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second battle being at hand, this spirit turn her face, saying that if it were in all appeared again unto him, but spake never parts agreeable to the back, he would a word. Thereupon Brutus, knowing he become apprentice to Zeuxis, and slave to should die, did put himself to all hazard (550 | Venus. In the like manner fareth it with in battle, but yet fighting could not be me, for having all the ladies in Italy, (40 slain. So seeing his men put to flight and more than fifty hundred, whereby to color overthrown, he ran unto a little rock Elizabeth, I must say with Zeuxis that not far off, and there setting his sword's as many more will not suffice, and therepoint to his breast, fell upon it and slew fore in as great an agony paint her court himself, but yet as it is reported, with the with her back towards you, for that I help of his friend that despatched him. cannot by art portray her beauty, wherein,

though I want the skill to do it as Zeuxis

did, yet viewing it narrowly, and comparJOHN LYLY (1654?-1606)

ing it wisely, you all will say that if

her face be answerable to her back, you (50 QUEEN ELIZABETH

will like my handicraft and become her

handmaids. In the mean season, I leave From EUPHUES AND HIS ENGLAND you gazing until she turn her face, im

agining her to be such a one as nature This queen being deceased, Elizabeth, framed, to that end that no art should being of the age of twenty-two years, of imitate, wherein she hath proved herself more beauty than honor, and yet of more to be exquisite, and painters to be apes. honor than any earthly creature, was

This beautiful mold when I beheld to called from a prisoner to be a prince, from be indued with chastity, temperance, mildthe castle to the crown, from the fear of ness, and all other good gifts of na- (60 losing her head, to be supreme head. ture (as hereafter shall appear), when I

Touching the beauty of this prince, her saw her to surpass all in beauty, and yet a countenance, her personage, her majesty, virgin, to excel all in piety, and yet a I cannot think that it may be suffi- (10 prince, to be inferior to none in all the ciently commended, when it cannot be lineaments of the body, and yet superior too much marveled at; so that I am con- to every one in all gifts of the mind, I bestrained to say as Praxitiles did, when he gan thus to pray, that as she hath lived began to paint Venus and her son, who forty years a virgin in great majesty, so doubted whether the world could afford she may live four score years a mother colors good enough for two such fair faces, with great joy, that as with her we have 170 and I, whether our tongue can yield words long time had peace and plenty, so by to blaze that beauty, the perfection her we may ever have quietness and whereof none can imagine; which seeing abundance, wishing this even from the it is so, I must do like those that want (20 bottom of a heart that wisheth well to a clear sight, who, being not able to dis- England, though feareth ill, that either cern the sun in the sky, are enforced to the world may end before she die, or she behold it in the water. Zeuxis, having live to see her children's children in the before him fifty fair virgins of Sparta world; otherwise how tickle their state whereby to draw one amiable Venus, said is that now triumph, upon what a twist that fifty more fairer than those could not they hang that now are in honor, (80 minister sufficient beauty to show the they that live shall see, which I to think goddess of beauty; therefore, being in on, sigh! But God for his mercy's sake, despair either by art to shadow her, or Christ for his merit's sake, the Holy by imagination to comprehend her, he (30 Ghost for his name's sake, grant to that drew in a table a fair temple, the gates realm comfort without any ill chance, and open, and Venus going in so as nothing the prince they have without any other could be perceived but her back, wherein change, that the longer she liveth the he used such cunning that Apelles himself, sweeter she may smell, like the bird Ibis, seeing this work, wished that Venus would that she may be triumphant in victories like the palm tree, fruitful in her (90 gave them thanks, and put herself to age

like the vine, in all ages prosperous, to pains. O noble pattern of a princely all men gracious, in all places glorious, mind, not like to the kings of Persia, who so that there be no end of her praise until in their progresses did nothing else but the end of all flesh.

cut sticks to drive away the time, nor Thus did I often talk with myself, and like the delicate lives of the Sybarites, who wish with mine whole soul.

would not admit any art to be exer- (150 Why should I talk of her sharp wit, cised within their city that might make excellent wisdom, exquisite learning, and the least noise. Her wit so sharp, that all other qualities of the mind, wherein she if I should repeat the apt answers, the seemeth as far to excel those that have (100 subtle questions, the fine speeches, the been accounted singular, as the learned pithy sentences, which on the sudden have surpassed those that have been she hath uttered, they would rather breed thought simple.

