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less, or because we perceive at the first tress. Then again, the functions of glance that they betray on the part of these great Ecclesiastics, though differtbeir writers total ignorance of History ing from those of the Parocbial Clergy, and the Constitution, as well as an in are equally laborious, and perhaps more trepidity of misrepresentation, which, irksome. In the greater sees their addressed to intelligent persons, must daily drudgery is scarcely inferior to that defeat its own end. But, unfortunately, of a Clerk at a desk; and during their the disciples of this system are no more Visitations, which in some Divceces conintelligent than they are fair ; while tinue 60 days without interruption, their teachers well know that the surest their duties are more toilsome than way to succeed is by casting off all mea those of the officiating Curate in a popusure, diffidence, and reserve, in false lous parish. Add to this, that they are hood; by becoming “animosè et fortiter generally men advanced in life, and arendaces."
some of them in a state approaching to I shall now touch upon a few of their decrepitude. They have to associate principal topics of invective. The first with men often possessed of ten times of these consists in false and exaggerated their incomes ; and yet from them is statements of the emoluments supposed expected more in acts of public bounty to be attached to the great Dignities of than from the Lay Nobility. They have the Church and the Law. These, more often no private fortunes, and if they laover, though belonging to very labo bour to make any decent provision for rious stations, are purposely confounded their families, are accused of extortion. with Sinecure Pensions ; thereby to in. Of extortiun! when it is matter of nosinuate that both are equally useless, and toriety that Ecclesiastical estates are tho equally burdensome to the country. cheapest in the kingdom ; that is, a That men of such dispositions as the au larger proportion of the profits is unithors of these should hate the Ministers of formly left to the lessee than in Lay esa Religion which they have disclaimed, tates, and left moreover by an old man and fear those of a Law which they are and a tenant for life. breaking, is not wonderful; but to the Much of wbat has now been observed, pride of a true Jacobin, mere superiority with an exception as to the mode, not of rank, or elegance of habits, the ex the amount of the provision, applies to pectation of respectful deference, and the Judges-and now let the assembly the forms of polished society, are little judge for themselves, whether Lawn and better than poison. Accordingly, the Ermine, thus rudely and iguorantly eagreat Dignitaries of the Church are in- lumniated, are often the envelopes of vidiously held out to the scorn of the sloth and luxury. people, as regardless, if not of the de For us, the Parochial Clergy, if in eencies, yet of the duties of their calls these times of distress we bave pampering, as men sunk in sloth and luxury ; ed ourselves, and are bloated, as and their function itself, even if pro- have been accused, with plethoric disperly administered, superfluous. These ease ; if we have been rigorous in exactcalumnies descend much lower, and to ing our dues, and bave with-holden our a rank where these people, if they were bread from the hungry, or forborne by so disposed, have better opportunities of religious consolation to soothe the des learning, the truth : I mean, to the si. sponding, shame be upon us !-but, in tuation and characters of the Beneficed common justice to our Order, let these Clergy ; wbile an bypocritical compas- charges be taken out of generalities; let sion is expressed for the wants and suf- them, if they can, he fastened upon inferings of poor Curates; a most respect. dividuals, and let them be proved before able and useful order of the profession, they are published. few of whom, I am persuaded, will be Once more in this tissue of malice, dattered by such compliments.
ignorance, and falsehood, Ecclesiastical If there is to be a distinction of ranks Endowments are represented as a Tax in society, it is fitting that an order of levied upon the people for the support Ministers should be adapted to every of an order of men civilly styled “ the such rank ; but this object can only be men in black.” This is not the case :-attained by making an adequate and these endowments, on the contrary, varying provision for their support. stand on the same fouting with every
Now the revenues of the English Bi- other species of property, namely, the shops, wbicb these persons presume to
Law of the Land. state as exactly as if they had perused A Tax may be repealed by the Lietistheir audit-books, are in many instances iature without injury to any one; but so inadequate to the high station which Ecclesiastical Endowments can no more they fill, as to render it a station of be taken away, without legal robbery, great anziety, and sometimes even dis- than any Layman's private estate. Be.
