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be a ruler, assuming only the meek and lowly rank of one that served !

In short, let us carefully examine the means which He, who had the hearts of all men in his hands, and who could turn them as he pleased, adopted for the . instruction of mankind, and much light will be afforded in all future attempts to instruct those nations denominated heathen or savage. The Moravians, as before mentioned, have been more successful than all other sects put together, in consequence, I conceive, of their having had more regard to the Christian plan as adverted to.

The following hints I offer with humility, as means which, from my observation of man in his natural and polished state, appear, to me at least, likely to succeed :

The Indians, as already shown, are fond of silver aings, collars, and other trinkets, as ornaments of dress; of music, fishing, and hunting, as sources of amusement; and are by no means insensible to the bodily advantages arising from a store of food and clothing against a time of want.

Upon these, their main desires, I would found my plan.

I would select a blacksmith, provide him with a portable forge, portable scantlings of iron, and all necessary instruments for polishing iron and copper. There should also be a man uniting the carpenter's and cart-maker's trades, well furnished with suitable tools. To these l' would add one or two persons who could play on the clarionet, flute, violin, or other musical instrument of simple construction. This establishment should be under the superintendence of a man of discretion, divested of gloomy habits and those false views that connect austerity of manners with the essentials of Christianity. He should make allowance for the prejudices and passions of those under his charge, that he might the better give them a just direc

tion; and, especially in the commencement of his authority, he should deal tenderly with offences, redoubling his care with regard to the delinquent.

Under the eye of such a person, the operations should begin in a fertile place, in the neighbourhood of such of the tribes as might desire an establishment of this nature ; making the pleasures of music, or the possession of manufactures, the reward for devoting themselves to industry. In this way I would assist them in building houses, so as to induce them to value a fixed habitation ; and the house so built should belong to the tribe to bestow as they pleased. By repairing their tools and instruments of agriculture, assisting in raising their houses, instructing such as wished it to handle the ax for their own benefit, and making the hearing and learning of music the reward for industry, I should confidently hope to induce some few to abandon the migratory life they have hitherto led, which, in my opinion, is the most important point to be gained. After this shall be firmly established, a time will gradually come on when the inculcation of book-knowledge will be highly beneficial; but in our early efforts it is worse than useless. If the Indian can be prevailed on to aid in building a house; if he finds there a solace after his fatigues, and the means of allaying his hunger, I am warranted by all that I have seen and heard, in asserting that the best rudiments of civilization will be immovably fixed.

The above establishment should be capable of being transferred from tribe to tribe. Its members should have their wives and families with them ; no man should be sent without his wife on any account.

The party should, moreover, consist of persons duly sensible of the blessings and privileges of the Christian religion, and should at stated times assemble for worship, paying great attention to solemnity, decorum and order, in doing so; yet having especial care to avoid all kind of constraint with regard to

ance on

.

the Indians, or any species of penalty for non-attend

their

part. The Lord's day should nevertheless be truly kept as a Sabbath by all, as far as cessation from worldly labour is concerned. The Indians should be told the reason of resting thereon; that such rest was first instituted by God to perpetuate the remembrance of his having created the world, and all things therein ; and latterly to keep in the minds of men the memory that Christ arose from the dead on the first day of the week, having completed the work of redemption. The good news of salvation to sinners of all nations, through the atonement on the cross, should be proclaimed with joy and praise and thanksgiving, and not with those gloomy severities, which are regarded as true piety by many. The Indians would thus be led to inquire concerning God and the Saviour ; when portions of the Bible, descriptive of the attributes of the Most High, and the life of the Lord Jesus, should be read ; carefully avoiding to pass from one portion until it should be firmly fixed in their recollection, (of wbich their capacity is great,) nor until they desired to hear more. These means, always accompanied by kindness and sympathy, I confidently hope God would

approve and bless.

I by no means desire to be understood as wishing to discourage the efforts of persons who may differ with my views of the subject; neither do I arrogate that those I have set forth are infallible ; but I do conceive that the great qualification of humility, of being and acting as a servant to the heathen, has not been sufficiently tried. Few men can resist the temptation of power, when within reach; and I have proofs too abundant, before me, that many who seem humble before their superiors, are haughty and tyrannical among the Indians. The letter from Red Jacket to Governor Clinton, quoted in this chapter, shows how wide this evil has spread; and I fear the spirit of Mr. Hyde is not so rare as, for the honour

of human nature, one could wish it to be. No species of vileness can be more injurious, or more opposed to the example of Christ and his Apostles.

I have been lead to recommend music, as I found that of the articles sent here by the British Government, a large quantity of jews' harps, (the pareut of all instruments,) were selected by the Indians in preference to knives, and other valuable articles. Is there any sentence more common than the following words of the poet?

Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast,
To soften rocks, and lend the knotted oak!

Yet when and where has it been tried as an auxiliary in the work of civilization ?

107

CHAPTER X.

REMONSTRANCES OF THE INDIANS TO THE GOVERN

MENT OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1790.

It is no less curious than lamentable to observe the uniform and withering persecution which the Indians have laboured under from their earliest acquaintance with white men to the present day. Whatever dissimilarity may have existed in the characteristics, political and moral, of the various nations of Europe, they seem to have resembled each other in this one thing, namely, inextinguishable, unsparing oppression of the North American Indians. Dutch, French, English, and even those who, in one sense, may be termed their own countrymen, the citizens of the United States, have all agreed in keeping no faith with the original inhabitants of this vast continent. No: their dominions were too fertile in sources of wealth, for them to expect any thing like fair-dealing from their refined invaders, who first Aattered and cajoled them, and then rewarded their hospitali ty with the sword and the cannon. The United States, especially about the time of their struggle with the mother-country for their own independence, it might be thought would have had so lively a sense of the value and blessing of liberty, as not to attempt any undue control or tyranny over their red breihren ; but alas, like other nations, their worship of freedom was not as it existed in the abstract, but onJy as it affected their own happiness.

This will be illustrated in the following interesting correspondence between the Senecas and General, Washington, in 1790.

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