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names of Wilkie, and Raeburn, and Haydon, and Turner, great picture of Vasco di Gama. Behind you is King and Harvey, and Danby, and Stothard, and Martin, and Richard receiving his ill-fated nephews. In front rises a Scott. We single out the two last mentioned for a few re- figure of Ossian, listening to the harp of Malvina, with marks. John Martin is, in our opinion, the most original bare breast, sinewy arm, and long grey locks, like a frozen genius of the present day. He sees all things through meteor, streaming in the wind. In a dim corner of the his own medium. He has created over his own head room you see a dark shadowy something in the shape of a dark, frowning, but magnificent world. He has cut a picture, and you ask the artist what it is, and you alout for himself a lonely and dangerous path, in which most shudder, as he replies, in bis slow, solemn, sepulhe had no predecessor, and shall have no follower. In chral tones—It is from Homer, and represents Sleep his every picture there is a flash of lightning, now illu- and Death carrying Sarpedon to his grave.' Returning mining some scene of desolation, now garlanding the head to the house, he shows you the sketches of a series of ilof a fiend, and now guiding the invaders through the lustrations of Bunyan; and you now shrink at a hideous breach of a city. We have sometimes called it ‘John figure of Apollyon, and now smile on the Three Fair VirMartin, his mark. Who can forget his Belshazzar's gins in the house called Beautiful, or at the figure of the Feast, with those letters on the wall, dipped in lightning mild maiden Mercy. And your impression on going away -or rather in the Shekinah-and blazing out dismay is, 'this is a strange and great spirit.' and ruin upon the dazzled eye of the inmates of that gorgeous hall? Or who can forget his Deluge, the waters of which a comet appears to be lashing into fury with its BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. fiery tail? There is a large folio edition of Milton's Paradise Lost, of the finest type, with illustrations by Martin. It is beautiful book, and seems a trial of
ARISTOTLE. strength on the part of poetry, printing, and painting, to ARISTOTLE—the greatest name in philosophy-was born do their best, and form between them a magnificent at Stagira, a town of Thrace, B.C. 384. His birth-place whole. And nobly does Martin cope with the grandeur has caused him to be distinguished as the Stagirite. Niof the subject, and follow the steps of that awful pilgrim, comachus and Phæstis, his parents, who belonged to who, as he went alone through the fighting elements of Chalcis, were both of noble extraction; but of the latter chaos to the ruin of a world, so alone did he return to nothing is known excepting what has now been intimated. the halls of pandemonium, to find his seat on its burn- Enough, she was the mother of Aristotle, a son who, in ing throne hotter than before.
lieu of the life she gave him, made her name at least a Martin is a man of great simplicity of character. Hogg sharer in the immortality of his own. Nicomachus, his, met him, and describes him as humble and simple as a father, was physician to King Amyntas, grandfather of shepherd's boy. He has encountered many struggles in Alexander the Great; and claimed descent from Escula. the early part of his career. On one occasion he was re- pius himself, in whose family the profession was herediduced to his last shilling. He had kept it, out of a heap, tary. Neither of the parents lived to witness the celefrom a partiality to its appearance. It was very bright. brity of their offspring. Having lost them both while IIe was compelled at last to part with it. He went out yet in his boyhood, Aristotle went to live with one to a baker's shop to purchase a loaf with his favourite Proxenus, a citizen of Atarnea, and a friend of his family, shilling. He had got the loaf in his hands, when the who appears to have been to him half-tutor half-guardian. baker discovered that the shilling was a bad one, and poor For his early preceptor he ever cherished sincere respect Martin had to give up the loaf, and take back his dear, and affection; though, while under his care, the conbright, bad shilling once more. We hope he has kept it duct of the philosopher seems to have been marked by as a memorial of the struggles and sufferings of his early the waywardness incident to his years. His patrimony, days.