sides, not a purchase of an estate takes Another popular topic of calumny and place, not a lease of a farm is granted, murmurs is i he Corn Bill, of which the in which a proportionate abatement is people are taught that it is a conspiracy not made for tithes, where tithes are due between Administration and the landed of right.-They do no wrong, therefore interest in Parliament, to enrich the Farthey impose no unjust burden either mer by starving the Poor. on purchaser or tenant—but they are With their utter inability to compreheld for a particular purpose, which hend any complicated question of policy these people would be glad to vote use or political economy, the painful feel. Jess. They are tenures by Divine ser ings which they endure in consequence vice, and that service is performed. The of this misconception, would be pitiable, doors of our Churches stand open every were not their claim to compassion Sunday; there we are in constant attend. mitigated by the presumption of formance to do our duty-and if the People ing a judgment on the subject-yet they will not do tbeirs by listening to our feel, alas! the pressure of want, they instructions, this is no reason, but with seek for a cause, and are directed to Jacobins, for robbing us of our support. their greatest benefactors. For such
With the payment of tithes, however, assuredly are those who, in the face of these poor Remonstrants have little con popular clamour, dare to provide against cern-but Church dues and offerings are famine by an unpopular and even perioppressive.--Let us see now how this Jous enactment. Yet what the prejumatter stands : Wages, we suppose dices of the vulgar will not permit them even they will admit, are due for work' to comprehend, has long been under. done-but perhaps these are inordinate stood by political economists, namely, and excessive-now, for the sum of ten that an indiscriminate permission to impence, one of the “idle men in black" port grain, must necessarily diminish tbe has not unfrequently to wait for an hour production of that great support of life or more in a damp church, and after. in our own country, and that, unless the wards to inter a corpse bare-headed, Farmer were to receive a guarantee for in cold wind and rain, at the peril of the sale of his produce at a certain life-yet, for the same office, the same price, husbandry would be converted fee was paid in the reign of James the into pasturage, and the wbolesome check First, when that suin would have pur upun prodigality in the consumption, cbased six times the quantity of the ne which is a moderate price, would be re. cessaries of life that it will at present. moved in the earlier part of the year,
Again, not for the sum of ten-pence, the consequence of which must be, not but for nothing, the “ idle man in dearth but famine before the next blaek" plunges without scruple into the barvest. midst of pestilent and infectious air, to Of the beneficial effects of this decried comfort the sick and dying; sometimes, system of policy, we have at this motoo, where the dying and the dead are ment the happiest experience; since Iningled in the same apartment. For alter the last disastrous barvest a surthe sum, not of ten-pence, but of no- plus of sound and wholesome grain, ade. thing, the “idle man in black” is call. quate to the national consumption for ed, no matter in what weather, or at five months was remaining over and wbat hour, by day or night, the distance above the consumption of the former of miles in order to administer private year (a certain effect of the Corn Bill), baptism to children whom he finds in so that we are but just beginning to eat perfect bealth. Such is the treatment musty bread, at the time when the first which we receive at these coarse and symptoms of a genial spring are beginmerciless bands, not because we do not ning to exhibit the promise of another teach and warn the people, but because barvest. 'It is truly astonishing, that we do teach and warn them to shun their the obvious cause of so large a portion wiched seducers.
