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From more than one point of view, then, Bulwer's life was well worth writing, and Lord Lytton has discharged what he regards as a filial duty with a rare tact and delicacy. The task has not always been easy, yet Lord Lytton's sense of fairness has been equal to the strain. He has described, at considerable length and with a grim impartiality, the unhappy, malignant disputes which separated Bulwer and his wife. It is a pity that the story had to be told at all. But gossips had made an official account imperative, and Lord Lytton has given the necessary account, duly supported by documents, leaving it to his readers to pronounce what verdict they think right. Descended from both disputants, he has evidently thought it his first duty not to take sides. And as he has left nothing more for the curious to discover or expose, we may take it that there is an end of the matter. For the rest, Lord Lytton has drawn a candid, recognisable portrait of his grandfather, who, if he does not seem to our generation so great a man as he

seemed to his own, never let fear of failure check his enterprise, and who, if he wasted a vast deal of energy upon sentimental and lifeless romances, discovered, not quite too late, the truth of his own saying, that "in the mind, as in yonder chimney, to make the fire burn hot and quick, you must narrow the draught."

The sudden advent upon the scene of Jim Larkin, or Mr Larkin, as the obsequious Mr Birrell calls him, reminds us once more that the phases of politics repeat themselves indefinitely. What has been shall be, what is has been. There are no new antics to be cut in the game of democracy. Mr Larkin, no doubt, believes that he came ready armed, so to say, from the head of Jove. He is only our old friend, the Sausage - Seller, playing the very same part that was cast for him more than two thousand years ago by Aristophanes. You remember in "The Knights how Cleon, the Leather-Seller, was for a moment supreme. He "stood for the people." He was ready to give it whatever it wanted, and to defend it against the lightest attack. His entrance upon the stage seems strangely familiar. "By heaven," he screams,

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By heaven and earth! You shall abide it dearly, With your conspiracies and daily plots Against the sovereign people !"

But for all his devotion he is not secure in the goodwill of his sovereign. There is an

oracle, which declares that he will be superseded by a SausageSeller:

"O happy man! celestial sausageseller!

Friend, guardian, and protector of us all !

Come forward, save your friends, and save the country."

The Sausage-Seller is evidently born to lead the people. He can "but barely read-in a kind of way. 99 "That make against ye," exclaims Demos:

"The only thing against ye— The being able to read in any way: For now, no lead nor influence is allow'd

To liberal arts or learned education."

The duty of the SausageSeller is simple and easy:

"The easiest thing in nature !—nothing

easier!

Stick to your present practice: follow

it up

In your new calling. Mangle, mince, and mash,

Confound and hack, and join the things together!

And interlard your rhetoric with lumps

Of mawkish sweet and greasy flattery. Be fulsome, coarse, and bloody."

The newcomer obeys the injunctions of his adviser, completely routs Cleon, the Tanner, and becomes master of the State. The prayer which he makes when he addresses the Senate is answered assuredly:

"Ye influential impudential powers

Of sauciness and jabber, slang and jaw!

Ye spirits of the market-place and

street

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Not a word of this invocation has lost its freshness in the intervening centuries.

It is one of the consolations of politics, a consolation freely administered by history, that the Tanner is doomed always to surrender to the louder voice and rougher methods of the Sausage-Seller. The Cleon of these times is learning the

And

lesson which sooner or later all men of his kind must learn. He hoped vainly that he might set the wheel of progress whirling and then stop it when he would. He believed that his promises had bound the people for ever to his girdle. then suddenly the oracle comes true, and the Sausage-Seller, having studied the Tanner with care and profit, bounds upon the platform, and the poor Tanner, with his promises and his gibes and his anecdotes, falls suddenly into the pit of oblivion. We can almost find it in our hearts to pity our Cleon of to-day. Mr George has gone farther on the road of noisy rhetoric than any of his predecessors. He has spoken louder and oftener and more carelessly than any demagogue of modern times. He has said whatever he thought suitable to his purpose, without considering whether it was true or not. or not. If he could found an argument upon the uncultivated Highlands, why shouldn't he? Only let him keep safely

this side of the Tweed. And then comes along Mr Larkin, who knows all that Mr George can teach him, and something of his own besides. "To hell with contracts!

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"Damn the Empire!" These are phrases which Mr George dare not use. He has forced his note as far as ever it will go, and it will not go as far as that. And Mr Larkin is as yet on the threshold of his career. He has still many a lesson to teach and learn. Had there been no Mr George there would have been no Mr Larkin. That is true. Cleon, in other words, has prepared the way for the Sausage-Seller. But Mr Larkin may now use as strong language as ever he likes, knowing well that those late masters of invective, Messrs George and Churchill, cannot compete with him for an instant. It is a sad comment upon the transitoriness of human glory. The demagogues, who believe their influence eternal, sun them

selves but for a moment in the light of the people's countenance. Their sovereignty passes from them as soon as ever a pupil is found with a louder voice and a rougher vocabulary. At present Mr Larkin is supreme. We shall hear no more of his unhappy predecessors. He has but to obey the cordial invitation of Demos :

"As for yourself, I give you an invitation

To dine with me in the hall. You'll

find a seat

Which that unhappy fellow held before. Take this new robe ! Wear it and follow me!"