which was considerable, he squandered; he is even said, David Scott is a fine specimen of the pictorial talent of like Coleridge, to have been a soldier for a short time, the present day. We are not blind to his acknowledged and then, quitting that employment in disgust, and availdefects of colour, but, notwithstanding this, there is ing himself of the rudimental knowledge of medicine force, a grandeur, an originality, and a gravity, about his which his father had imparted to him, to have become a style, which are very remarkable. His great picture is seller of drugs. These stories, however, are somewhat Vasco di Gama passing the Cape. This renowned ex- apocryphal. We are ignorant of the regiment in which plorer is standing with folded arms in the midst of a scene he enlisted, nor do classical antiquaries point out the of the most varied and sublime confusion. The ship is Athenian doorway orer which was suspended the signreeling in a tempest. The crew have been mutinying, board of Aristotle, apothecary.' for you see two mutineers, savage-looking figures, bound To Athens, notwithstanding, while yet a stripling of on the deck, one of whom is lifting up his arms, in impo- seventeen or eighteen, he certainly went. Here he betent fury, behind his commander. În front appears the came a pupil in the school of Plato, himself a disciple of Demon of the Cape, a vast shadowy form, who has come the equally celebrated Socrates--a trio in philosophy, to arrest the farther progress of the hardy sailor. The might a passing quaintness be allowed, reminding us, in crew are in a state of uncontrollable terror. Some of them some sort, of the patriarchal-Socrates its practical Abraare clinging for safety to the skirts of a Dominican friar, ham, Plato its meditative Isaac, Aristotle its acute and whose own terror has thrown him into a swoon. And inventive Jacob. The extraordinary parts of the new in the midst of all this tempest, mutiny, and fear, stands student soon attracted the notice of his master. The latup serene, and firm, and calm, with folded arms, the in- ter bestowed on him the most flattering encomiums, obdomitable hero, whose strong spirit confronts, defies, serving that, whereas others required the spur, he redwindles, even the gigantic demon of the Cape. Another quired the rein; calling him habitually the mind of the nice little thing of his is entitled 'Puck fleeing before the school ;' and remarking, in his absence, “intellect is not Dawn.' It represents the fairy, a curious, fat, roll-about, here.' boyish figure, with a world of waggery in his eye, decamp- Aristotle continued to attach himself to the Academy ing at full speed, but with reverted glance, before the till the death of Plato, under whom he studied in all chariot of the sun, which is rising on the left side of the about twenty years. For the genius of his master he had picture.
the highest veneration, and yet, as the conscious possessor The studio of David Scott, who resides in Edinburgh, of an understanding of an order the most vigorous and is well worthy of a visit. On entering his painting-room, original, resolved to give scope to his own. Perhaps this or his chapel, as he calls it, you find it crowded with the impulse gathered strength from a disappointment. Eren creations of his pencil. The subjects you see are nearly in the lifetime of Plato, he had taught rhetoric publicly all of a solemn kind, and you almost tremble as you look in opposition to Isocrates; at his death he expected to fill around. On your left hand leans, like a wearied giant, his his place in the Academy. Relationship, however, out
weighed the claims of capacity; a nephew of Plato's suc- the shape of conversations than of lectures. He taught ceeded him; and the mind of the school' withdrew from walking, and hence his disciples have been distinguished Athens in disgust. A transaction this not without its as peripatetics, from the Greek word to walk about. The parallels in modern times! Aristotle the philosopher the pupils at the Lyceum were divided into two classes : to rejected candidate, Speusippus the nonentity has filled the more advanced and select portion the philosopher de the chair.
voted his mornings; his evening discourses were open to all ; The next three years of his life were spent by Aristotle and this distinction in the style and matter of his spoken at the court of Hermias, sovereign of À tarnea, the city instructions is impressed on his works, which are still to in which he had formerly resided. This potentate, who be discriminated as esoteric or abstruse, and exoteric or was, it seems, an old friend and fellow-pupil of his, gave simple. the philosopher a cordial welcome; but at the end of the Aristotle continued to teach in the Lyceum during a term just mentioned, his patron was taken prisoner and period of thirteen years. His royal pupií did not forget put to death by the Persians. On this Aristotle betook him. A correspondence was maintained between them, himself to Mitylene, where he stayed two years. Here he and Alexander, for a time, persevered in a liberal and received an invitation from Philip, king of Macedon, to effective patronage of the illustrious Stagirite. At length become the preceptor of Alexander the Great. The royal his zeal cooled, from what precise causes it is not easy to epistle ran as follows:-
ascertain. It seems that he felt annoyed at the publicaPhilip of Macedon to Aristotle, greeting. Know that tion of certain works which made the knowledge of which there has been born to me a son. I thank the gods less he was the original recipient, the property of the many. that they have given me one, than that they have fixed A letter still extant gives curious indication that the marr his birth in the time of Aristotle. I hope you will make who succeeded in constituting himself the monopolist of him a king worthy to be the successor of Philip, and ruler power, felt galled at his inability to be the monopolist of the Macedonians.'