of our calamities should be so little atAs another instance of the monstrous tended to. misrepresentation by which the hatred Among those wbose clamours are loud of the people is excited against their su- and unceasing on other accounts, no periors, I must once more refer to the murmur is heard against Providence. wretched composition already mentioned, speak not this to their credit; their in which the Magistrates are required to acquiescence is not that of submission, give up their augmented salaries; a but of neglect; they have almost ceased, species of disinterestedness not very I fear, to acknowledge a superintending prac ticable, since it is well known that Providence. Yet, as a matter of fact, the Magistrates serve their country, every morsel of bread which they eat not only without fee or reward, but at might convince them that the last seas a co nsiderable expence to themselves. son had been most disastrous, and the
dificulty with which they procure a the other half was embarrassing the Goscanty pittance of grain, that the har vernment by clamours for Peace. vest bad been very defective. Artificial Peace at length arrived--the vast mascarcity can never be extreme, or of long chine of Commerce suspended its mo. duration. Now bad this calamity be tions at once; and an effect unhappily fallen the country at the most flourish. followed which the wisest of men bad ing period of our manufactures, it not distinctly foreseen-namely, genewould have been severely felt. Money ral, but, we trust, temporary distress, cannot multiply the produce of the There is in poverty a tendency to proearth, nor alter its physical properties. pagate and perpetuate itself. Its first But the tremendous difficulty which we effect is diminished consumption, exhave to encounter, is the concurrence tending itself to every rank in society, of this great visitation of Providence and every necessary of life. with a general stagnation of commerce,
A few familiar instances may suffice a necessary cessation of labour, and an to illustrate this observation :—The first unemployed and half-siarved population. necessary of life is foort, and the first Pitiable, indeed, is their case at present ; object of economy is cloathing. Now yet it is still :nore so, that in attempting when the labourer or mechanic is on the (o account for this onexpected phæno. point of being reduced from a propormenon, they should lend their under: tion of nutritious animal food to prepastandings to men at once shallow, plau- rations of grain, his first struggle will sible, and wickell, who teach them to be to procure even a diminished supply ascribe it to causes scarcely more con of the first; his second, to obtain food nected with the effect thau planetary at all. In proportion as the first is influence. Could the extinction of peri abandoneil, want recoils upon the butsious and sinecures, for instance, afford cher, and from the butcher upon the every suíferer a meal in a month? Or grazier. Hence the rent is unpaid, or Fould Annual Parliaments and Univerpaid by means of a ruinous distress. sal Suffrage have any effect upon the Again, poverty and rags are two ideas Atmosphere? nay, even on ihe Aux and more frequently associated than poverty reius of Commerce? Would they not and emptiness; and the reason is ob. rather consume the time of the poor in vions-ihat the former appearance is cabals and intrigues, in idleness and produced in order to remove the latter. waste?
Hence it follows that articles of cloathThe great combination of causes to ing lie unpurchased on the shelf-ihe which our present evils are to be traced, mercer wants not his usual supply from bas in some degree perplexed the deepest the manufacturer - the inanulacturer thinkers : to those who suffer must se discards his workmen-the farmer's wool verely from them, they are certainly not lies u purchased in his storehouse, and wholly intelligible yet these plain con the landlord, as before, is the ultimale siderations may be of some use. The Sutferer. Sill, however, the evil can be astonishug energies put forth by the but temporary; huiman wants will sooner Nation in the last long protracted strug. or later force a supply this will stimugle, were not like the temperate exer late the reviving spirit of industry, and tious of a man in health, but the vio. the rewards of industry will once more lent efforts of a patient in a fever-they increase the circulation and consumpa must in consequence be succeeded by tion. relaxation and debility.-The very waste
But there is another cause of the preof war itself brought out so much raw sent stagnation, which cannot be reinaterial of every kind, modified in such membered without thankfulness a variety of ways, and employing such houses and villages have not been dea multitude of bands, that while the stroyed by the flames of war; our fields Nation, as such, was on the point of be- laid waste, or our fences leveled, by its ing exhausted by the expence, all the ravages.--All these mischiess have begradations of suciety employed in ma failey the unbappy countries which have nufactures were individually prosperous. been the seats of warm-countries tve, molt followed, that for all tbe necessaries which, from the mildness of their cliof life they were able and willing to pay mate, are more independent upon imadvanced prices: this occasioned the portation than ourselves.—These misracking of rents, and that in many in cbiefs must first be repaired; and where stances for terms yet unexpired.-still, is the wonder, it, during the period at with all these advantages experienced which this great and universal process by the landed interest, taxation was se is going on, foreign commerce should verely ft lt; so that while one half of the be suspendeu? The work, bonever, will in people was living in plenty by the War, nulung time be accomplistacd; the inbaGENT. MAG. Murch, 1817.
