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tions already mentioned, it may not be altogether dishonourable to enlift in the band of PROJECTORS; and, among other inducements of a perfonal nature, I am encouraged in this attempt by the liberal tentiments of Dr. Samuel Johnfon, himself a worthy member of the corps, who thus vindicates the genuine race of PROJECTORS; "By the unreafonable diftribution of praife and blame, none have futfered oftener than PROJECTORS, whofe rapidity of imagination and valinefs of defign raife fuch envy in their fellow mortals, that every eye watches their fall, and every heart exults at their diftreffes." In another place this eminent author fays, and a moft confoling decifion it is, "The folly of projection is very feldom the folly of a fool."
In forming a project like the prefent, it has been ufual to befpeak the attention of the publick, fometimes by a defeription of the author's perfon, and fortunes by the genealogy of his family. With refpect to the perfon of the PROJECTOR, it is of little coule quence to give a defeription of what, by the conftitution of periodical writings, is meant to be concealed. The bet delineation is defective where there can be no opportunity to compare it with the original; and the circumftances of ftature, complexion, and feature, have feldom much connexion with the movements of the pen. Dit regarding precedents of this kind, therefore, I fhall wear a fhort face or a long one as I find it convenient, and shall rary my age and fhape according to the fubject I may handle, or the character I may perform. Gentlemen feldom are curious in fuch matters; and if any lady thinks proper to enquire, I have inftructed Mr. Urban to make me neither old nor ugly.
But as to fauly, were I to indulge fo unjuttifiable a pallion as vanity, at my firti appearance, I might affert, without the leaft hazard of contradiction, that the PROJECTORS are a family of great antiquity, and that there are few countries in which fome branch or other of the race has not fettled, if the word fettled be applicable to perfons of fo various a turn that they are fometimes faid even" to move heaven and earth." We are to be found however in all parts of the globe, and may with great confidence put the question, "Quæ regio in terris noftri non plena la
Nor is the family more numerous than
the infinity of defigns by which, they have fought to raile their tame and fortune, and confequently benefit mankind. No fubftauce, created or uncreated, has efcaped their inventive or convertive powers. Body and mind are alike fubjected to their experiments: art and nature are alike pregnant with materials for the ingenuity of their fchemes; yet I must confels that this variety, however honourable to that univerfal genius which is the proud boaft of fome moderns, has tended in a great mealure to confound the merit of Projectors, and throw an air of ridicule upon their labours when viewed in the lump. Most of our family have felt "the unreafonable ditproportion of praite or blame," and the high honours of philofophical refearch have fometimes been bestowed on the contriver of only a paltry convenience. Thus the name of the inventor of the telefcope is little known to the generality of thofe who have agreed to keep in perpetual remembrance the illufirious character who fir taught us to place a wine-glafs on a fquare piece of linen. There are difputes among the learned relating to the right of Galileo, while that of Doyley is acknowledged by univerfal fuffrage. And the memory of the parliamentary renown of a late eminent ftatefnan is fati going into the land of oblivion, while it will never be forgotten that he was the first who placed a flice of ham between two flices of bread and butter More recently fill, a young nobleman has thruft himself into the rank of PROJECTORS, by no other merit than that of bringing fkirt, into difrepute, and changing the full-length of a great coat to the fize of a kit-cat.
Agaia it mult be remarked, for I do not with to glois over the little infirmities of our order, that Projectors, like poets, are liable to fall into the bathos, when they attempt too many things, when they mix heroifm with bombait, and the grave with the familiar. It is really whimfical to fee a plan for introducing lax principles of religion in the fame volume with directions for tranfplanting hedges; and the fame man contriving to make coach-lamps ftationary, who had juft before written on the perpetual motion. Yet thus it always is with our numerous family; and it muft frequently remind the publick of Horace's compofition of a man, a horfe, a fifh, and a woman.
In this verfatile humour of "putting
Our hands to any thing," while fome are conftructing iron bridges, others are improving green fpectacles. While fome are forming conftitutions for new republics, others are enriching their country in the article of wind-mills. While fome are introducing in new fhapes the exploded opinions of old infidels, others are fitting out veffels to go against wind and tide. While fome are fo afpiring as to mount to fmoaky chimneys, others are lavishing their genius on razor-ftrops and cork-fcrews. While fome have raifed a mighty name by planning revolutions, others have given their nights and days to cartwheels. While fome have plunged into favour with pofterity by the depth of a tunnel, others have burst into reputation by the force of fteam. Nay, one of my acquaintance, a barrister, remarkable for his fkill in crofs-quefiioning witnefles, has spent half his fees in the conftruction of pumps; and a very ingenious clergyman, who diftinguithed himfelf last year on the question of refidence, has done nothing fince but make experiments on black-beetles.
