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in 1075, and the Moot-hall. St. Botolph's Priory, founded by Eroulph, a monk, was the first house of Augustine Capons in England: they came over about the year 1109. lo St. Mary's parisb was the first house of Crossed or Crouched Friars, who came into England in 1244.

Barking was the first Convent for Women in this kingdom. It was founded in 672, by St. Erkenwald, Bp. of London, second son of Anoa King of East Anglia, and his sister si. Ethelburga was the first Abbess. Elfrida widow of Edgar, Maud Queen of Henry 1., Maud Queen of Stephen, and Mary sister of Thomas à Becket, presided over this convent,

Stratford Langton Abbey was bound to inaiotajo Bow-bridge, built by Maud, Queen of Heory I. and said to be the first arched stone bridge in the county, whence, according to Leland and Stow, it derived its name ; but Gruse conjectures it to bave obtained its appellation from “ Beau, beauti. ful."

Wallhain was a Mitred Abbey, founded by Tovius, standard-bearer to Canute. The brave Harold and his two brothers, slain at the battle of II aslings, were buried here. It was the frequent residence of Henry III.

Greensted Church is one of the most antient and curious in this king. dom. The nave is formed entirely of the trunks of chesout-trees, split asunder, sel up close to each other, and let ioto a sill and plate, fastened at top by wooden pius. It is supposed to have been erected in 1013, as a shrine for the reception of the body of St. Edmund King and martyr. Lillle Maplestead is one of the four Round Churches now in Eogland.

PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE.
Rivers. . Barking, Blackwaler, Cam, Caon, Chelmer, Colne, Crouch, In-

grebura, Lea, Pant, Po, Roding, Stort, Stour, Thames.
Inland Navigation. Chelmer and Blackwater canal. Coloe, Croocb, Lea,

Stort, Stour, and Thames rivers.
Eminences and Views. Danbury-bill (the highesl in the County), Cheping,

Higham, Horndon, and Langdon-bills. Assingdon and Thundersley

churches. Natural Curiosities. Witham and West Tilbury medicidal waters. Fairlop

Oak on Hainault Forest ; a yard from the ground 36 feet in circum-
ference; and overspreads an area of 300 feet in circuit. Epping Forest.
Walton pess, Capvey, Foulness, Horsey, St, Osyth, Pewet, Mercey and

Wallasea Islaods.
Public Edifices. Tilbury and Languard Forts. Walton and Harwich Light-

Houses.
Seats. Audley End, Lord Braybrooke, Lord Lieutenant of the County,
Alhyos, John Abdy, esq.

Langford-hall, Nicholas Westcombe,
Bell-house, Sir Thomas Barrett Len esy.
pard, bart.

Langlees, William Tuffoell, esq. Boreham house, Sir Jobo Tyrrel, bact. Loughton-hall, Mrs. Whitaker. Braxled-lodge, Peter Ducaue, esq.

Mistley-hall, Frederick Hall Rigby,esq.
Claybury-hall, Mrs. Hatch.

Moulshato-hall, Sir Henry Carew St.
Copped-hall, John Conjers, esq. John Mildmay, bart.
Coptford-hall, J. H. Harrison, esq. Navestock-hall, Earl of Waldegrave.
Dagnam Park, Sir Thomas Neave,bart. New-hall, Nuns, refugees from Leige.
Danbury-place, Sir Win. Hillary, bart. Newton-hill, Hop. Sir Bridges Tre-
Eastoo-lodge, Viscount Maynard. cothick Henoiker.
Felix-ball, Charles Call.s Western, esq. Roydon, Sir George Duckett.
Forest-house, Mrs. Bosanquet. Shortgrove hall, Joseph Smith, esq.
Gosfield-hall, Marquis of Buckingham. Sbrives priory, Philip Hills, esq.
Hallingbury.place, John Houblon, esq. Springtield Lyons, Dowager Lady
Ilare-hall, Mrs. Wallinger.

