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“In 1779 I went through Flanders I did not, however, recover for some into Germany, and getting acquainted time. This sickness, and my young fawith Cul. (afterwards Gen.) Daltou, I mily, made me more cautious of enterwas, through his interest, permitted to ing dungeons, wbich had now become visit La Maison de Furce, at Ghent, less necessary, from the labours of the This was, without exception, the best immortal Howard, whose visits and inplanned and the best regulated prison I quiries comprehended every class of prihad seen before, or, I think, since. It is soners, whilst mine were particularly situated near a canal; the plan octagon ; directed to the debtors. separate courts for men vagrants and “ I did not wholly abstain from mak. men crininals: one side is for women, ing remarks on felons, particularly in aud iu tbe middle of their court is a ba the dungeons of the two prisons at Ches. son of water for washing the linen of the ter and Liverpool. house; and a large wooden horse, to • The acts which passed in conseride by way of punishment ; their bed- quence of the benevolent Howard's Rerooins uniform, and in a range, some ports, produced an immediate and gething like Chelsea Hospital ; every neral reform in prison police, by the range opens into a gallery or lobby, abolition of taps Several new gauls which is open to the air of the court : were built, which solitary cells supthe prisoner has an uniform clothing, plied the place of dungeons; and, in with the nuinber of bis room. The
inany prisons, women were not loaded work-rooms are on the ground floor, with irons. From this period to 1791 and there were niore tisan 100 prisoners, my visits were less frequent, and exwith only one person to superintend teuded to the country, as business would them; he was at one end of the room, permit. with a desk before him, and a large “ This year I lost a most amiable wife, bouk, in which were entered the names my own bealih was rapidly on the deof the prisoners, the crimes for which cline, and my business increased beyond ļbey were committed, the time of inn- my abilities or power to manage. In prisonment, from one to twenty years, 1792, having only two sons to provide according to their criines; the day the for, I retired from business with a very work was begun, the day it was finished, ample fortune ; and, as iny health bethe measure of the piece, the task due came restored, recommenced my prison per day, observations, such as sick, visits and inquiries, reports of which laine, &c. &c. and deficiency of task, (as far as related to debtors) I made repunishment, &c. &c. &c. Though this gularly, at the meetings of the commitroom was so crowded, not a word was tee, in Craven-street. In 1800, when spoken by alty of the prisoners during the excessive dearness of provisions, and the time we inspected 'it; no noise or the difficulties of the poorer classes of confusion, all were silent and attentive the people required an extraordinary reto their work; in short, it appeared a lief, the necessity of a general visit and most noble institution. A few years af- inquiry into the state of all the gaols ter, being at Ghent, I think in 1784, struck me very forcibly. having no acquaintance there, I could “I set about it immediately, and in not gain admission ; but was told the 1801 * published my first Account of manufactory was destroyed, and the Debtors, by which it appeared there wbole in a very bad state. At Bruges were 39 prisons in England and Wales the prison is on a much smaller scale ; which did not furnish the deblor with some were employed in making cloaths, any allowance whatever ; and in these and others in inaking saddles, bridles, there were, in the month of April 1800, &c. &c. for tbe army. In 1780 I had the 427 persons confined to this wretcbed honour of the King's commission in a state of captivity. Lord. Romney, as corps of volunteer infantry, in which I President of our Society, did me the was actively employed, till there was no honour of presenting this book to the further occasion for our services. In King, and his Majesty was pleased most 1781 I visited Warwick Gaol, and in the graciously to receive it. The approba. dungeons caught the gaol fever or dis- tion with which it was bonoured by the temper. Mr. Roe, the keeper, was too publick, together with the very consiill to accompany me, and sent bis turn, derable benesactions to the Society for key. Roe's death was, I believe, acce Relief of Persons imprisoned for Small Jerated by drinking. When I found Debts in consequence of it, induced me myself sick, wbich was almost immediately, I took a post chaise to Strat “ The two-penny loaf in London, ford, where I arrived just as the coach August 1783, weigbed 21 ounces. In was setting out to London. I got into March 1801, the two-penny loaf in Lonit, and soon reached St. James's-street. don weigbed only six ounces."
to publish a new and more copious edi- vantage, and the prisoners' comforts. tion, in 1802, and likewise extend my Many new gaols are now (1806) buildvisits to Scotland and Wales.
