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Danube, with ports on the two seas, of which we have little doubt, to the would be one of the most compact in immense force arrayed against her in Europe. The Roumani, or Romans, the present war, her possessions in as the Moldo-Wallachs love to call Georgia and the Caucasus might be themselves, those descendants of the allotted to Turkey, the mountains ancient Dacians, nearly of unmixed being left to Schamyl and his sucrace, notwithstanding the many irrup, cessors, under the suzeraineté of the tions of Goths, Lombards, Huns, and Sultan. The new principality might Turks, do not manifest any very ardent be formed of the territory wbich is spirit of nationality, so as to make comprised between the Sea of Azoff, them oppose their removal from Rus- the Don, and the Volga; and, finally, sian or Turkish rule to the Austrian, the Crimea should also revert to and there is no reason to suppose that the Porte. That peninsula, whose they are able to win their absolute in- southern shore enjoys & fine climate dependence, or to maintain it if won. and a most fertile soil, was reduced by There is too much reason to believe Mahomet II.,(1475), who expelled the that the long misgovernment to which Genoese, to the condition of a depenthe Moldo-Wallachians bave been dency of the Ottoman empire, but who subjected, bas nearly destroyed the allowed it to be governed by its own energies requisite for the attainment native khan. For three centuries this of such an object, and has given them state of things lasted, when Catherine many of the vices of slaves. They II. stipulated for the independence of possess many good qualities; but they the Crimea. The Khan was forced by are indolent, timid, and not always Russia to abdicate in 1783, and soon, to be relied upon, and have become with her customary violation of treadegraded by the conflicting despotism ties, and utter disregard of justice, to which they have been so long habi- her armies took possession of the tuated. The Sultan is acknowledged country, which was secured to her at as the Suzerain, and is paid tribute; the peace of 1793. The atrocifrom him, too, the Hospodar receives ties perpetrated by Russia on that his investiture, but his election must occasion are not yet forgotten. The be approved by Russia.
towns and villages of the Mussulman decidedly of opinion that the Moldo- population were in great part sacked Wallachians would gain considerably and destroyed, and large numbers of by their transfer to Austria ; they the Tartar population emigrated rather would have but one master instead of than live under the detested yoke of three, and Austria herself, and the the Muscovite. Notwithstanding that western nations, would possess an emigration, the Tartars still constitute additional guarantee against Russia. the main body of the population.
The bond which unites these pro- They still cling with tenacity to the vinces to Turkey is indeed slight; but, Mohammedan faith, and would prefer slight as it is, its disruption for the returning under the rule of their aureasons we have assigned, would justify cient sovereigns, to remaining under that power in demanding compensa- that of Russia. In the event of the tion for the loss of her nominal autho- Russian fleet being destroyed during rity over them; and it will not be the war, Turkey would be sufficiently maintained that her conduct during strong to protect her restored possesthe war with Russia has disentitled sion; and the Black Sea, which has her to regard and respect from Europe. so long been, as it were, a Russian In exchange for the Principalities, lake, would lie open to the West. The Austria might cede to the Porte the freedom of the Euxine would of course strip of territory which fringes the involve the freedom of the streams eastern coast of the Adriatic. Turkey wbich flow into it; and Austria is would gain by the change, as her more interested than any other Gerwestern provinces would have outlets man power in preventing the mouths to the sea, which would be of the of the Danube from being closed up at greatest utility to their trade, and the caprice of a jealous and disloyal would render more frequent her com- Despot. But this or any other parmunication with western Europe. tial modification of the present terriShould Russia be forced to succumb, torial condition of the German States, is a question for after consideration; and Prussia, after having exhausted it is one which may, at a future period, all their means of persuasion, and occupy the attention of a congress of opposed arguments of sound policy and the Powers that have signed the humanity to those of ambition, and to Vienna protocol, and in which France the fatality which seems to urge and England, both from their high Russia on to ber destruction; if they position in Europe, and from the more have at last determined to take up prominent part chey have taken in the arms to defend all that appears to them war, must have an influential voice. just and necessary for the peace of The modifications we have alluded to Europe, it is impossible to deny that may, or may not, be the best that can that resolution, adopted as it has been be realised, but we are of opinion that with the greatest repugnance, is the any arrangement will be incomplete severest condemnation of the conduct that, in fact, the war and all the sacri- of Russia. That conduct has rendered fices it entails will have been in vain, it impossible for the ancient allies unless Russia be forced to surrender of the Emperor Nicholas to follow