bitants of those countries will once more of Representatives in Parliament were discover that they want cloathing as never so numerous as at present. Inewell as shelter, and a large proportion qualities, undoubtedly, and great iue. of that cluathing must come from Great qualities, in representation there are. A Britain. These views of the subject are Nobleman, for example, of their own at least as rational as the theories of party, by the help of a few posts numdemagogues and political quacks. bered and ticketed in his park, makes
It would be a waste of time to say no scruple of returning as many memany thing on tbe more rational and bers as the County of York; but, on the feasible scbemes of Parliamentary Re whole, the principle of inequality is eviform, because the persons with whom dently weakening: whether for the betwe have to contend, are no less hostile ter or the worse, I sball not presume to to them than ourselves; but with re dete rinine. spect to the great topic of annual parlia. To Universal Suffrage there are these ments, and universal suffrage, a few re objections. First, that a set of men remarks may not be thrown away. First turned by the mob must necessarily be tlen (for nothing is too extravagant for bold and illiterate demagogues, incapamodern effrontery to assert, or modern ble of sober deliberation. Secondly, credulity to swallow) it may seem to be that the class of voters excluded by the the persuasion of some men, that, at a present system are of all others the inost period of perfvet wisdom and justice, no aceessible to bribes, and the most unone can tell when, the British Consti. fit to judge as to the qualifications of a tution was hit off at a stroke, with all candidate. Thirdly, that this scheme the equipvises and adjustments of a is of all others the worst for the purpose new and finished machine; but that, of independence; poverty and low selftime having corroded some of the parts, interest being the characteristics of such and hunian folly and interest having an assenıbly. Fourthly, supposing tbein, disarranged others, it has at length as the votaries of this system fondly cure reached the period of corruption and de ceive. to preserve their independenen ray, in which it now totters and vacil inviolat", this circumstance alone would lates towards its last movement. Now destroy (as it has onee bappened alit may, or it may not, benefit the inge- ready) the balance of the Constitution ; nious persons who bave made this dis. for those who bold without controul the covery, to be assured that there never purse of the Nation can at any time was such a time or transaction ; and reduce the other branches of the Legis. that, whereas the two higher branches lature to insignificance, or to nothing. of the Legislature, by which, according Remember the Long Parliament, and the to the best Legal Antiquaries, are to be influence of the absolute independence understood the Lords Spiritualand Tem- bestowed on them by the King, on hinporal, may be traced i hrough the long self and the Lorils. period of the Saxon annals, the demy Next, as to Annual Elections, there cratical branch arose at a much later are soher persons who presume to think
L'ut ibis branch of the Legisla- that a recurrence of epidemical riot and ture was for a considerable time almost phrenzy throughout the Nation once in wholly underibe controul of the Nobles. seven years is quite enough ; and with Pefore their vast estates were subdivided, respect to the risque of bribery, ibe whole Counties were nearly shated be shorter the term of enriching them. tween them, the Bishops, and the Re- selves, the more shameless and the more ligious Houses - the Boroughs for the rapacious they will grow. The history most part, rose under the walls of their
of Provincial Governors appointed for castles, and were dependent upon them. very short terms affurds an example of In direct contradiction, therefore, to the this. crude ideas of modern theorists, every But Annual Parliaments and Univer. thing has been gradually tending to sal Suffrage are contemptible objects to augment the power and independence the radical and fundamental Reformers, of the House of Commons.
