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It is not material at this Time and Place, to examine very nicely and scrupulously into these things, but this one may affirm upon a yery flight Speculation, that of all forts of Governments, a Democracy or CommonCouncil is certainly the worst, and it is still so much worse or better in it self, as it is divided into more or fewer Hands j for though Solomon tells us very wisely, and like himself, That in the Multitude of Councellors there is Safety ■ yet this is never true but only in Solomon's Cafe, where there is a King and a wife Man at the Helm , who having heard the Opinions of all Parties, and having a perfect Light into the Affair then lying in consideration before him,is afterwards at liberty, without Appeal, to accept of any, or to rejectjall these Advices, as he shall judge most expedient for the common Good; but otherwise, the con» trary os this is rather true, that in the Multitude of Councellors there is Confusion, and by how much the more numerous this Multitude is, so much the greater will the Confusion be, because it is still so much the nearer approach to Anarchy it self; where Men- being ty'd by no Band of Obligation,and being divided in Humor or Opinion, every Man's private
JudgJudgment is his private Law, his Square and Measure, and his Rule of Action, and every Man is a Governour and a Government dife tinctly by himself; the Consequence of which must needs be very dismal, and the Effects as bloody as Cruelty, Suspition, Hatred, Avarice, Ambition, and every evil Appetite, and inordinate Defire, as together in a fad and tragical Confederacy can make them.
And if Democracy, or the Rule of many be the worst of Governments, because of the nearness of its Approach to Anarchy, or no Government at all; then is Aristocracy, or the Government of a few, and those of the better and the nobler Sort, not in it self a desirable sort of Government, but only compa* ratively better than the other -} for in this Case, there being no Sovereign and Supream Will that shall determine Differences, and put an end to Disagreements in Opinion or Design, it will be impossible some time or other, and there is apparent Danger of it every Moment, but that Offences must come, Divisions, Fewtfe and Animosities must arise \ and these be*ng back'd by the Interest or Dependencies ot the Respective Parties, will infallibly produce that which we call a Civil or Intestine War..
We may take the Measure os these things from this Consideration, that as the World divided and canton'd into several Nations,is govern'd for the most part by several Supream Heads, so all these several Princes, if we should presume to be so hardy to ask them severally the Question, would pretend a Concern, though more immediate, for their own Subjects; yet more or less for the Happiness of Mankind, and for the universal Peace and Quiet os the World; but still they have different Sentiments and Interfering Ambitions, by which it comes to pass, that they have so often mutually recourse to the Sword, when all other Expedients of Accommodation fail.
Now though every Nation or Empire be governed separately by a respective Head, yet if all these Soveraigns could agree together for the Good of the Whole, as well as in particular of their own respective Dominions, we might (ay of the World in general, that its Government was Aristocratical, and the Jars tVat happen betwixt independent Princes, pursues into their true Original and Fountain, that is to fxy, the interfering Passions and Designs of Men, may serve experimentally to represent to us the manifest Inconveniences to which
that that Government is naturally obnoxious, in which there is not one Sovereign and-Supream Pilot to manage and put an Issue to Debates; trom whose Determination there shall be no Appeal, and without whose Consent, either Express or Implicit, there shall be no political Administration.
The Result of all which, is, that a Monarchy is the best and most perfect Form of Government, and that the Errors and Failures of a Monarch, though he should be guilty in any particular Instance of Male-Administration, either through Ignorance, Inadvertency or Design, yet are much more wholsome and tolerable in a State, than the Miseries that arise from the Feuds and Disagreements of Equals and Competitors in the Management of Affairs, where the Ambition of a private Interest, dt1 ihe Disgrace and Destruction os a Rival, or the Stiffness and Opiniatrity of a Man that disdains to be thought in a Mistake, and will have every thing go his own way, is much more regarded than the Welfare of the Public j and as God ordained Man to be the noblest Inhabitant of this lower World, the Prince of the Universe, and the Image of himself, so for the same Reason, it must needs be most pleasing and acceptable to him, when
B the the Conduct of Societies is an Image of his Providence in the Goverment of the World, in which himself is only the Supream, and all other Subsistences, whether in Heaven or Earth, have an absolute and unchangeable Depen» dance upon him. - *
Again, as Monarchy is the best of Governments, so is an Hereditary Monarchy the best of Monarchies, and that for two Reasons. . ..:
Ftrjl, because an Elective one upon every Vacancy, is so subject to engage Factions, and to embroil different Parties, and dilagreeing Interests in strong and dangerous Competitions againsteach other}and though theEiection may> possibly be managed without the Decision of a Battle to determine it, yet it leaves a Ferment in a State which does not easily evaporate and purge it self } but upon every occasion .it will; be shewing the Malignity and Virulence of its Nature, it will render the Councels of a Nation so entangled and perplex'd, and the Execution of those Councils so uncertain, by the latent Treachery of disaffected Parties, and by the mutual Animosities that are every where mingled, and that divide Cities, Towns and Families, and dash even Consanguinities, Affinities and Friendships, with a barbarous