of science. A requisition from such a quarter, and couched in such * Alexander to Aristotle, greeting. You have done flattering terms, was of course accepted. At the court wrong in publishing your works on the speculative sciences. of Macedon, with which, as we have seen, his father had How am I to excel others, if you impart to all what you been professionally connected, he enjoyed the highest first imparted to me! You are aware that I would rather consideration and exercised no slight influence. At his surpass mankind in the higher branches of learning than intercession, Stagira was rebuilt, and his fellow-citizens in power. Farewell.'. reinstated in their ancient immunities, who, in grati- Notwithstanding this growing dislike, which Aristotle, tude for these favours, instituted an annual festival called incensed at the execution of a friend and kinsman, seems after him Aristotelia. Athens also had in him a friend to have reciprocated, the name and protection of Alexat court. Although, however, the philosopher mingled ander availed, during the lifetime of the latter, to shield to some extent in public business, and exerted, as in these him from his enemies. For enemies he had, whose hoscases, a salutary influence on state affairs, his attention tility was ready to break out at the first opportunity: No was mainly directed to his royal pupil. Alexander, when sooner was he who had turned the world upside down' intrusted to his care, was only turned of thirteen; and for in his grave, than his instructor became the object of a seven subsequent years he was carefully instructed in such persecution, partly religious, partly political. The leaders branches of learning as politics, rhetoric, physics, and of the Athenian mob denounced him as the antagonist of poetry. It was from Aristotle that he imbibed that love liberty, and the abettor of arbitrary power; while one of Homer which fomented his passion for military renown, Eurymedon, a priest, held him up as the advocate of imwhile his preceptor also imparted to him those higher piety, the impugner of religion, and the enemy of the speculations which as yet were not given to the world. gods. The Stagirite retired before the storm, observing, The gratitude of Alexander was unbounded; and although, in allusion to the fate of Socrates, that he would spare towards the close of his career, he became completely the Athenians a second crime against philosophy:'. He alienated from the philosopher, he had previously con- went, attended by a few of his disciples, to Chalcis, to ferred on him the most munificent tokens of attachment which, as we have seen, his parents belonged. His eneand esteem. Besides 800 talents in money, a sum equiva- mies, however, unappeased by his exile, still thirsted for lent to £150,000, there were placed at his disposal the his blood. That thirst was at length satiated. Soon after services of several thousands of persons, who were to fur- his flight he died-some say from the effects of age, rennish bim, by means of fishing and hunting, with materials dered prematurely feeble from severe study and mental for his history of animals—a work in fifty volumes or anxiety. According to others, he destroyed himself by parts, of which only ten are extant. A correspondence poison, under an impending summons from the Arcopawas long kept up between the pupil and master, while gus, from which tribunal he despaired of final escape. A the former was prosecuting his conquests; and Alexander still more romantic, though glaringly improbable, account is reported to have said of Aristotle, that to him he owed of his death, ascribes it to his having drowned himself in as much as to his father, for if to the one he was indebted the river Euripus, because he could not discover the reafor life, to the other he was indebted for the art of living.' son why (as was alleged) it should ebb and flow seven
After the death of King Philip, and the consequent ac- times a-day. Aristotle died at the age of sixty-three, cession of his son, the philosopher remained for a year or B.C. 322. The place of his birth was that also of his two at the court of Macedonia. It is conjectured that he burial. Stagira received reverently back her illustrious afterwards accompanied the conqueror in some of his son. An altar and a tomb were reared-this the monuearlier campaigns, occupied the while in collecting obser- ment of his corporeal mortality, that the symbol of his Fations for his grand work on zoology. What a contrast imperishable genius. between the respective enterprises of the pupil and the preceptor; the one intent on founding, at the sacrifice of innumerable lives, an empire of ferocity and force; the Their courage ceases with the gaze of a man-a fact of other eager to enlarge the peaceful sway of science ! Had which the Indians are quite aware, and frequently turn the moral or even the intellectual perceptions of man- to a good use. I am not only convinced that a courageous kind come near the truth, the epithet bestowed on the man, unless he becomes the aggressor, with very few exformer would have been affixed to the latter, and we ceptions, is perfectly secure from the attack of the brute should read, not of Alexander, but of Aristotle the Great. creation in a wild state ; but that they will invariably
On his return from this semi-martial semi-philosophical shun him, if there is only space enough to admit of their tour, Aristotle settled, for the second time, at Athens. escape. I have frequently, for experiment's sake, apHere he began to teach at the Lyceum, a grove near the proached the rein-deer with closed eyes, without alarming city which had formerly been used as a place for military them; when a single glance made them bound again with exercises. His instructions seem rather to have assumed | fear.-King's Narrativo.