of the Gentleman's Magazine? The queftion is fair, and shall not be evaded; but, as every future paper will be an anfwer, it may at prefent fuffice to fay negatively, that I have nothing to ad vance in the arts or fciences properly fo called; I have no improvements to offer in botany, chemistry, agriculture, or mechanics; I have inade no prógrefs in the difcovery of the longitude, and fhall not meddle with the lever, the axle, the pulley, or the inclined plane. Yet, that I niay not feem wholly inattentive to fuch objects, it will probably fall in my way to offer fome inprovements, if not upon wheel-carriages, at least on those who use them : and although I have no difcoveries to make of intrigues ainong "the plants," I fhall not fail to attend to thofe which are matured in the hot-houses of diflipation. I may likewife take notice of fome new-invented wind-mills, of those fchemes which depend on vapour, and on thofe projects of felicity which fo frequently end in air. I fhall not fail to record the explosions which attend difappointed vanity and perverted talents, and carefully minute thofe variations of atmosphere which at certain feafons render home pernicious. It will perhaps be found that my projects will be as various as my materials; and, what will appear fomewhat fingular, I fhall more frequently refer my readers to improvements that are very old, than to thofe that are very new, Among the clafs of Projectors to which I belong, it has been long an error to look forward rather than backwards, and to neglect old fchemes for new, before the new have been proved, and the old worn out. In mechanics this may be only ridiculous; in morals it has been fatal.
It is thus that the name of PROJECTOR is brought into danger, and frequently fuppofed to imply a refleffnefs of fancy, and a perpetual effort at ufelets contrivances. But there is certainly nothing in the name itfelf that ought to reflect difgrace. If a Projector fails, he but fhares the fate of many others who know not that they have deferved the name. In fact, if the matter were ferioutly confidered, a great portion of mankind who are apt to fhrink from that name would find that they have been projectors the greater part of their lives, but with a trange inverfion of purpofes. What, for example, is a man whofe fortune has been fquandered on dogs, hortes, and gaming-houies, but a Projector, who has contrived to ruin himself in
the fhorteft poflible fpace of time, and
with the leaft afliftance from art or nature? And what is a woman known only in the annals of gaming and adultery, but a machine contrived by fathion to deftroy the happiness of a family, and contribute to the difgrace of a fex?
It may now be afked, fince I have difowned fo many of the name, what clafs I propofe myself to belong, and what is the nature of thofe projects I intend to deliver through the me.lium
obferves in his Life of Milton, is defideratum in English literature. Walter Harte pronounces Hartlib “a man of great genius*," an " ingenious and diligent enquirer t," the " promoter of husbandry during the times of the commonwealth, and much efteemed by all ingenious men in thofe days ." T. Warton fays, "he certainly deferved well of the
publick; but he seems to have wafted his fortune in projects *."
Samuel Hartlib was the fon of the King of Poland's merchant, who, when the Jefuits prevailed in that country, was obliged to remove himfelf into Pruflia, where he fettled and built the first houfe of credit at Elbing, which coft him many thoufand of rixdollars in thofe cheap days. Hence his grandfather, the deputy of the English company at Dantzick, brought the English company to Elbing; and that town came by trade to the fplendour and refult whcih it afterwards attained t
"My family," fays Hartlib, of a very antient extraction in the German empire, there having been ten brothers of the name of Harilib. Some of them have been privy counfellors to the Emperor, fome to other inferior princes; fome Syndics of Aufperg and Norimberg. Bat they pafleti afterwards not fo ftrictly for Udallanta in the Empire, when fome turned merchants, which is derogatory to the German nobility. I may fpeak it with a fate confcience, that I never, all the days of my life, reflected ferioufly upon my pedigree, preferring my heavenly birth above all fuch va nities; and afterwards findying more, to this very day, to be ufcful to God's creatures and ferviceable to his church, than to be rich or honourable."
He was the iffue of a third wife, his father having married two " Polonian ladies, of noble extraction." This third wife feems to have been an English woman, for fhe had two fifters very honourably married here; one, firft to Mr. Clark, fon of a lord mayor, and afterwards to a "very rich knight, Sir Richard Smith, one of the king's privy council, the bringing him a portion of 10,0001.; after his death, the married a third time Sir Edward Savage, and was made one of the ladies of honour to the king's mother. Her daughter married Sir Authony Irby at Botton, "a knight of 4 or 5,0001. Herling a year." The other fifter married Mr. Peak, a younger brother §.
Warton fays, Hartlib came over into England about 1640. In 1641, he published "A relation of that which hath been lately attempted to procure ecclefiaftical peace among Proteftants." Lond. 1041. See Bibl. Bodl. I. 554.