admiration than credit. But such are In questioning, not inferior to Nicaulia, the gifts that the living God hath indued the queen of Saba, that did put so many her withal, that look in what art or lanhard doubts to Solomon; equal to Nicos- guage, wit or learning, virtue or beauty (160 trata in the Greek tongue, who was any one hath particularly excelled most, thought to give precepts for the better she only hath generally exceeded every perfection; more learned in the Latin one in all, insomuch that there is nothing than Amalasunta; passing Aspasia in (110 to be added that either man would wish philosophy, who taught Pericles; exceed- in a woman, or God doth give to a creaing in judgment Themistoclea, who in- ture. structed Pythagoras. Add to these qual- I let pass her skill in music, her knowlities, those that none of these had: the edge in all the other sciences, whenas I French tongue, the Spanish, the Italian, fear lest by my simplicity I should make not mean in every one, but excellent in them less than they are, in seeking to (170 all; readier to correct escapes in those show how great they are, unless I were languages than to be controlled; fitter to praising her in the gallery of Olympia, teach others than learn of any; more able where giving forth one word, I might to add new rules than to err in the (120 hear seven. old; insomuch as there is no ambassador But all these graces, although they be that cometh into her court but she is will- to be wondered at, yet her politic goving and able both to understand his mes- ernment, her prudent counsel, her zeal to sage and utter her mind; not like unto the religion, her clemency to those that subkings of Assyria, who answer ambassadors mit, her stoutness to those that threaten, by messengers, while they themselves so far exceed all other virtues that (180 either dally in sin or snort in sleep. Her they are more easy to be marveled at than godly zeal to learning, with her great imitated. skill, hath been so manifestly approved Two and twenty years hath she borne that I cannot tell whether she deserve (130 the sword with such justice, that neither more honor for her knowledge, or admira- offenders could complain of rigor, nor tion for her courtesy, who in great pomp the innocent of wrong; yet so tempered hath twice directed her progress unto the with mercy as malefactors have been universities with no less joy to the stu- sometimes pardoned upon hope of grace, dents than glory to her state. Where, and the injured requited to ease their after long and solemn disputations in grief, insomuch that in the whole (190 law, physic, and divinity, not as one course of her glorious reign, it could never wearied with scholars' arguments, but be said that either the poor were oppressed wedded to their orations, when every without remedy, or the guilty repressed one feared to offend in length, she (140 without cause, bearing this engraven in in her own person, with no less praise to her noble heart, that justice without her Majesty than delight to her subjects, mercy were extreme injury, and pity with a wise and learned conclusion, both without equity plain partiality, and that

it is as great tyranny not to mitigate shutteth them, referring all her actions laws, as iniquity to break them.

and endeavors to him that ruleth the (250 Her care for the flourishing of the 200 sun. This is that Cæsar, that first bound Gospel hath well appeared, whenas neither the crocodile to the palm tree, bridling the curses of the Pope (which are bless- those that sought to rein her. This is that ings to good people) nor the threatenings good pelican, that to feed her people of kings (which are perilous to a prince) spareth not to rend her own person. nor the persuasions of papists (which are This is that mighty eagle, that hath honey to the mouth) could either fear thrown dust into the eyes of the hart her or allure her to violate the holy that went about to work destruction to league contracted with Christ, or to her subjects, into whose wings although maculate the blood of the ancient Lamb, the blind beetle would have crept, and (260 which is Christ. But always constant (210 so being carried into her nest, destroyed in the true faith, she hath to the exceeding her young ones, yet hath she with the joy of her subjects, to the unspeakable virtue of her feathers, consumed that fly comfort of her soul, to the great glory of in his own fraud. She hath exiled the God, established that religion the main- swallow that sought to spoil the grasstenance whereof she rather seeketh to hopper, and given bitter almonds to the confirm by fortitude, than leave off for ravenous wolves that endeavored to defear, knowing that there is nothing that vour the silly lambs, burning even with smelleth sweeter to the Lord than a sound the breath of her mouth like the princely spirit, which neither the hosts of the un- stag, the serpents that were engen- (270 godly nor the horror of death can (220 dered by the breath of the huge elephant, either remove or move.