SKETCHES OF MODERN HISTORY.*
approaching, and of which the proceedings at the Council of Constance afforded an early and momentous indica
tion. BEGINNING OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY Whatever may be said of the errors and even crimes of COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE.
the popedom, it is impossible to deny it the credit of having
been the main instrument of planting and consolidating The period we have specified at the head of this article the religious element in the public mind of Europe. It marks the dawn of one of the most important epochs had the mission, and it accomplished it, of subjecting the in the history of the world. To a rightly constituted rude minds of the northern barbarians to the restraints mind, indeed, no part of the annals of our race can be of civil and religious obligation. But this task once otherwise than interesting, since it is always possible, even finished, the monstrous assumptions of the ecclesiastical amidst the follies and crimes they record, to discern power came into fatal conflict with the awakening intelthe overruling hand of a Providence that brings good ligence of the people and the ambition of their rulers. out of evil, and leads on, often through trial and suffering, Thus, while the thirteenth century beheld the papacy in the progress of humanity. The commencement of the its noontide splendour, and Rome once more the mistress fifteenth century, however, is peculiarly calculated to of the world; the fourteenth witnessed the gathering rivet attention, and to awaken a lively interest in those of those clouds which were destined to overwhelm her plans of divine government, whereby the downfal of feudal with a terrible eclipse. Then the ambition which and spiritual despotism was accomplished, and out of no height of power could satiate, assuming even the which, in the fulness of time, have sprung the civil and right to depose sovereigns at will and absolve subjects religious freedoin, the intellectual, moral, and industrial from their allegiance-the scandalous violations of good activity which distinguish our own times.
morals and common decency by the papal court and the From the issue of events, the religious movements of higher ecclesiastics--the vexatious assumptions of the the period assume an importance above all others; and it canon law, whereby the spiritual was declared superior to is to one of the inost significant of these that we intend the temporal authority—the rapid ascendency of the at present to direct attention. Yet it will not be im- mendicant orders, endangering the influence of the regu. proper to glance at the condition of Europe at and prior lar clergy, and a variety of other causes, had awakened a to the time in question. Hiere a most striking feature wide spread disaffection to the papal court. Even in the may be observed in the increased authority and considera- zenith of their power, the popes had failed in their object tion of the great sovereignties, and in the rise of a spirit of of fully subjecting the temporal to the spiritual authority; nationality among the people. The decay of chivalry, and the empty assertion of the principle by Boniface VIII.. and of that insane fervour which wasted itself in the cru- in 1302, met with a rebuffalmost ludicrous in that course of sades, naturally left the nations of Europe greater leisure events, which, beginning in an unsuccessful contest with to attend to objects of interest and ambition nearer home. Philip the Fair of France, and Edward I. of England, The commerce of the Italian cities, and of the Hanse shortly after led to what has been called the Babylonish towns, gradually extended in all directions, had arisen captivity, transferring the court of Clement V. from Rome to minister to the growing love of luxury and refine- to Avignon. Literature, too long the handmaid of spiment; and learning, policy, and wealth, came in for some ritual despotism, began also to assert her legitimate birthshare of that consideration, formerly given to merely right of ministering to liberty and truth; and