Waltham.
Hatfield - priory, Peter Leewoud Terling-place, Jobu Strutt, esq.
Wright, esq.

Thorndon-ball, Lord Petre.
Havering-bower, Countess Pawlett. Wapstead-house, Hon. William Pole
Hearts, Řev. Sir S. Clerk Jervois, bart. Tylney Long Wellesley.
Higham-hills, John Harman, esq. Weald-hall, Christopher Towers.
Hill-ball, Sir William Smith, bari. Withair-grove, Miss Ducane.
Highlands, Cornelius Kortwright, esq. Whitley, Thomas Walford, esq.

Members

2

Members to Parliament. For the County, 2 ; Colchester, 2; Harwich, 2;

Malden, 2: total s. Produce. Calves, Butter, Barley, Oats, Beans, Peas, Turnips, R yegrass, Tre

foil, Horticultural Plants, Hops, Mustard, Coriander, Carraway and

Teasel. (Colchester and Pyefleet) Oysters. Manufactures. Gunpowder, Baize.

POPULATION. 14 Hundreds, 5 Half-hundreds, and i Liberty. Parishes, 403; Market

lowns, 24; Houses, 43,841. Inhabitants. Males, 124,839; Females, 127,634 : total 252,473. Families employed in Agriculture, 28,517 ; in Trade, 14,132; ia peither,

8,944 : total, 51,643. Baptisms. Males, 3,792; Females, 3,678.- Marriages, 1892.- Burials, Males, 2,807 ; Females, 2531. Towns having not less than 1000 luhabitants; viz. Houses. Inhab.

Houses. Inhab. Colchester (Capital)....2168 12,544 Waltham Abbey 421 2,287 Chelmsford(Assize town) 867 4,649 Dunmow

446

2,279 Waltbainstow..... 558 3,777 Thaxled..

388

1,733 Harwich.. 578 3,732 Harlow..

261 1,695 Saffron Walden 676 3,403 Epping

290 1,473 Halsted.. 744 3,279 Dedham

270 1,432 Romford 618 3,244 Billericay

157 1,289 Malden, 515 2,679 Breotwood...

229 1,238 Bocking 555 2,544 Rochford.....

186 1,214 Coggeshall

526 2,471
. Manningtree.

217 1,075 Barking

402
2,421 Burobam

201 1,056 Witham

466 2,352 Grey's Thurrock........ 213 1,055 Braintree

...518 2,298
Total, Towns, 25; Ilouses, 12,470; Inbabitants, 67,219.

HISTORY.
A. D. 61, Camalodunanı, the residence of the Roman Proprætor, and seat

of Government, destroyed by Boadicea Queen of the Iceni. 021, Colchester taken by assault from the Danes by Edward the elder. 1016, At Assingdon, through the treachery of Edric, Duke of Mercia, Ed

mund Ironside defeated, and the flower of the English nobility slain,

by Capute. 1397, From Pleshy, Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, decoyed

by his nephew Richard 11. to accompany hiin to London ; on the road to which he was arrested and conveyed to Calais, where he was smother

ed September 8. 1588, At Tulbury, Elizabeth reviewed the army assembled to oppose the

Spanish invaders. 1648, Colchester, after a noble resistance, surrendered to Sir William Fair.

fax and the Parliamen!arians, and its brave defenders, Sir George Lu

cas and Sir Charles Lisle, murdered in cold blood, August 28. 1665, June 3, off Harwich, Dutcb fleet defeated, 18 sail captured, and 14

destroyed, and their Admiral Opdam blown up, by the Duke of York, afterwards James II.

BIOGRAPHY. Angier, Joho, nonconformist divine and author, Dedham, 1605. Audiey, Thomas, Lord Chaocellor, founder of Magdalen Coll. Cambridge,

Earls Colne, 1488. Badew, Richard de, fouoder of University-hall, Cambridge, in 1326, Great

Badew. Barking, Adam of, learned writer, (died 1216.) Barking, Richard of, Abbot of Westiniaster, Lord Treasurer to Heury III.