ing; and, from the alterations and in“ As I kept a diary, so I wrote to my provements which have been making benevolent friend Dr. Lettsom, an ac. these four years, and are now daily count of the most striking occurrences ; inaking, the particulars of which my and tv his suggestions alone the pub. • State of Prisons' will notice, my visits lishing my prison remarks owe iheir will become less necessary. As soon as origin. It bad been my constant prac this work is published, and I can protice, in my various prison excursions vide for my necessary absence, I produring a period of 30 years, to wait upon pose visiting Ireland ; and happy will the magistrates, particularly of cities the short remaining period of my life be and boroughs, and respectfully to re spent, if I can suggest to a brave and present what I saw amiss in their gaols. generous people, any improvements in I was always received with cordiality their prison police, and of which I am and kindness; and, as they were struck informed there is much need." with compassion at the recital, reform [The Menivir here terminates, but was determined upon, and resolusions not so the benevolent labours of Mr. entered into ; but, after a lapse of eight Neild. His bealth did not, however, or ten years, guess my surprize, when allow him to visit Ireland as he in. I found nothing done! So total and teuded; but he continued to inspect general a neglect must be produced by the various prisons of England, Scot
I inquired into it, and land, and Wales, and to suggest numefound many who were magistrates, from rous improvements, both in regard to local situations, and before they were the construction of the wards, and the acquainted with its duties, were out of internal management of these establishthe commission; others, whose active ments. In 1812 he published the “State situations in commerce denied them of Prisons," above alluded to, in a large time; some, wbo bad large families, and very elegant 4to volume, with a were afraid to venture inside of the pri portrait of the author. It is a Work son; and many were numbered with teeming with valuable information. the dead. Under these discouraging He continued his exertions, as Trea. circumstances I had almost despaired, surer of the Society for Small Debts, un when Providence raised up a man, by til the time of his death, which took whose labour the cloud was dispelled; place Feb. 16, in the year 1814. and that life, hitherto spent uselessly,
T.J. PETTIGREW.] became fruitful. If Howard owed any thing to Fothergill, I am in a ten-fold ON JAMES NEILD, Esq. LL.D. degree indebted to Dr. John Coakley
By Miss PORTER. Lettsom. He first suggested, nay, re Hence the true Christian, Lord of Apquested permission 10 publish some of
[menis those crude remarks, wbich I had sunt
The conqueror of low but fierce resent. for his perusal, and by which commu
Which in a painful fever keep the soul, nication I had found a sensible relief: Free from impediments, pursues with they were begun and continued without
ardour design; written in the hours of fatigue, All that adorns and meliorates the man; lassitude, sickness, and the bustle of That polishes our life, or soothes its ills. inns; little calculated to appear before Where'er Compassion with her glist'ning the publick, except in matters of fact.
eye " These remarks on prisons were in Points to the squalid cottage of AMiction, troduced with a preface, which caused Jews, Moors, and Infidels, are all his a general sensation, and brought a de
(land, gree of celebrity on the Visitor of Pri. Could be, in some remote and barbarous sons he neither desired or deserved
By powerful gold, or salutary arts, whilst it enriched his funds as Treasurer Make pale Distress give way to blooming to the Society for Small Debts, in the
[court sum of 3281. 28. 9d. evidently occasioned He'd traverse wilds or swelling seas to
Joy, by the reading the Gentleman's Maga- The god-like office ; his expanded beart zine, in which they were inserted.
In every climate feels hiinsell at bome. “The benevolence of my friend did not rest here ; for, as he was no stran
March 20. ger to the inside of the prison-house, so did he frequently accompany me As an appendage to Gothic
Archithose abodes of guilt and misery, and suggest what his professional skill so
understood, I offer you a few slight well enabled him to do, to my great ad. observations upon the history of
Stained Glass, confining my inves The Thirteenth Century. tigation to its origin and progress,
The murder of Thomas à Becket in this kingdom, to the present lime. is the earliest attenipt at historical
My object will be, to ascertain the representation which I have seen. date of its introduction, and to oppose The original still remains in Canterfacts to certain erroneous statements bury Cathedral, and another in the concerning it, particularly as to its Cathedral Church at Oxford. The practice having entirely ceased ; or, penance of Henry II. once in the what bas gained a wore general be- Church of Rollright, in Oxfordshire, lief, that the artists of the modern is now in the Bodleian Library. school have been, or pow are, un These are all of them upon a small able to produce so much brilliancy scale. of colour as those of the aucient.
The Fourteenth Century No specimen probably remains in was the æra of the introductiou of any sacred building of a date ante- large windows, and a consequent encedeut to the reign of Henry the largement of the subjects represented Third. Leaving the disputed fact as in them. The windows were divided it stands, as to whether we implicitly by mullions, and finished in the heads copied our Church Architecture from by segments of circles and rosettes France, or invented it for ourselves, or compartments formed by many, it appears beyond a doubt that combined in one outline. Usually, stained glass was in almost general the first contained a niche, canopy usage in that country for nearly two and pedestal, resembling, tabernacle centuries before it was in any degree work, in stone or wood, but comof frequency among us*.
posed of an infinite variation of the The examples in proof which I common colours. Inclosed was an shall adduce in the course of this upright figure of a prophet, a king, little discussion, will be those only or an ecclesiastic of the higher de which may be inspected by the cu grees.