in the physical qualities. In the Peninsula, the Portuguese, writings of Dante, Ockham, and Marsilius of Padua, the under John I., and his illustrious son Henry, began whole ecifice of the pope's temporal power was questioned a career of maritime discovery, destined before the close and opposed. But it was not till 1378, on the restoration of the century to pour into the lap of Europe the trea of the pontifical chair to Rome, followed by the decease of sures of the east and west. Spain, then divided into the Gregory XI., that the great schism arose from which the states of Castile, Arragon, Navarre, and Granada, seemed prestige of papal infallibility received its most fatal blow. passing through the process of consolidation, which eighty In that year the college of cardinals, having met to noyears after, when the Christian power became united in minate a successor, were awed by the Roman populace into the hands of Ferdinand and Isabella, led to the expulsion the election of an Italian archbishop, who assumed the of the Moors, and the conquest of the New World. In name of Urban VI. This choice, a few weeks after, they Germany, in 1411, the election of Sigismund, king of thought proper to annul, and anew appointed a FrenchHungary and Elector of Brandenburg, to the imperial man, Clement VII. Whatever posterity may think of dignity, had restored stability to the throne of the the pretensions of these competitors, they then shared Cæsars, and offered to Europe the first example of a civil the obedience of Europe in nearly equal proportions. ruler, who was called on to set limits to the assump- Urban, who remained at Rome, received the adherence tion of the popes. France, harassed by factions and of Italy, the Empire, England, and the North; while distracted by civil wars, presented, beneath the imbecile Clement, who resumed the station of Avignon, gained the rule of Charles VI., a melancholy contrast to its tempo- allegiance of France, Spain, Scotland, and Sicily. Chrisrary prosperity under his predecessor ; while in England, tendom was thus called to witness the unseemly spectacle already advancing in industry and wealth, Henry V., the of two heads of the church, each assuming infallibility, second monarch of the house of Lancaster, succeeded in engaged in the task of anathematizing and excommunicat1413 to the crown his father's policy had secured for him, ing each other. Neither party would admit of comproand exchanged a youth of revel for that career of ambition, mise. After the death of Urban, the Roman conciare over which the memorable victory of Agincourt has thrown elected three pontiffs successively, Boniface IX., Innocent such lasting renown. In the East, again, the expiring VI., and Gregory XII.; while the cardinals at Avignon, op shadow of the Greek empire obtained a temporary respite the demise of Clement, in 1394, placed their tiara on the by the invasion of Tamerlane the Tartar, who, having head of Peter de Luna, better known as Benedict XIII. swept like a torrent the whole of Western Asia, led his Such a state of things, which the church evidently victorious hordes against the Ottomans, and prostrated possessed within herself no means of terminating, could the power of Bajazet on the same field where Pompey had not fail materially to shake the hold possessed by the overcome the army of Mithridates. But all cotemporary papacy on the minds of mankind. Still, however, its inevents are lost sight of, or derive their chief significancy fluence was too powerful to leave room for any other feelfrom their bearing on the great moral revolution now fast ing than a desire to terminate its difficulties by lay inter
position. Of the opportunity thus afforded, the secular * Under this title it is proposed to give, at intervals, a series of sovereigns were quite willing to take advantage. Accordhistorical views of the most important epochs in tle mordern his, ingly, in 1409, during the double pontificate of Gregory tory of Europe, from the Reformntion to onr own time. They will follow each other as nearly as possible in consecutive order, so as