so that now all her enemies are as whist as This Gospel with invincible courage, the bird Attagen, who never singeth any with rare constancy, with hot zeal, she tune after she is taken,-nor they, being so hath maintained in her own countries overtaken. without change, and defended against all But whither do I wade, ladies, as one kingdoms that sought change, insomuch forgetting himself; thinking to sound the that all nations round about her, threat- depth of her virtues with a few fathoms, ening alteration, shaking swords, throw- when there is no bottom; for I know ing fire, menacing famine, murder, de- not how it cometh to pass that, being (280 struction, desolation, she only hath (230 in this labyrinth, I may sooner lose mystood like a lamp on the top of a hill, not self than find the end. fearing the blasts of the sharp winds, but Behold, ladies, in this glass a queen, trusting in His providence that rideth a woman, a virgin, in all gifts of the body, upon the wings of the four winds. Next in all graces of the mind, in all perfection followeth the love she beareth to her sub- of either, so far to excel all men, that I jects, who no less tendereth them than know not whether I may think the place the apple of her own eye, showing herself too bad for her to dwell among men. a mother to the afflicted, a physician to To talk of other things in that court the sick, a sovereign and mild governess were to bring eggs after apples, or (290 to all.

(240 after the setting out of the sun, to tell a Touching her magnanimity, her maj- tale of a shadow. esty, her estate royal, there was neither But this I say, that all offices are looked Alexander, nor Galba the Emperor, nor to with great care, that virtue is emany, that might be compared with her. braced of all, vice hated, religion daily

This is she that, resembling the noble increased, manners reformed, that whoso queen of Navarre, useth the marigold for seeth the place there, will think it rather her flower, which at the rising of the sun a church for divine service than a court openeth her leaves, and at the setting for princes' delight.

be, both by Aristotle's precept and 150 SIR PHILIP SIDNEY (1564-1686) common reason, but one day; there is

both many days and many places inartiFrom THE DEFENCE OF POESY ficially imagined

But if it be so in Gorboduc, how much Chaucer, undoubtedly, did excellently more in all the rest? where you shall in his Troilus and Criseyde; of whom, have Asia of the one side, and Afric of truly, I know not whether to marvel the other, and so many other undermore, either that he in that misty time kingdoms, that the player, when he could see so clearly, or that we in this cometh in, must ever begin with telling clear age walk so stumblingly after him. where he is, or else the tale will not be (60 Yet had he great wants, fit to be forgiven conceived. Now ye shall have three ladies in so reverend antiquity. I account the walk to gather flowers, and then we must Mirror of Magistrates meetly furnished believe the stage to be a garden. By and of beautiful parts; and in the Earl of (10 by we hear news of shipwreck in the same Surrey's lyrics many things tasting of place, and then we are to blame if we a noble birth, and worthy of a noble accept it not for a rock. Upon the back mind. The Shepherd's Calendar hath of that comes out a hideous monster with much poetry in his eclogues, indeed worthy fire and smoke, and then the miserable the reading, if I be not deceived. That beholders are bound to take it for a cave. same framing of his style to an old rustic While in the meantime two armies fly (70 language I dare not allow, since neither in, represented with four swords and Theocritus in Greek, Virgil in Latin, nor bucklers, and then what hard heart will Sannazzaro in Italian did affect it. Be- not receive it for a pitched field? sides these, I do not remember to have (20 Now of time they are much more libseen but few (to speak boldly) printed, eral. For ordinary it is that two young that have poetical sinews in them. For princes fall in love; after many traverses proof whereof, let but most of the verses she is got with child, delivered of a fair be put

in prose, and then ask the mean- boy, he is lost, groweth a man, falleth in ing, and it will be found that one verse love, and is ready to get another child, did but beget another, without ordering and all this in two hours' space; which (80 at the first what should be at the last; how absurd it is in sense even sense may which becomes a confused mass of words, imagine, and art hath taught, and all with a tinkling sound of rime, barely ac- ancient examples justified, and at this companied with reason.