In the second were placed rious investigator, without coume escocheons and mosaics. Such were rating those of which authentic de- certainly the most frequent subjects, scriptions are given, but which have some of which are yet unremoved in been sacrilegiously broken in pieces, the anti-chapel of New College, Or. or have been gradually decayed by ford. Scripture histories, from both the effect of the external air during the Old and New Testament, are in the lapse of several centuries.
York Cathedral, which are attri. In point of chronology, I believe butable to this age. one oi the first of well-authenticaled Towards the close of it, this art specimens is at Chelwood in Buck. was applied to portrails, which, if inghamshire t. Tbe design has great they bore no great resemblance to clegance. Small whole-lengib figures the sile, were li arked by the armour of kings and saints are inclosed with. peculiar to the age, and identified by in ovals; there are likewise escoche iheir surcoats and escocheons. They ons, flowers in various patterns, and stood under most splendid canopies inscriptions in the I ongo-bardic cha At Tewkesbury Abbey, Gloucesterracter. Little doubt can be enter. shire, is the onlý remaining series to tained but that these were
which I can refer, as baving escaped factured in France. Dale 1240, if tbe demolition in which so many of coeval with the church.
our Coventual buildings are lost.
* The Abbot Sugerius placed Stained Glass in the Church of Notre Dame, at Paris, in 1150. + Lysons's Magn. Brit. Buckinghamshire, p. 540.
Carter's Ancient Painting and Sculpture, vol. II. where they are etched and coloured. The founders were readily admitted in the principal window. But there was no object for which the Dominicans in particular solicited money so much as for Stained Glass for their chapels. Pierce Plowman, the satirist of the fourteeuth century, describes their church
“ With gay glittering, glowing as the sunne :
The Fifteenth Century. Cirencester, in Gloucestershire, judiAs Church Architecture was now ciously re-composed from the fragadmittiog such a variety and enrich ments of many others, exhibit meut in all its ornamental particles, Shapes that with one brvad glare the a corresponding improvement took
gazer strike, place, not only in the designs for Kings, Bishops,' Nuns, Apostles, all large windows, but in the more strik alike."
T. WARTON S. ing arrangement of brilliant tipts.
During this century Stained Glass It is conjectured, as we know from more generally admitted into agreements still extant, that, as the castles and private houses of the nomechanical part or soldering toge. bility, in the chapels or oratories, halls, ther the almost infinite number of or large apartments 1. The exqui. pieces was effccted by ingenious sitely tinished sacella or sepulchral glaziers, a design, or pattern, ex shrines were embellished with it, actly coloured, and probably the more delicately and minutely designed work of some ecclesiastic, was pro than that which was put up in the vided, from which a window might larger wiodows. They are univer. be composed. Still it may be pre- sally destroyed. So likewise are the sumed, that histories, taken from any portraits of noble individuals, once single subject, recorded in Scriplure, at Warwick and Arundel T. were by no means coinmon *. All
The Sixteenth Century the cathedral, conventual, or larger may be considered as the third æra parish churches, buill, or added to, of Stained Glass in England. Jo the in this century, had many spacious reign of Henry VII. our intercourse windows of stained glass; but, from with Flanders was greatly increased remaining fragments, it is evident that by commercial relations. The chief the figures were individually placed, school of Glass-staining was estab. sometimes accompanied by angels lished in that country, and as the clothed in peacock's feathers, who arts of design began to revive under held the escocheonst. Windows at Van Leyden, Albert Durer, and their !
* The very curious series of twenty-eight windows at Fairford, in Gloucestershire, and those in King's College Chapel, Cambridge, are the best remaining in. stances of historic subjects.
+ These are usually habited in a close dress, made of peacock's feathers, full of eyes, symbolical of their perpetual guardianship.
“The Peacock with his angel's feathers bright.” CHAUCER. Lysons's Gloucestershire Etchings, in wbich they are coloured. Š Milton's “ dim religious light" has been admired as the happiest description of the effect of Stained Glass. But T. Wartun exceeds him in variety.
“ The illumin'd pane
" The sun
Streams through the storied window's holy hue."-
With new solemnity.".