(died 1246.) Barlowe, William, Bp. of Chichester, (died 1568.) Bastwick, Joho, sufferer by Star Chamber, Writtle, 1593.

Bedell,

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Bedell, William, Bp. of Kilmore, Black Notley, 1570.
Bendish, Sir Thomas, loyalist, ainbassador to the Porte, Bower-hall, 1674.
Berpers, Juliana, author on Hunting and Hawking, Rodiog, 1410.
Bourchier, Thomas, Cardinal Abp. of Canterbury, introducer of Printing,

Hawsteed, 1410.
Bramstone, Sir Jobo, Lord Chief Justice, Malden (died 1646.)
BRANDON, CAARLES, first Duke of Suffolk, favourite of Henry Vill. South

Okendon. Bright, Edward, weighed, at his death in 1750, 61 6lb., Malden, 1721. Cawlon, Thomas, nonconformist divine and author, Colchester. Cecil, Robert, first Earl of Salisbury, statesman, 1560. Chesill, John of, Bp. of London, Lord Chancellor, (died 1279.) Cogsball, Ralph of, Abbot of Cogshall, chronicler, (died 1230.) Collinges, Johi, nonconformist divine and author, Boxted, 1623. Cooke, Sir Anthony, preceptor to Edward VI. Giddy-hall, 1506. Cooke, Thoinas, miscellaneous writer, Braintree, 1707. Cults, John Lord, General, ridiculed by Swist, Arkcsdon (died 1706.) Dawes, Sir William, Abp. of York, Lyons, 1670, Dyke, Daniel, baptist, Epping, 1617, Edwards, George, ornithologist, Stratford Langhorne, 1692. Fitzwalter, Sir Robert, warrior, Woodham Walters, (died 1234.) Gascoigne, George, poet, Walthamstow, (died 1578.) Gauden, John, Bp. of Worcester, publisher of Icon Basilike, Mayland, 1605. Gilbert, Willia ", physician, author of “ De Magnete," Colchester, 1540. Goff, Thomas, tragic writer, 1592. Grimston, Sir Harbottle, Speaker of the Commons, Bradfield-ball, 1594. Harsnet, Samuel, Abp. of York, Colchester, 1561. Hawkwood, Sir John, warrior, Sible Hedingbam (lor. lemp. Edw. III.) Holland, Philemon, translator, Chelinsford, 1551. Hopkins, Matthew, witch-finder general, Manningtree, 17th century. Howland, Richard, Bp. of Peterborough, Newport Ponds (died 1600.) Jebb, Sir Richard, physician, Stratford, 1729. Jegon, John, Bp. of Norwich, Coxhall (died 1618.) Killig rew, Catharine, scholar, Giddy. hall, 1530. Leake, John, vaval commander, Harwich, 1657. Leake, Richard, master-gunner of Englaod, Harwich, 1629. Liusell, Augustine, Bp. of Hereford, Bumstead (died 1634.) Lucas, Sir Charles, loyalist, Colchester (shot 1648.) Malden, Thomas, schoolman, Abbot of Malden, Malden (died 1404.) Marney, Henry Lord, keeper of the privy seal, Layer Marney (died 1524.) Mason, John, author of " Self Knowledge," dissenter, Dunmow, 1706. Wede, Joseph, commentator on the Apocalypse, Berden, 1586. Mildmay, Sir Walter, Chancellor of the Exchequer to Elizabeth, Moussham

(died 1589.) Morley, John, humourist and fortunate adventurer, Halsted, 1655. Nelter, Thomas, Confessor to Henry V. who died in his arms, Waldeo,

(died 1430.) Newcastle, Margaret, Ducbess of, voluminous writer, St. Jobo's, (died 1673.) Plume, Thomas, founder of Plumian Professorship, Cambridge, Malden,

1630.
Powell, William Samuel, divine, Colchester, 1717.
Purchas, Samuel, compiler of Voyages, Thaxstead, 1577.
Quarles, Francis, poet, author of " Emblems,” Stewards, 1592.
Ratcliff, Thomas, Earl of Sussex, Chamberlain to Elizabeth, New-hall, (died