In 1645, he published "The Difcourfe of Flanders Husbandry." 4to. about 24 pages; not then knowing who was the author: the "Legacy" to his fons, which relates alfo to the cultivation of their efiates, confifts of three quarto pages, and was written on the author's death-bed 1645. The author was Sir RICHARD WESTON, whom Harte apprehends to be the Sir Richard Wetion
who was anballador from England to Frederick V. elector Palatine, and king of Bohemia, in 1619, and prefent at the famous battle of Prague, concerning which a curious relation of his, by way of letter, is full preferved in MS." It is remarked in the Philofophical Tranfactions, that England has profited in agriculture to the amount of many millions, by following the directions laid down in this little treatife, which has always been looked upon as a capital performance in hufbandry .
About 1750, a piece was ignorantly publifhed under Sir R. Welton's name, entituled "A treatise concerning the Hufbandry and natural hiftory of England." 8vo. Which performance is a poor jejune abridgement of "Hartlib's Legacy **."
It feems that Hartlib afterwards, in order to enlarge and better explain this famous difcourfe, published another edition, and annexed Dr. Beati's annotations to it. In his epiftle dedicatory to the edition 1655, 4to. he fays,
Agriculture is one of the nobleft and mot neceflary parts of induftry, belonging to a commonwealth, the firft ground of mutual trading between men, and the well-fpring of wealth in all well-ordered focieties ++."
In 1652, Hartlib published "Fis Legacy, or an enlargement of the difcourfe of Hufbandry ufed in Brabant and Flanders." Lond. 4to It. This famous work was only drawn up at
* Wartor's Juveni'e i oems of Milton, firth edition, p. 596.
+ Harth's account of himself, in a letter dated Aug. 3, 1660. Kenn. Reg. 868. 15 859.
Ib. Sr Richard Smyth was third brother of Sir John Smythe, of Oftenhanger, in Kent, and m tried, according to the Irish Peerage, 275, ne daughter and heir of John White. Margaret his daughter was fecond wifs of Sir Anthony liby, ancestor to Lord Bofton. Coll. Peer. viii. 85.
Harte's Iffays, 11. 53.
++ Th. 1. 22, 23.
Hartlib's requeft, and paffing through his correction and rewifion was publithed by him. It confifts of one general anfwer to the following query, namely, "what are the actual defects and omiffions, as alfo the poffible improvements, in English husbandry ?”
The real author of this work was ROBERT CHILD. To it are annexed various correspondences from perfons eminent for skill in agriculture at this time; as C. D. B. W. R. H. T. Underhill, Henry Cruttenden, W. Potter, &c. as alfo the Mercurius Lætificans;" and 20 large experiments by Gabriel Plattes; together with annotations on the Legacy by Dr. Arnold Beati, and replies to the animadverfions by the author of the Legacy *,
In the preface to the "Legacy," Hartlib laments greatly that no public director of hufbandry was established in England by authority; and that we had not adopted the Flemish cuftom of letting farms upon improvement. Cromwell, as Harie fays, in confequence of this admirable performance, allowed Hartlib a pention of 1001. a year; and it was the better to fulfil the intentions of his benefactor, that he procured Dr. Beati's excellent annotations beforementioned, with the other valuable pieces from his numerous correfpondents t.
Hartlib fays himself, "As long as I have lived in England, by wonderful providences, I have spent yearly out of my own betwixt 3 and 4001. a year, fierling; and when I was brought to public allowances, I have had from the parliaments and councils of fate a penfion of 3001. ferling a year, which as freely I have spent for their fervice, and the good of many ‡." He favs be erected a little academy for the education of the gentry of this nation, to advance piety, learning, morality, and other exercites of induftry, not ufual then in common fchools."
This probably occafioned Milton's "Tractate on Education," about 1646, addreffed to him; and “Two letters to him on the fame fubject, by Sir William Petty." Loud. 4to. i647,
Walter Blythe, the author of "The Improver Improved," 410, 1653, fays, that Hartlib lodged and maintained
* Hanie's FiToys, 1. 23. + lbid. 2. Kennett's Reg. 869.
Speed in his houfe, whilft he composed his book of improvements in hufbandry*.
"About the time," obferves Harte t "when this author flourished, feems to be an era, when English husbandry rofe to high perfection; for the preceding wars had made the country gentry poor, and in confequence thereof induftrious; though fometimes the reverfe of this happens in many kingdoms. But thefe wife men found the cultivation of their own lands to be the very beft ponts they could be fixed in. Yet, in a few years, when the Reftoration took place, all this industry and knowledge were turned into diílipation and heedlefinefs; and then husbandry patied almost entirely into the hands of farmers.