the equalizers of property and of man. The great estates of the old Nobility kind. This monstrous scheme, after bave been gradually friteered away, having slept in quiet about twenty years, wbile the dissolution of the Religious has lately been revived by some despeHouses created Freeholders almost with rate men, who, baving notbing to lose out number. Then again, the vast de- by the dissolution of the whole frame of preciation of money has encreased the human society, promise to themselves number of persons entitled to the elec- much more than equality in a future tive suffrage in the ratio of more than distribution. Neither in that event are ten to one: and from all these causes their expectations unreasonable ; for it is demonstrable that the Electors equality, even equality in ruin, is a
state wbich cannot subsist for a moment which can be given of the origin of civil 10 was pledged to the deluded populace society. of France; and how was that pledge re Let us now view the subject for a deemed? After they had massacred moment in another light. Froin ineone-half of the Nobility and Clergy, and quality, even when carried to the length driven the rest into exile, then, if ever, of an hig! Aristocracy, result some of it might have been expected that the the best and most generous affections experiment should be made; that this of the human breast: courtesy, connew and blessed order of things should passion, bounty, forbearance, patronage,
- that the measuring line protection, on the one hand; and on the sbould go through the land, and thence other, attachment, gratitude, fidelity, forward “Every rood of ground maintain and dury. I have already proved that its man." But mark the event. The Revolution can at most produce but a great leaders, as in the partnership of the change of masters ;-that change may lion and the other beasts, seized the indeed, abstractedly, be either for tbe prey for themselves, while the wolves better, or the worse. In France it was and jackalls bowled in vain for their the exchange of a qualified but still stipulated portions. — But let it be irksome state of oppression for a serogranted for a moment that such a par civus and brutal tyranny: amongst our. tition has once taken place. Equality selves it would be nothing better than Dust be maintained as well as establisb the rejection of that mild and benefied, otherwise the principle and the ar cent superiority, which arises spontagument are at an end. Now the true
neously out of high birth, cultivated Jacobinical position is, that every one minds, polished humanity, and sense of has a natural and indefeasible right chararter, for such a set of masters as to an equal portion of the earth, or its now dictate to a Westminster mob, and produce, according to his wants. prompt the attempted assassination of
Suppose then this wild maxim to be their Sovereign. The providential escarried into practice, and what will be cape of that august Person, wbile it tills the event?-In this ever-changing scene the heart of every one who deserves the of buman life, not a day, nor an hour name of Englishman with tbankfulness, tlapses, without some change which will is to be lailed as one of the greatest require a new distribution. The birth blessings in another view, since it will or the death of any individual in a fa unquestionably basten and invigorate mily, the growth and increasing wants the exertions of the Legislature, in crusb. of children, and a thousand other causes, ing with overwhelming and instant ruin if the principle were acted upon, would the abettors of those detestable prinjinmediately produce such a scene of ciples which are already precipitating confusion in consequence of this ever. that last period of the great political lasting shuffle of property, adding, subs- malady, — the period of pruseriptiou. tracting, giving, iaking, claiming, re and bloodshed. It is of far less importtwnstrating, and wrangling, tbat univer. ance, yet of some, to observe that the sal uproar must inevitably ensue. To all practical tendency of these ductrines ibis is to be added, that meanwhile there among ourselves has been verified, by is no Magistrate to controul, no umpire one attempt to return to the first prill to decide, for, if there were, equality ciples of ihings in a general pillage; in would be at an end. But in this para other instances by sturdy claims of right, disiacal state, I presume, the great mas. rejecting the tenders of bounty; and in ters of buman nature who bave deviser
some, by accepting the boon and in. it suppose an extinction of human pas- sulring the giver at once, like the base sions, so tbat fraud, selfishness, and vio quadruped, which at the same moment lence, would be no more, and that the attempts to snatch the offered mursel, native equity of each man's own breast and to bite the band by wbich it is exwould repress every unreasonable ex tended. pectation, every inordinate desire. On There is something in the genius and ibe contrary, a contest would instantly the language of Jacobinism, which rencommence between the strong and the ders it almost unassailable by reason weak, tbe cunning and the simple; su and persuasion. — For the first, its perior powers of body or mind would in. strength consists in the tremendons stantly gather about them a band of power of inflaming cruelty, rapacity, followers ; equality (theory and prac. pride, and selfishness.-Of the second it tice) would be at an end ; ihe chief and is more difficult to speak. But after his followers would make a distribution some attempts at a critical analysis of for themselves, and a military despo- this atrocious style, its peculiar fascitism would ensue. This is buman pa nation with the vulgar appears to me lure; and this, I fear, is the best account to consist in broad bumour, applied