XII. and Benedict XIII., a general council was called at to exhibit a succinct epitome of the leading events.
Pisa, at the instigation of France, which deposed both
popes, and elected Alexander V.; but as neither of the Albigenses, and the terrors of the Inquisition, had failed two first thought proper to acquiesce in this decision, the to repress that spirit of inquiry so much dreaded by the only result was the addition of a third claimant for the priesthood; and so early as 1380, the preaching of Wiktriple crown. The Emperor Sigismund now resolved to liffe, in England, exposed their vices and corruptions, interfere. By far the most accomplished prince of his while his translation of the New Testament gave to the time, he united to a certain dissimulation or duplicity of world the germs of those pregnant principles since character many of those generous and patriotic virtues called the doctrines of the Reformation. These doctrines, which add lustre to exalted rank. A brave and skilful soon widely diffused, had found a worthy apostle and an soldier, he was at the same time a man of letters, and appropriate audience among the primitive Sclavonian race gloried in being thought a patron of learning and an ar- inhabiting the mountain circle of Bohemia. Born in biter in theology. The work of taking order in the affairs 1370, at the village of Ilussinatz, on the border of the of the church was one to which policy, pride, and ambi- Black Forest, John Huss belonged to a rank of life whence tion, alike prompted; while the necessity of uniting the so many lofty spirits have come forth to that work to force of Europe against the revived power of the Otto- which not many rich men, not many noble, are called. mans, who had lately defeated his army in the battle of Uniting the sanctity of the Christian with the zeal of the Semendria, added the strong impulse of self-preservation. apostle and the devotedness of the martyr, he has been As, therefore, a general council seemed still the only less distinguished than his great German successor, mainremedy, he instigated, or rather commanded, John XXIII., ly because Luther lived to plant the standard of the Rethe successor of Alexander, to summon that memorable formation on the citadel of Popery, while Huss fell fightconvocation, afterwards notorious as the Council of Con- ing in the trench. He passed his early studies in the stance. It was accordingly convened in 1414, and con- University of Prague, where his assiduity, talents, and tinued sitting till 1418.*
blameless conduct, soon rendered him conspicuous. In The constitution of this assembly, which has been called his thirtieth year he was ordained priest, and appointed the states-general of Christendom, was significant of the confessor to the Queen of Bohemia, who long continued altered temper of the times. Hitherto the bishops had to befriend him. The writings of the English reformer, been considered the sole members of ecclesiastical assem- with which he had become acquainted through his friend blies; but at Constance, there sat and voted, not only Jerome, who had brought them from Oxford, struck him the heads of monasteries, but the ambassadors of all the with the force of revelation. After some short time given
Christian princes, the deputies of Universities, with doc- to meditation and forming his resolution, Huss boldly it tors of law, and numerous inferior theologians. To coun- proclaimed these views from the pulpit, exposing the pro
teract the number of the Italian bishops, who were gene- fligate lives of the clergy, and denouncing the infamous rally in the papal interest, its adversaries also carried the traffic in indulgencies. He was soon at the head of a important innovation, that the council should divide itself party. In 1408, under the influence of the German stuinto four nations, the Italian, German, French, and Eng- dents, the heads of the University declared that whoever
lish, each with equal rights, and that every proposition, taught the doctrines of Wikliffe should be expelled from | after being separately discussed, should be decided by the that body; but the reformer, identifying his cause with
majority of the four. This constitution, the triumph of that of his Bohemian countrymen, compelled the withwhat Mr Hallam calls the Whig principles of Catholi- drawal of the Germans from the University, and was himcism, led naturally to that celebrated decree which asserts self elevated to the dignity of rector. From this comthe supremacy of general councils over the pope, and de- manding position he diffused his views with augmented clares any pontiff liable to punishment who should refuse energy; and while the Archbishop of Prague ordered his to obey them. This principle, in effect little better than works to be publicly burned, suspended him from his a transfer of the pope's authority to themselves, and by priestly functions, and held the threat of excommunicawhich the laity gained extremely little, the council were tion over all who adhered to him, he assembled the people not slow to act upon. They confirmed the deposition of in their own houses and in the fields, and preached to them Gregory and Benedict, as decreed at Pisa ; John himself, against the pope, against purgatory, and, above all, against who had summoned them together, shared the same fate, indulgencies. Thus invited to examine subjects hitherto after many ineffectual attempts to avert it; and, in the deemed the sole province of the clergy, the humblest soon third session of the council, a new pontiff, under the name became familiar with the great truths of Scripture, and of Martin V., was declared the only legal successor of St convinced of their entire sufficiency as a rule of faith and Peter. In this decision Gregory agreed to acquiesce, life. John was compelled to submit to it by force, but Bene- The priesthood were now thoroughly alarmed. John dict, who was in Spain, remained as tenacious as ever of XXIII. cited Huss to appear before him at Bologna, and his assumed dignity, and excommunicated all his antago- as the reformer declined to obey the mandate, he was nists. Though, therefore, the council assumed the credit formally excommunicated. Such a sentence he had now of settling all difficulties, it was not till 1429, by the re- learned to estimate at its true value; but as tumults began signation of a dignitary calling himself Clement VIII., a to arise in the streets of Prague between his partisans and successor of Benedict, that the one Catholic infallible those who upheld the papal authority, he became unwilchurch was again found reposing, without dispute, under ling to appear as encouraging these disorders, and withher one Catholic infallible head. These transactions, it drew to his native village. There, both with tongue and might be thought, would have opened the eyes of man- pen, he continued the work he had begun. Subsequently, kind, more readily than they did, to the real value of such on the death of the archbishop, Huss returned to Prague, pretensions.