no inconsiderable portion of the terri- bim any longer in his mad career. tory she has absorbed, and which, if They have entered the ranks of his she be allowed to retain it in her grasp, enemies; and having done so, is it will still serve as a vantage ground probable, is it possible, that they for future attacks against us. The should in some sort recompense him destruction of Sebastopol and Cron- by stipulating that he may, whenever stadt, which, it is to be presumed, he thinks fit, convulse Europe merely forms part of the plan of operations, to satisfy a selfish ambition; and that, however important for us, and cala- whatever he may do, he need be under mitous to Russia, will not suffice. no apprehension of chastisement, as These fortresses can be re-constructed, all Germany will guarantee the comat a great sacrifice of money and time, plete integrity of his territory? The no doubt; but they can be restored, idea is preposterous. Such Quixotic and, with all the appliances of modern generosity and abnegation do not beart, be made more formidable than long to our age. It is not in human
nature to make such sacrifices. Mere There is now, we presume, but one sentiments of personal attachment do opinion as to the interest every state not thus influence sovereigns; and no in Europe has in resisting the gigantic German cabinet would, or could, act march of Russia. We have never upon so suicidal a policy. As well seriously participated in the fears might it be said that Austria and entertained of the German Power3 Prussia should guarantee to Russia turning against us. The length of the expenses of a war provoked by time that elapsed before they as- herself, and which has already inflicted sumed a decided attitude, is accounted so much evil on Europe. for by their peculiar situation with The history of the last century, and reference to Russia, and the neces- a glance at the map of Europe, are sity of preparation, in order that sufficient to show the extent of the they should not be left alone exposed danger of countenancing or tolerating to her vengeance; but, however slow Russia in her designs. If victory their movements, no one who remem- declared in her favour, one of her first bers what they have as yet done in acts, faithless as she has proved hercommon with the maritime powers, self to her friends, as to her foes, can seriously suppose that they will would be to demand from Prussia thé declare for Russia. As for a perma Duchy of Posen, and the better part nent neutrality, it is impossible. We of Silesia. Now, whatever may be fully concur in the opinion expressed thought of the original partition of by General Benin, that it would be Poland, that portion of its territory an act of suicide. We go further; we which was confirmed to Prussia by do not believe that Austria and Prussia the Treaty of Vienna in 1815 has will finally declare against the penalty gained considerably since then. When that must inevitably be inflicted on first assigned to Prussia in 1792, the Russia for her wanton disturbance of majority of its inhabitants were little the tranquillity of Europe. If Austria better than predial slaves, and consequently as ignorant and brutalised as Hungarians would readily place themRussian serfs now are. Prussia began selves under the rule of Russia, if it by repressing the customary excesses were from no other motive than hatred of the nobles. She introduced an im- to the house of Hapsburg. It is true proved judicial system, established their condition, in that case, would be schools, and by other means improved one of hopeless servitude; but pasthe habits and condition of the people. sion does not calculate consequences. These reforms, together with the abo- As for Italy, it is superfluous to say lition of servitude, have produced ex- anything. In that country we bave cellent results; though, owing to its daily evidence that the elements of original degradation, Posen is still the revolution, the ignes suppositos cineri, most backward of the Prussian pro- the never-extinguished volcano, are vincés. Posen and Silesia, with the still in vigour. The fire is still beexception of those parts inhabited neath the surface, heaving incessantly, by the descendants of the German breaking forth from time to time, and colonists, are, it must be remembered, menacing, when least expected, the of Slavonic origin, and, in the name of eruption which would spread destrucPanslavism, of which the Czar is the tion and desolation around. The great apostle, would be demanded Italians have, it is true, nothing in from Prussia. Russia would soon common with Russia,-neither relifind the Baltic admirably suited to her gion, habits, usages, manners; they porposes; and as the Prussian terri- are as opposite as civilisation and an tory forms but a strip of land between innate love of the beautiful can well Poland and the sea, it would soon be be to barbarism, hating despotism, and in the condition of the Danubian despising the barbarian of the north. principalities, and even less capable Yet with all this, we have little doubt of resistance than Turkey. Unlike that they would co-operate with RusTurkey proper, Prussia is not pro- sia to-morrow, if Russia, fresh from its tected by the conformation of her triumph over France and England, territory; and, from her geographical called upon them to rise in arms position, she presents a permanent against the detested Tedeschi. The temptation to the power that would principle of the Lombardo-Venetian attack her by land and sea at the same patriot is to be the friend, and, if netime.
