our senses, discover either their bulk, figure, or motion as is evident in the particles of the air and water, and others extremely smaller than those, perhaps as much smaller than the particles of air and water, as the particles of air and water are smaller than pease or hail-stones : let us suppose at present, that the different motions and figures, bulk and number of such particles, affecting the several organs of our senses, produce in us those different sensations, which we have from the colours and smells of bodies; V. g. that a violet, by the impulse of such insensible particles of matter of peculiar figures and bulks, and in different degrees and modifications of their motions, causes the VOL. I.
ideas of the blue colour and sweet scent of that flower, to be produced in our minds; it being no more impossible to conceive that God should annex such ideas to such motions, with which they have no similitude, than that he should annex the idea of pain to the motion of a piece of steel dividing our flesh, with which that idea hath no resemblance.
$. 14. What I have said concerning colours and sinells may be understood also of tastes and sounds, and other the like sensible qualities; which, whatever reality we by mistake attribute to them, are in truth nothing in the objects themselves, but powers to produce various sensations in us, and depend on those primary qualities, viz. bulk, figure, texture, and motion of parts; as I have said. Ideas of pri
$. 15. From whence I think it easy to mary quali. draw this observation, that the ideas of prities are re- mary gualities of bodies are resemblances of semblances; them, and their patterns do really exist in
the bodies themselves; but the ideas, prodary, not.
duced in us by these secondary qualities, have no resemblance of them at all. There is nothing like our ideas existing in the bodies themselves. They are in the bodics, we denominate from them, only a power to produce those sensations in us: and what is sweet, blue or warm in idea, is but the certain bulk, figure, and motion of the insensible parts in the bodies themselves, which we call so.
$. 16. Flame is denominated hot and light; snow, white and cold; and manna, white and sweet, from the ideas they produce in us : which, qualities are commonly thought to be the same in those bodies that those ideas are in us, the one the perfect resemblance of the other, as they are in a mirror; and it would by most men be judged very extravagant, if one should say otherwise. And yet he that will consider that the same fire, that at one distance produces in us the sensation of warmth, .does at a nearer approach produce in us the far different sensation of pain, ought to bethink him. self what reason he has to say, that his idea of warmth, which was produced in him by the fire, is actually in
the fire; and his idea of pain, which the same fire produced in him the same way, is not in the fire. Why are whiteness and coldness in snow, and pain not, when it produces the one and the other idea in us; and can do neither, but by the bulk, figure, number, and motion of its solid parts ?
$. 17. The particular bulk, number, figure, and motion of the parts of fire, or snow, are really in them,
whether any one's senses perceive them or no; and 180473
therefore they may be called real qualities, because they really exist in those bodies: but light, heat, whiteness or coldness, are no more really in them, than sickness or pain is in manna. Take away the sensation of them; let not the eyes sce light, or colours, nor the ears hear sounds; let the palate not taste, nor the nose smell; and all colours, tastes, odours, and sounds, as they are such particular ideas, vanish and cease, and are reduced to their causes, i. e. bulk, figure, and motion of parts.
. 18. A piece of manna of a sensible bulk is able to produce in us the idea of a round or square figure, and, by being removed from one place to another, the idea of motion. This idea of motion represents it as it really is in the manna moving : a circle or square are the same, whether in idea or existence, in the mind, or in the manna; and this buth motion and figure are really in the manna, whether we take notice of them or
no :lāthis every body is ready to agree, to. Besides, t; $2 mama 'by the bulk, figure, texture, and motion of its from parts, has a power to produce the sensations of sick
ness, and sometimes of acute pains or gripings in us. That these ideas of sickness and pain are not in the marna, but effects of its operations on us, and are nó. where when we feel them not;this also every one rea. dily agrees. the. And yet inen are hardly to be brought to think, that sweetness and whiteness are not really in manna; which are but the effects of the operations of manna, by the motion, size, and figure of its particles on the eyes and palate ; as the pain and sickness caused
by manna, are confessedly nothing but the effects of quality its operations on the stomach and guts, by the size,
motion and figure of its insensible parts (for by nothing else can a body operate as has been proved :) as if it could not operate on the eyes and palate, and thereby produce in the mind particular distinct ideas, which in itself it has not, as well as we allow it can operate on the guts and stomach, and thereby produce distinct ideas, which in itself it has not. These ideas being all effects of the operations of manna, on several parts of our bodies, by the sizc, figure, number, and motion of its parts; why those produced by the eyes and palate should rather be thought to be really in the manna, than those produced by the stomach and guts; or why the pain and sickness, ideas that are the effect of manna, should be thought to be no-where when they are not felt; and yet the streetness and whiteness, effects of the same manna on other parts of the body, by ways equally as unknown, should be thought to exist in the manna, when they are not seen or tasted, would need some reason to explain Ideas of pri.
. 19. Let us consider the red and white mary quali. colours in porphyry: hinder light froin ties, are re. striking on it, and its colours vanish, it no semblances ; longer produces any such ideas in us; upon i of seconda
- the return of light it produces these apry, not.
pearances on us again. Can any one think any real alterations are made in the porphyry, by the presence or absence of light; and that those ideas of whiteness and redness are really in porphyry in the light, when it is plain it has no colour in the dark; it has, indeed, such a configuration of pai ticles, both night and day, as are apt, by the rays of light rebounding from some parts of that hard stone, to produce in rem us the idea of redness, and from others the idea of whiteness; but whiteness or redness are not in it at any time, but such a texture, that hath the power to produce such a sensation in us.
6. 20. Pound an almond, and the clear white colour will be altered into a dirty one, and the sweet taste into Can oily one. What real alteration can the beating of
the pestle make in any body, but an alteration of the texture of it?