where, aided by his ingenuous disciple Jerome, he anew Meantime, while the council were thus seeking to heal denounced the abuses of the papacy in the strongest terms. the deadly wound schism had inflicted on the papacy, by Fresh tumults now took place; and, after more citations a process which exposed more internal weakness than from the pope, which Huss disdained to obey, the Council either its friends or foes had counted on, they had been of Constance at last assembled. The constitution of this led to perpetrate, in its defence, a crime that covers all con- convocation has already been explained, and it may be nected with it with imperishable infamy, and which left a enough to say, in addition, that, besides aiming to termifatal example to after times. The cruel extirpation of the nate the schism, it proposed to itself the task of settling
the abuses and disorders of the church. Among the most * Fox gives the following quaint catalogue of the personages as
prominent of these were reckoned the rapid diffusion of sembled at Constance on this occasion – There were,' says he, Wikliffe's views, which had been solemnly denounced, while archbishops and bishops, 316 ; abbots and doctors, 564'; princes, his followers, of whom Huss stood most conspicuous, were dukes, eurla, knights, and squires, 16,000; common women, 430; marked out for signal punishment. He was accordingly barbers, 600; musicians, cooks, jesters, 3:20.'--Constance is a city of the Grand-duchy of Baden, on the lake of the same name,
summoned to appear before the council; and, having oband now contains about 6000 inhabitants,
tained a solemn promise of protection and safety from the
emperor, he resolved to obey. His progress through Ger- " Yet you ought to have been more womanly than most many to Constance resembled a triumphal procession. girls, educated as you were by that most precise of all The streets, and sometimes even the roads, were lined venerable spinsters, Aunt Hetty' with people; and at Nuremberg the magistrates and . It is to our good aunt Hester's strict notions of clergy waited on him in form, and expressed their con- womanly duties, that I owe much of my present happiviction of his innocence and integrity. These demon- ness, sister Susan ; but at that early age I could have constrations, a hundred years before the time of Luther, tributed but little to a husband's domestic comfort.' show the progress Reformation principles had already • Your experience is very different from mine, Mary; made in Germany. No sooner, however, had the reformer I can add ten years to your calendar; for, alas ! it is sevenarrived at his destination, than he was thrown into prison, and-twenty years since I was sixteen, but I can remember where, to the eternal disgrace of Sigismund, he was re- how I longed to quit school, and have a house and servants tained for six months, till his trial in June, 1415. He was of my own.' accused, generally, of advocating the proscribed views of · Doubtless such idle wishes often crossed my brair, Wikliffe, as well as of sowing sedition among the people sister, when my aunt kept me at home, hour after hour, and dissension in the church. The trial, on the part of stitching wristbands, or sent me into the kitchen to learn judges predeterniined to condemn him, presented a dis- how to cook a dinner ; but I repeat, that to the restricgraceful scene of disorder, chicanery, and cruelty, con- tions I then thought severe, I owe many of my present trasting strongly with the calm fortitude and resignation enjoyments.' of the reformer. By his unjust imprisonment, the safe- * But the minds of some develop much more rapidly, conduct of the emperor had already been violated, and perhaps ; Harriet has long been at the head of her school. the bigotry or irresolution of Sigismund prevented him • I thought you intended to leave her with Mrs Bartley from interposing now to prevent judicial murder. The another year.” sequel need not be dwelt on. Degraded from his priestly . So I did; she had only visited home for the Christmas office, insulted, and reviled, he was handed over to the holidays; and, to tell you the truth, her trunk was packed secular power, and condemned to the stake. He perished to return to school, the very evening Edward Tracy made with a fortitude which even his enemies admired. The proposals to her father.' last words he addressed to his persecutors were worthy of And Edward Tracy's proposals at once completed her his life and death :-'I have no errors to retract; I'en- education, I suppose,' said Mrs Hilton. "Well, sister, deavoured to preach Christ with apostolic plainness; and I hope it is all for the best; but I am no friend to such I am now prepared to seal my doctrine with my blood.' early marriages.'