Hartlib wrote a little treatife "on Setting Land," which is much efteemed; and fome attribute to him “Adam's Art Revived," though that work feems to belong more properly to Sir H. Platt ‡.
He alfo wrote "A trne and ready way to learn the Latin Tongue," 4to. 1654. "A Vindication of Mr. John Durie," 4to. 1650, 3 fheets; and publifhed "Twille's doubting Confcience refolved," 8vo. 1652 §.
Befides thefe, he was author of "The reformed Common-wealth of Bees, with the reformed Virginian Silk-worm," Lond. 1655, 4to. And of " Contiderations concerning England's Reformation in Church and State," 1647, 4to ||.
He was confulted in a book called "Chemical, Medicinal, and Chirurgical Addreffes to Samuel Hartlib.” Lond. 1655, 8vo. and again in a pamphlet "On Motion by Engines," 1651. There were alfo "Letters to Hartlib from Flanders,” 1650, 4to.
Durv, Hartlib's friend, whom Whitlock calls a " German by birth, a good fcholar, and a great traveller," was appointed in 1649 deputy librarian, under Whitlock, of what had been the royal library. Dury was Milton's friend and correlpondent.
At length the Reftoration brought with it evil days to Hartlib, and all his public fervices were forgotten. In Dec. 1602, his penfion was 7001. in arrears; and, in a letter to Lord Herbert, he complains "he had nothing to keep him alive, with two relations more, a
1802.] Memoirs of Hartlib.-Reclufe of Mucrufs Abbey. 15
daughter and a nephew, who were attending his fickly condition." About the fame time he prefented a petition to the Houfe of Commons, by the name of Samuel Hartlib, fen. fetting forth his fervices, and praying relief; in which, among other things, he fays, that for thirty years and upwards he had exerted himself in procuring " rare collections of MSS. in all the parts of learning, which he had freely imported, tranfcribed, and printed, and fent to fuch as were moft capable of making ule of them; alfo the beft experiments in hufbandry and manufactures, which by printing he hath published for the benefit of this age and pofterity †."
The event of thefe applications, and the time of the death of this ingenious man, is unknown.
Sprat, in his hiftory of the Royal Society, fays nothing of Hartlib, who feems to have been an active promoter of that inflitution. Nor is it lefs remarkable, that he never mentions Milton's "Tractate of Education," although he difcuffes the plan of Cowley's philofophical college. Warton. "Harte intended to republifh Hartlib's tracts, and those with which he was concerned; and Warton had feen his collection. See T. Warton's Milton, p. 118. 596, who refers alfo to MSS. of Hartlib and Drury, Brit. Muf. Sl. 1405, 4364, 4365.-MSS. Letters from Hartlib to Dr. Worthington, from 1655 to 1661, at Cambridge. MSS. Baker, vol. XXIX, p. 193; and Catalogue of Pamphlets in Bibl. Harl. p.23. Allo to Prynne's Laud, p. 301. See alfo Birch's Hifi. Roy. Soc. IV. +++. FERD. STANLEY.
Mr. URBAN, ΤΗ HE following extraordinary narrative of a reclufe is felected from a Fate tourist in Ireland, it a defcription of Mucrufs Abbey, on the lake of Killarney; "Going Eaftwards, fays our author," the piinfula of Mucrufs of fers itfelf to the view; it is one of the fineft places I have feen, on account of the chequering of woods and plains; it meanders nearly about two miles. The venerable ruims of the Abbey infpire a fentiment of religious horror by no incans unpleafing the yew in the middle of it covers it entirely with its branches, and hardly admits the paf fage of a few rays of light, which fall
on the tombs and bones at the foot of
enough for his fins." He was a hand-
the enthufiaftic and happy profe defeription given by Dr. Smith, in his hiftory of Kerry, is yet unrivalled."
1. K. B.
Jan. 7. OURCorrefpondent, LXXI. p.892,
is not fingular in lamenting "the depredations committed by a large ivv bufh on one of the venerable painted glafs windows of Malvern Church." He, and your numerous readers, will fee, and I think with painful pleafure, that a poet of no common powers has uttered his sweet "Complaint" on the fame fubject: but whether either complaints have got the evil removed, though I live within eight miles of it, I cannot tell. Yet, I believe I may with confidence fay that it will be removed, a gentleman having fucceeded Mr. Philips to the living who is likely to look a little after thefe matters. The poet, above alluded to, is Dr. Booker;
By Mr. Lellie, in 1772, and Mr. At"Both writers," fays kinfon, in 1798. the author of "Living English Authors," have done themfelves credit, though bath have failed in doing juftice to the fcenery of Killarney (cenery which, as all agree, would baffle any powers of defaription.