cessary, the active ally, of him who In the event of the success of Rus- is the enemy of Austria. Where could sia, Austria is exposed to as great Austria look for aid except from three danger as Prussia. She is not igno- or four millions of Germans? We rant that appeals have been already believe that these things have been made to her subjects in the name of long and deliberately weighed at religion, and disaffection excited in Vienna, and we should indeed be the cause of the orthodox faith and astonished if Austria contributed by of Panslavism. The elements for her neutrality, not to say her direct such a propagandism are to be found partisanship, to the triumph of Russia. in that great empire, composed, as it It is admitted by persons who canis, of many states differing in extent not be suspected of any great love for and in population, as in creed. Most England and France, that these counof them have been united under the tries have a good and legitimate cause imperial crown by inheritance, or by of war against Russia. The author treaty, rather than by conquest; and of a pamphlet recently published, entheir boundaries remain as they ex- titled Neutralité de l'Autriche, states isted when independent, with the ex- that, even at St Petersburg, few are ception of the Italian possessions. Of to be found who contest that right. the thirty-eight millions that form the The immense resources so long and population of the Austrian empire, so carefully accumulated by Russia, about eighteen millions are Slavonians. the odious manner in which she carThe Roumani of Transylvania would ries on war, the disorders and insurdesire to be united to their brethren; rections she so treacherously excites and the Hungarian war has shown and pays in other countries, utterly that, if so favourable an occasion as regardless of the ruin which falls on the triumph of Hungary offered, the the innocent and helpless populations, her systematic plan of attacking the and independence of Austria quite as integrity, destroying the indepen- much as she does that of Turkey. It dence, and finally appropriating to is no cause of suspicion or censure that herself the territory of inoffensive Austria desired, before any more deneighbours and allies—and all this cided action, to reassure herself with iniquity practised with the most ear- respect to Germany. An understandnest protestations of moderation, dis- ing with her old rival, Prussia, was interestedness, and even amity-have absolutely necessary, as any antagonleft no other alternative to those who ism with that power, in such circumhave not made up their minds to bow stances as the present, would be of to the Muscovite yoke, than to draw immense advantage to Russia. That the sword in the cause not only of her first idea was one of conservation, civilisation, but of existence itself. will not appear strange to those who We admit her exceptional situation have even a slight knowledge of the as an excuse for Austria not having constitution of the Austrian empire, long since assumed a more vigorous with its various and conflicting naaction. We, too, were slow in action; tionalities, and that that idea found and we, too, have statesmen who, if its most effective realisation in the they did not connive at the nefarious construction of a powerful German proceedings of Russia, have at all league. To it we owe the fact that events been miserably duped ; and we the resistance to Russia has assumed cannot plead the excuse of Austria. a twofold character. For the last two That empire had scarcely settled down years, these states have adopted, in from the terrible convulsion which common, certain moral obligations, had shaken every member of her wbich are comprised in the treaty, vast and unwieldy frame, and bad though it would, no doubt, be better not recovered from her cruel condi- to have maintained a unity of action, tion between the dangerous protec. and constituted, at the last and most torate of a powerful and ambitious critical moment, one vast German ally on one hand, and the revolution camp, ready to act, side by side, with on the other. The ties which once the West, and one army, that of the bound Austria to Russia bave, how- civilisation and balance of power in ever, since been loosened ; the injury Europe, against barbarism and uninflicted on Austrian interests has been bounded ambition. It would, no very great. At the moment when doubt, have been better if the great Russia believed that she could count powers had long since taken their on the goodwill and the services of her stand on one common ground, for protegée, she had not as yet paralysed many events have occurred which her commercial existence by blocking would have been avoided had a good up the mouths of the Danube. Neither understanding existed from the comhad Russia unmasked her intrigues in mencement of the Eastern questionGreece. She had not as yet supplied or the same union in action as in profunds for piratical ships which me- tocols. If, however, there was at any nace the trade of the Archipelago, time any hesitation about Austriaand that of Austria in the Adriatic. if there really existed a disposition to She had not as yet roused the brig, listen to the seductions, or to yield to and insurrection of Montenegro; the menaces of Russia-if the picture and her emissaries in Servia, which of