1583.)
Ray, Joun, naturalist, Black Notley, 1628.
Roe, Sir Thomas, ambassador, Low Layton, about 1580.
Smith, Sir Thomas, Secretary of State to Elizabeth, Saffron Walden, 1512.
Suckling, Sir John, poet and dramatic writer, Witham, 1613.
Tuuri.ow, Jonn, Secretary to Cromwell, Abbots Roding, 1616.
Tilbury, Gervase of, chronicler, (flourished 1210.)
Vere, Aubrey de, writer on the Eucharist, Great Bentley (flourished 1250.)

Vere, Sir Francis, defender of Ostend, Hediogham Castle, 1549.
Vere, Sir Horace, Baron of Tilbury, General, Kirby-hall, 1565.
Walden, Roger, Bp. of London, Walden, (died 1404.)
Waltham, Joha ol, Bp. of Salisbury, Lord Treasurer td Richard II. (died

1395.) Waltham, Roger of, schoolman, (flourished temp. Heory III.) White, Thomas, philosopher, friend of Hobbes, Hollon, 1582. Winstanley, Heory, architect, (destroyed with his light-house at Edystone, 1703.)

MISCELL:NEOUS REMARKS. Harwich is the station for packets to Holland and Germany, and was the place of landing and departure of William III. George I. and George II. on their Continental journeys. ller present Majesty landed here.

By the manorial custom of Little Duomow, a bitch of bacon is given to any couple that have been married a year and a day without once repenting: the earliest delivery on record was in 1444, and the latest in 1751.

Matthew Hopkins, of Manningtree, caused no less than 60 reputed witches in the county of Essex to be banged within one year, after which he bimself, baving been submitted to one of his own lests, was condemned and executed for witchcraft. This is alluded to by Butler:

u Who after proved himself a witch,

And made a rod for his own breech." Aldersbrook was the residence, and Little Ilford church the burial-place, of the antiquary Smart Lethieullier. Bishop's-ball was tbe seat of Henry Spencer, the warlike Bishop of Norwich, who suppressed Ket's rebellion. Coptford-hall was the residence of the persecuting Bp: Booner. Dedham was the living of Matthew Newcomen, and Fiuching field of Stephen Marshall, two of the authors of " Smectymnuus.” Sändon was the rectory and residence of Dr. Walton, editor of the Polyglol; and Upmioster, of Dr. Derbam, author of Physico-Theology."

Black Nolley was the burial-place of the naturalist Jobo Ray; Chigwell, of Abp. Harspet; Colchester, of Dr. Gilbert, who discovered the properties of the loadstone, in Trinity church ; and of the murdered loyalists, Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle, io St. Giles'; Dedham, of its rector William Burkill, commentator on the Testament ; East Ham, of the antiquary Dr. Stukeley; Hempstead, of Dr. Hervey, who discovered the cir.

culation of the blood; Low Layton, of John Strype the antiquary, and William Bowyer the learned printer; Oates, of the philosopher Jobo Lucke: Saffron Walden, of Lord Chancellor Audley; and West Ham of the ornitho. logist George Edwards.

BYRO.

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Mr. URBAN,

March 20. vours to throw some light on this AM very anxious to discover what subject ; but he does not distinguish the electiog our Members of Parlia. From the times when the antient ment, and how the meetings and con view of Frank pledge was in use, he tinuance of that body were antiently passes at once to a period many cenregulaled. It is grievous to be couie turies distant from it, namely, the staptly told, that our rights are with year 1429, when the law of sth Henry beld from us, and that this is the VI. c. 7. (not 14) was enacted, and cause of our national calaipities. It gives a very small extract from the would be a great public service if preamble of that Statute. The whole Mr. Brougham, who seems to treat of the preamble is curious, and shows every subject he toucbes with great what was considered at that time the knowledge and penetration, would defects in elections. It is as follows: undeceive the people in this matter,