This tragedy was perpetrated previously to the depo- • I was married at eighteen, Mary, and I have never sition of John XXIII., and it was shortly after followed repented it, while you— by the martyrdom of the amiable and affectionate Jerome, . I know what you would say, Susan ; you mean that who followed his master to a better world through the you at eighteen married a rich merchant, and have lived same fiery pathway. The election of Martin V., as already like a princess ever since ; while I waited till twenty-three, mentioned, in 1417, closed the business of the council, only to wed a professional man, whose talents procure him which had thus distinguished itself by acts of cruelty and a simple competence. Nay, you need not disclaim my baseness, unhappily too common in the annals of intoler- version of your thoughts; we are each happy in our own ance. It secured a temporary calm to the internal dis- way. The eclat of fashionable life, the ambition of giving sensions of the papacy, but it utterly failed in quieting the best dinners, and the most brilliant parties; the trithe public mind of Europe, or arresting the progress of umph of possessing the most stately house, and the richest the Reformation. In Bohemia, the martyrdom of Huss French furniture, is, to you, a sufficient recompense for and Jerome gave rise to a long and bloody war between the vexations attendant on such a life; while I would not their adherents and those of Rome, which was only ter- exchange for all your splendour, the quiet, the retireminated by the concessions of the council of Basle in 1433; ment, the domestic comfort of my humble home.' and Europe beheld the consequences of its flagitious prin- * Well, you certainly seem very contented, Mary; and ciple, that no faith is to be kept with heretics, in mâny a yet I wonder how you can reconcile yourself to such a life ; future scene of cruelty and folly.
your house is a mere bandbox.'
• It is large enough to contain all my real friends, and BRILLIANT PROSPECTS.
I never give parties.'
Your furniture is very plain.' • Good morning, sister Susan; I suppose you have come . It is substantial, and as good as our father's house ever to tell me you have decided on Harriet's marriage,' said boasted.' Mrs Hilton, as the fashionable Mrs Arlington entered her • True, but in our father's time there was no better in neat but plainly furnished parlour,
use; now every merchant's wife tries to display Brussels I have, Mary,' was the reply; and if you can spare carpets, and French chairs.' an hour from your nursery, I want to talk with you about I am quite content to avoid all such competition, it, and learn your objections.'
whether with the wives of merchants or mechanics; it You have improved upon the usual method, Susan, gives me no pain to return to my simple apartments, after said her sister, laughing ; most persons ask advice, and spending a day in your luxurious ones.' then follow their own inclinations; but you decide first, • But you have so few servants.' and then ask counsel.'
I have an excellent cook, who does not disdain to assist " Why, to tell you the truth, Mary, though I was un- in the general work of the house; a faithful old nurse to willing to mar Harriet's brilliant prospects by your old take charge of my children; and my good little Kitty, the fashioned notions, yet I really wish to hear your reasons orphan whom I took into my family when I was just for not approving of the marriage.'
married. These women are all attached to me by ties of • My first objection is so self-evident, Susan, that it kindness and goodwill, so that my wishes are laws to them. cannot be refuted. Harriet is a mere child.'
It is true, I have no French cuisinier, to make my kitchen She is sixteen.'
look like the caboose of a steam-boat; I have no whiskered And pray, what but a child is a girl of sixteen, whose lackey to put my friends out of countenance by his impertime has been divided between the nursery and the tinence to the nobodys ;' no Swiss governess to teach my school-room? She may be a good scholar, and possess children bad French, and worse principles; but I have a great skill in music and dancing, but of the actual busi- quiet, well-ordered household; and to our old aunt's noness of life she can never have even a thought. It is tions, I owe the power of obtaining such a desirable nearly seventeen years since I was at that happy age; / acquisition.' and yet I can recollect how totally unfit I must have been You are quite eloquent, Mary; but I believe you are for any serious responsibility,'
more than half right. Your house always looks comfort