future revolution, more terrible touches Austria so nearly, were not than that which convulsed her in 1848, yet avowed. Time has removed was laid open before her, and if, conall doubt that even the grateful par- scious of many duties unperformed, tiality of the Emperor Francis Joseph many obligations unsulfilled, and many entertained as to the real designs of wrongs inflicted by her, she shrapk at Russia; but unless Austria now carry the thought of a complete and a final her forbearance so far as to wait till rupture with her former friend, that the Cossacks invade her territory, she moment, we firmly believe, has passed can cherish no further hope of the for- away. Before the publication of the bearance or loyalty of the Czar. Rus- Seymour correspondence, we could sia, her protector in 1849, has become have understood hesitation and doubts, her enemy, and menaces the integrity but not since the proclamation to the world of the scornful language of the of having, for any length of time, disCzar. We have shown that the in- turbed the peace of Europe. terests of Austria have been the first The conduct of Austria, since the to suffer ; that her trade was arrested treaty of the 20th April, has been by the closing of the Danube, and by more straightforward and more enerthe Greek piracy paid by Russia; that getic than what any one expected the brigands of Montenegro were but from her. The note presented to obeying orders from St Petersburg; Russia, in accordance with the proviand that the hostility of Russia is even sions of that instrument, was so firm now felt in Servia. The longer Aus- and precise, that the Prussian Cabinet, tria delayed before declaring herself, or rather the King, became alarmed, the more enemies she would have to and the first symptom of weakness encounter. We believe, then, that was taken advantage of by the agents her merely expectant attitude is now of Russia to promote a rupture bedefinitively abandoned. Her salva- tween the two states, even at the risk tion is at stake, no less than the in- of war between them. The fears of tegrity of the Ottoman empire; and the King were acted upon. Austria while reserving to themselves a liberty was accused of having given an erroof action in the conferences presided neous interpretation to the treaty, over by M. Buol, the German powers and of having exaggerated its imporhave not, by that reservation, left tance; and matters were carried so themselves a door open for escape; far that, as our readers will probably and Austria, above all, has pledged remember, a ministerial crisis followed herself to act. If gratitude to Russia at Berlin. The anger of the Russian for past services be alleged, it may be party was principally directed against answered that, by accepting her aid the Minister for Foreign Affairs, and in 1849, the Emperor Francis Joseph Baron Manteuffel was at one moment did not bind himself to sacrifice the threatened with the loss of office. It independence of his crown, the inte- was alleged by the Russo-Prussians grity of his territory, and the interests that, by signing the treaty, Prussia of his people; and if any scruples still had for ever sacrificed her indepenexist on that score in the imperial dence and liberty of action ; that no mind, England and France may reply, choice was now, or would in future be, in the words of Corneille
left her, whether she desired to ad« Vous lui devez beaucoup :
vance, or recede, or stop short; and that Mais la reconnaissance et l'hospitalité
she had imposed on herself the obligaSur les âmes des rois n'ont qu'un droit limité. tion to follow in the wake of Austria. Quoi que doive un monarque, et dứt-il sa In the additional article of the treaty, couronne,
which provides for the case of the Il doit à ses sujets encor plus qu'à personne. Emperor of Russia's refusal to give the S'il est juste, d'ailleurs
, que tout se considère, complete security” required of him, Que hasardait Pompée en servant votre père? it was observed, that the complete li se voulut par là faire voir tout-puissant, subordination of Prussia to Austria Et vit croître sa gloire en vous retablissant !" was formally stipulated. In such an
It is true that, with England and emergency Austria was authorised to France united, there can be little ap- adopt whatever measures she may prehension as to their being equal to judge most efficacious for the speedy the task of bringing the Czar to rea- evacuation of the Principalities, and son ; but with the co-operation of arresting the progress of the Russian Austria and Prussia, the war has what armies ; and should her territory be may be called a more sovereign char- attacked in consequence of those meaacter. If we have so earnestly de- sures, Prussia was bound to employ sired the co-operation of the two great the whole of her military force to repel German powers, it was with the ob- that attack. The Russian party at ject of seeing peace speedily establish- Berlin deduced from that article the. ed on a more solid and more lasting probability, nay, the certainty, that basis than before, and that the Em- war would arise out of the convention, peror of Russia, all-powerful and ter- but that the interest of Austria would rible as he has long appeared to Eu- alone be cared for, without any rerope, shall not enjoy the satisfaction ciprocity in favour of Prussia. At