(30 day the ordinary players in Italy will not Our tragedies and comedies not with- err in. Yet will some bring in an example out cause cried out against, observing of Eunuchus in Terence, that containeth rules neither of honest civility nor of matter of two days, yet far short of skilful poetry, excepting Gorboduc,-again twenty years. True it is, and so was it I say of those that I have seen. Which to be played in two days, and so fitted to notwithstanding as it is full of stately the time it set forth. And though 190 speeches and well-sounding phrases, climb- Plautus have in one place done amiss, let ing to the height of Seneca's style, and as us hit with him, and not miss with him. full of notable morality, which it doth But they will say, How then shall we set most delightfully teach, and so obtain (40 forth a story which containeth both the very end of poesy; yet in truth it many places and many times? And do is very defectious in the circumstances, they not know that a tragedy is tied to which grieveth me, because it might not the laws of poesy, and not of history; remain as an exact model of all tragedies. not bound to follow the story, but havFor it is faulty both in place and time, ing liberty either to feign a quite new the two necessary companions of all cor- matter, or to frame the history to (100 poral actions. For where the stage should the most tragical conveniency? Again, always represent but one place, and the many things may be told which cannot be uttermost time presupposed in it should showed,-if they know the difference be

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twixt reporting and representing. As it out that, having indeed no right comedy for example I may speak, though I am in that comical part of our tragedy, we here, of Peru, and in speech digress from have nothing but scurrility, unworthy (160 that to the description of Calicut; but in of

any

chaste ears, or some extreme show action I cannot represent it without of doltishness, indeed fit to lift up a loud Pacolet's horse. And so was the manner laughter, and nothing else; where the the ancients took, by some Nuntius (110 whole tract of a comedy should be full to recount things done in former time or of delight, as the tragedy should be still other place.

maintained in a well-raised admiration. Lastly, if they will represent a history, they must not, as Horace saith, begin ab ovo, but they must come to the prin- words of this play-matter. I do it, be

But I have lavished out too many cipal point of that one action which they will represent. By example this will be

cause as they are excelling parts of poesy, best expressed. I have a story of young land, and none can be more pitifully

so is there none so much used in Eng- (170 Polydorus, delivered for safety's sake, with great riches, by his father (120 abused; which, like an unmannerly Priamus to Polymnestor, King of Thrace, daughter, showing a bad education, causin the Trojan war time. He, after some

to be

called in question. years, hearing the overthrow of Priamus, for to make the treasure his own, mur

Other sorts of poetry almost have we dereth the child; the body of the child is

none, but that lyrical kind of songs and taken up by Hecuba; she, the same day, sonnets, which, the Lord if he gave us so findeth a sleight to be revenged most good minds, how well it might be emcruelly of the tyrant. Where now would ployed, and with how heavenly fruits, (180 one of our tragedy-writers begin, but with both private and public, in singing the the delivery of the child? Then should (130 praises of the immortal beauty, the imhe sail over into Thrace, and so spend I

mortal goodness of that God who giveth know not how many years, and travel

us hands to write, and wits to conceive; numbers of places. But where doth

of which we might well want words, but Euripides? Even with the finding of the

never matter; of which we could turn our body, leaving the rest to be told by the eyes to nothing, but we should ever have spirit of Polydorus. This needs no further new-budding occasions. to be enlarged; the dullest wit may con

But truly, many of such writings as ceive it.

come under the banner of unresistible (190 But, besides these gross absurdities, love, if I were a mistress would never how all their plays be neither right (140 persuade me they were in love; so coldly tragedies nor right comedies, mingling they apply fiery speeches, as men that kings and clowns, not because the matter

had rather read lovers' writings, and so so carrieth it, but thrust in clowns by caught up certain swelling phrases—which head and shoulders to play a part in hang together like a man which once told majestical matters, with neither decency

me the wind was at northwest and by nor discretion; so as neither the admira- south, because he would be sure to name tion and commiseration, nor the right feel those passions, which easily, as I (200

sportfulness, is by their mongrel tragicomedy obtained.' I know Apuleius did think, may be bewrayed by that same somewhat so, but that is a thing re- (150 forcibleness, or energia (as the Greeks counted with space of time, not repre

this sented in one moment: and 'I know the sufficient, though short note, that we ancients have one or two examples of

miss the right use of the material point tragi-comedies, as Plautus hath Amphitrio. But, if we mark them well, we shall find that they never, or very daintily, But what! methinks I deserve to be match hornpipes and funerals. So falleth / pounded for straying from poetry to ora

of poesy.

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