* In her oryall-wher she was
Fulfilled it was with ymagery."[ The exact period when Stained Glass was first introduced into the houses of kings and nobles cannot be ascertained. Chaucer, in his “ Drime," describes the story of the siege of Troy, as painted on the windows of his own bouse, and it may be inferred that such embellishments were sumetiines seen in the structures of the fourteenth century, which were not merely ecclesiastical. See v.312. Charles V. of France, Chaucer's contemporary, ornamented jot only bis chapels, but apartments in his castles, with Stained Glass. Le Noir'. At Aston Hall, near Birmingham, is a series of armed portraits with tabards, and the armuur of the age of Edward Ul. There are nine figures, to represent two Earls of Mercia and seven of Chester. They were first set up in the greitt hall at Brereton, Cheshire. They bave been well engraved and coloured by Mr. Fuivier.
very numerous copyists, they were such improvement from its applicamore especially applied to Glass, as tion to historical subjects, that the a vehicle. The first attempts were portraits conveyed a certain idea of made in chiaro-scuro oply, called by likeness to the originals. Al Great the French " Grisaille.”. Soon, how- Malvern are preserved the portraits ever, they applied colours, in the of Prince Arthur, Sir Reginald Bray composilion of which their skill in (the architect of that church, and chemistry mainly assisted them, and of the Nave at Windsor), and others, they produced an extraordinary rich. which are the best examples I could ness or brilliaocy, as the piclure might citet.
A very figely finished wiodemand them. The professors of this dow, exhibiting the portraits of some art were established at Ghent, and of the family of Feltiplace, was set at Gouda in Holland. There is evi up at Childrey in Berks, dated 1511. dence that Henry VII. employed li is still in iheir possession, and is, English artists for bis Chapel al Wexle without doubt, of Flemish workmanuninster, who afterwards furnished ship. In the earliest part of this centhose of King's College. The de- tury, the subjects from Scripture in signs, which are excellent, were pro the large windows of Baliol College, cured from the Continent, and were Oxford, and of Peterhouse, Campainted as cartoons for tapestry; for bridge, were severally placed, and, I his palace at New Hall, Essex, he re am inclined to believe, brought from ceived from the magistrales of Dorl, the Cootinent. It is certain that our in Holland, a window, the subject of native artists were few, and inconi. which is the Crucifixion, with the petent to great works, aod that seportrails of Heory and his Queen, on veral foreigners were encouraged in either side of it. This very beautic England in the reigos of Henry VII. ful piece is now preserved in the aud vill. Church of St. Margarel, Westminster. The Seventeenth Century. Portraits * usually described as kneel There was, in consequence of the ing, and habited in tabards, were not Reformalion, not only a want «f enin the first iostance seen in this cen couragement of the art of Glasstury. Those of John of Gaunt, and staining, but from the intemperance Archbishop Chicheley, iemain perfect of zeal in the reformers, a very wide at All Souls Coilege, Oxford. Henry destruction of its best specimens. VI. is still in King's College Chapel, Queen Elizabeth issued an ordinance at Cambridge. Edward IV. his queen that plain glass should be, as far as and daughters, are seen at Cauler- possible, substituted for coloured, if bury, and in the Church of Lilile superstitious, a circumstauce left to Malvern, Worcestershire, but in a the decision of those who were thus mutilated state. These are enume. authorized to break them in pieces rated merely on account of their fortunately several of the large Scripdate. But now the art had gained lure histories escaped.
* In the sepulchral chapels of Wykebam and Wayneflcte, at Winchester, and of Isabella Countess of Warwick, at Tewksbury.
Of the expence of Stained Glass in the fifteenth century, this document occurs in Dugdale's Warw, and Gough's Sep. Mon. v. II. p. 125. Job Prudde, of Westminster, covenants with the executors of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, for his sepulcbral Chapel for 910 feet of Stained Glass, at two shillings a square foot, 911. Is. 10d.“ of the finest colours of blue, red, purpure, sanguine, violet, &c."_"he shall put in as little as shall be nedeful for the shewinge and setting forthe of the storyes, images, and materes." Dated 1456.–At the suppression of Monasteries, the windows were sold previously to ide demolition of the buildings. At bow little even Stained Glass was estiinated, may be seen in the book of Survey of Kirkby Beler, in Leicestershire, in the Augmentation-office: "For two windows glasyd containing 160 fote of glas, Il. 6s. 8d.” “To two ditto with olde glasse in the Quyre, 120 fote, 12."-John Thornton, of Coventry, supplied the glass for the great windows at York in the reign of Henry IV. at one shilling a square superficial foot, before it was formed into figures, and put up + Engraved and coloured in Carter's Ancient Painting and Sculpture.
There is an anecdote that the man who was employed by the Puritans to break the windows set up at Croydon by Archbishop Abbur, was paid balf a crown a day for his work of destruction.