“ Item, Whereas the Elections of if they are really deceived by those knights of shires to come to the Parliawho pretend to be the friends of the wents of our Lord the King, in many people and the nation.

counties of the realm of England, bave Your Correspondent A. B. in your now of late been made by very great, Magazine for February last, eudea. outrageous, and excessive nuinber of

people

Ous.

more numerous, it would be desir. U LVII. pp. 209, 480, I find some 304 Constitution of Parliament.-The Articles A and An. [April, people dwelling within the same coun ward Coke. From such references as iies of the realio of England, and of A. B. seems occasiooally to use, he wbich the most part was of people of mighl alledge that Parliaments sat as small substance, and of no value, where often as three times in the year ; for of every of them pretended a voice he may find the great Court Festivals equivalent as to such elections to be held, long after the Conquest, atChristmade, with the most worthy Knights mas Easter, and Whitsuutide, deand esquires, dwelling within the same

scribed as Parliaments, although they counties, whereby manslaughters, riots, batteries, and divisions ainong the gen

can hardly be properly so called. tlemen, and other people of the same

If A. B. and gentlemen who have countir's, shall very likely rise and be, talent and leisure for the subject, unless convenient and due remedy be

would favour the publick with short provided in this beball."

impartial accounts of these interestThis shews, Mr. Urban, how things ing and disputed points, it might the Act which restricts the qualiti

. and misguided zeal are very danger. went then: this is the preamble to operate as a great general benefit in

these eventful times, when delusion cation for a county vole to the pos

A FREEHOLDER. session of 408. a year clear freehold. But this is only as lo county members. The members for loroughs being Mr. URBAN,

PON looking at your volume able to have information whether any change for the worse has been Remarks upon the use of the ar. introduced in these clections, no mat- ticles A and AN, in which however, ter through what means. If preju- the writers do not come to any condicial innovations could be pointed clusion on the subject. out, they should be respectfully and The followiug rules will, I think, specifically stated in peritious to the set this question at rest, being found. Legislature, and such petitions would, ed entirely upon the sounds of words, no doubt, meet with due consider. and not upon the niode in whicb ation.

they are spelled; for it is well known In perusing your Miscellany, I some that the articles are wholly selected time ago found a book reviewed (in for the sake of euphony. June 1812) intituled “ Historical Re The article A is prefixed, flections on the Conslitution and re Ist. To words beginning with a presentation of England, by J. Jopp,” consonant, as a day, a week, a month, which I think your Correspondent a year. A. B. should consult. The Author 2015. To words pronounced as if seems very animated against some of they began with a consonant. Thus the Reformers; but, if A. B. would we say, a eunuch, a universe, such a add the information delivered there, one, pronouoced yunuch, yuniverse, to his own slock of research else- won. where, he mighı give the publick an 3dly. To words beginning with H, useful iosight into the true state of when the accent is on the first syllable, this important matter. A. B. gives as a horse, a hábil, a hundred. extracts from different copies of Mag The article AN is prefixed, na Charta, but he does not say which 1. To words beginning with a vowel, is the true one. He speaks indeed of as an arm, an underling, an upshot. the original Great Charter in French, 2. To words beginning with , but I think the original copy was in when the accent is not on the first syl Latin, and translations should not be Table, as an habitual nilion, an hypó. used when originals can he found. thesis.

This Correspondent leaves a great Lastls. lo words beginning with desideratum on this subj ct

H, in which it is not at all pronounced, plained ; it is, the meaning of the or is male, we use A or AN according word commonally, which so frequent to the former rules, as i! Ibe H did not ly occurs in reading upon this subject; exist. Thus we say, a humour (pro. and he uses a treaiise, entitled “ Mo- nounced yumour) by the first set of dus lenendi Parliamenta," &c. which rules; and by the last rules we say, is not wbat it is pretended to be, an hour, an herb, an heir, an honest and is said lo hare deceived Sir Ed man, an humble man.

F.
Mr.

une X

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