So the Sausage-Seller ousts the Tanner. But who, we wonder, is waiting round the corner to get the better of the Sausage-Seller?

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CIUDAD RODRIGO, BADAJOZ, AND SAN
SEBASTIAN, THE SACKING OF, 367.
Clerk, John, of Eldin, unpublished

letter of, to Lord President Blair, 382.
COMPLETE AMBASSADOR, THE, 850.
Cotswold country, the, description of,
266 et seq.-the inhabitants of, 268-
the houses of, 269-the barns of, 270
-the parish churches of, 272-social
life in, 273.

COURTESY, VENETIAN, 360.

COWBOY, THE PASSING OF THE, 661.
Coyote, depredations of the, 110 et seq.
CRICKET SEASON OF 1913, THE, 824.
Croatan Indians of North Carolina, the,
320 et seq.-history of the race of, 323
et seq.

Crowd, the, power of, in the present
day, 423 et seq. passim - crimes of,
during the French Revolution, 424
-an American view of, 426 et seq.
'Crowds: A Study of the Genius of
Democracy, and of the Fears, De-
sires, and Expectations of the People,'
by Gerald Stanley Lee, notice of, 426

et seq.

Cumberland, Duke of, calumnious
stories as to conduct of, in the '45
campaign, 489.

Defoe, influence of, on the English
novel, 571.

Democratic rule, Bishop Welldon's
warning as to the danger of, 581.
Detroit, expedition for the relief of, in
the North American War, 690 et seq.
"Divine Gift, the, a Play in Three
Acts," by Henry Arthur Jones, ex-
amination of, 283 et seq.
DOLLAR, THE ALMIGHTY, 398.
Dollar, the coin, origin of the name, 400
-variations in the mint standard and
value of, 401 et seq. passim—explana-
tion of the sign for, 401-the Spanish
or Mexican, 402 et seq.-the pillar or
cannon, 404-the Maria Theresa, 405

et seq.

Dublin, old mansions in and around, 178

et seq.

Dutch Republic, fate of the, and its
causes, 567 et seq.

EL DORADO, SIR WALTER RALEGH'S
SEARCH FOR, 771.

EMPIRE AND THE PRIVY COUNCIL, 838.
'English Novel, the,' by George Saints-
bury, notice of, 569 et seq.

Fall of the Dutch Republic, the,' by
Hendrik Willem von Loon, notice
of, 567.

FELL FOX-HUNTING, 42.

Fielding, Henry, excellence of the fiction
of, 571.

Foreign vessels, insurance of, by British
underwriters, 217 et seq.

Fortified cities, pillaging of, when sur-
rendered, 373 et seq.

FOX-HUNTING, FELL, 42.

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FROM THE OUTPOSTS : RATAN SING
GURUNG, 63 Two RAIDS, 70-
BABAN MIJI, 243-CAMEL CORPS
MANEUVRES, 329-AZAD GUL, 342
-THE GHILZAI'S WIFE, 464-THE
VERY DEVIL, 478 - THE DAY'S
WORK, 674-A MAN-HUNT, 761—
THE LOCUSTS, 769.

GENTLEMAN WHO PASSED, THE: AN
INCIDENT OF THE YEAR 1715, 445.
George, Lloyd, vindication by, as re-
gards his purchase of Marconi shares,
141 et seq., 289, 419-comparison of,
with Henri Rochefort, 289-the land
campaign of, 419, 708 et seq.-failure
of the measures of, 419, 708 et seq.-
treatment of the doctors by, in con-
nection with the Insurance Act, 575–
speeches of, at Bedford and at Swin-
don, 709-attack on sport by, ib.—
attempt to explain the decline of
agriculture by, 710 et seq.-exagger-
ated statements by, regarding rural
housing, 711 - scheme of, for the
management of the land, 712 et seq.
-Mr Larkin and, 868.

Georgian Society, publications of the,
regarding Irish old country houses,
178 et seq.

Gerothwohl, Professor, treatment of,
at Bristol University, 701 et seq.
Government, the, treachery of, in pass-
ing the Parliament Act, 574-treat-
ment by, of the railway companies
as regards the Railway (No. 2) Act,
577 et seq.

GREAT JUDGE, A, 378.
HAPPY-GO-LUCKY, Chaps. XXIII.-XXVI.
(The End), 117.

HARDWICKE, LORD, 482.

Hope, Lord Advocate Charles, unpub-
lished letters of, to Lord President
Blair, 383, 384-vote of censure of,
proposed by Samuel Whitbread in
the House of Commons, 384.
House of Commons, the, nullity of, 417
et seq.-deterioration in the personnel
of, 573, 577 et seq.

House of Lords, postponement of reform
of the, 416.

IN THE HOUR OF NEED, 603.
IN THE WAKE OF THE WESTERN
SHEEP, 105.

Indian territory, method of white
settlement of, by the United States
Government, 669 et seq.

Indians, the American, inauguration of
a memorial to, at New York, 661 et
seq.-use of, in the North American
War between France and England,
688 - discontent of, after downfall
of the French power in Canada,
689 et seq.-reprisals against, 690
et seq.

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