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“ Epitaph on Doctor ADAIR CRAW- many tbat are impudently offered to FORD, by the late Gilbert Wakefield: the publick, - such particularly of kindly communicated to the Writer of which opiates and ardeot spirits form this Account, by a near and respected the basis. relative of the eminent man whose virtues and talents it records. The in- easily be selected; but, passing over

A variety of useful articles might tended Monument was not carried into

those which are wholly professional, execution, in consequence of the noble

we shall select an article from the Marquis baving died, sbortly after he bad

first Number of a Second Volume, given orders for its erection. “To the Memory of

which relates to the staff of life. ADAIR CRAWFORD, M. D. F.R.'S. “ TO THE EDITOR OF THE GAZETTE, who departed this life on the 29th of “Sir,

York, Dec. 16, 1816. July, 1795, in the 47th year of bis age.

". The bread made with the flour of In the practice of his profession, new wbeat being scarcely eatable, I was intelligent, liberal, and humane; encouraged to make trial of a receipt in in his manner,

a former number of your very valuable gentle, diffident, and unassuming: work, for making cheap and good bread; bis unaffected deference to the wants of but, owing to the flour being bad, I did others,

not succeed to my wish. The great his modest estimation of himself, difficulty, I find, is to make the dough the infant simplicity of his demeanour, rise ; and, when fermentation is forced the pure emanation

by beat, the bread soon becomes sour, of kind affection, and a blameless heart, Bread in this country, and, I believe, rendered him universally beloved ! throughout Europe, forms so great a

To these virtjes of the Man, proportion of the food of every class of his Contemporaries alone can testify: society, that it may be justly termed the As a votary of Science,

staff of life. I beg, therefore, to direct and Author of a treatise on Animal Heat, your attention to this article, and to dePosterity will repeat bis yraise. vise some plan of making bread with the

flour of damaged, or rather unripe, The most noble the MarquisofLansdowne, wheat, that may be more wholesome to whose house the Doctor had retired and palatable than that we now procure from London, for a respite from the from the bakers in this county. I duties of his profession, and who should think that, by means of alum or

respected him while living, potass, this desideratum may be accomerected this monument to his Memory." plished; and, although these articles

may not be wholesome, I conceive they 87. The Monthly Gazette of Health, or cannot prove more injurious to health

General and Periodical Collection of than bad bread. lo your next Number all New Discoveries relative to the I hope to find some remarks on this im. Means of preserving Health, curing portant subject. Diseases, promoting Domestic Economy, “I am, &c. J.O.R. CLERK." &c. &c. g'c. Edited by Richard Recce, “ The art of making bread with lea. M.D. Member of the Royal College of ven is of considerable antiquity, for it Surgeons in London, &c. &c. Vol. I. was known beyond the era of our most 8vo. pp. 384. Sherwood of Co.

antient records, but the employment of " THE Monthly Gazette of Health yeast is of a comparatively late date. is published on the same plan as the

The saccharine quality of the meal of Gazette de Santé of Paris, the avowed wheat being totally destroyed by fermenobject of wbich is, to acquaint society at tation, and in some degree its mucilage, large witb all the discoveries that are

the bread made by this process is greatly made in the known world, regarding the impoverished. The fermentation being preservation of health, the cure of the only checked by baking, it is also very diseases incident to the animal king. liable to proceed in the stomacbs of dom, the promotion of domestic econo

weakly subjects to the acetous stage, my and comfort, and to expose the ne

occasioning the sensation termed heartfarious practices of pretenders, who, for burn, and a troublesome evolution of the sake of lucre, sport with the feelings the dough made with the flour of new

carbonic acid gas. The eclitor, finding and lives of tbeir fellow-creatures."

wheat to be much injured by the fermen-. We are glad to perceive that the tation excited by yeast or leaven, enEditor of this “ Gazette" does not

deavoured to make bread without hav. confioe bimself to the recommenda- ing recourse to this process, and in this tion of remedies for every disorder, attempt he flatters himself he has combut boldiy reprobates the misuse of pletely succeeded, at least to his own

satisfaction. This object he has accom land and Ireland this article is termed plished by using the flour of wheat, supercarbonate of soda. mealy potatoes, the common culinary A cheap cake may be made in the salt, and water. The component parts following manner, much more wholeof the culinary salt be bas used separate some for children than bread and butter. ly, viz. soda and muriatic acid, in the Take of Treacle

| pound; following manner: first rubfour drachms Flour

3} pounds; of carbenate of soda, reduced to a fine Turmeric Powder

2 drachms; powder, with six pounds of four; then, Caraway Seeds bruised

3 ounces; with six pounds of the pulp of steamed A little Lemon Peel. or boiled potatoes, mix three dracbms of Butter

3 ounces; muriatic acid, diluted with a pint of wa Carbonate of Soda

6 drachms; ter: when well blended, add the four First mix the powders with the flour with the carbonate of soda, and as much well together, and add the other articles, water as may be necessary to form it with 3į pounds of steamed or boiled pointo a proper consistence; then knead tatoes, well blended with 54 drachms of it for about three minutes : form it into muriatic acid diluted with half a pint of a loaf, and put it within the beat of the water, and with a sufficient quantity of fire, covered with a wet cloth, for an milh, form it into a mass of a proper hour, when it will be fit to put into the consistence, and proceed as directed for oven.-The acid and soda, uniting in the making bread. mass, form the culinary salt, and during “The expence of this cake, weighing the union a considerable quantity of nearly nine pounds, will not exceed two fixed air is disengaged, producing the shillings and sixpence. good effects of fermentation without any “The Editor, with the assistance of of its bad. This process continues dur. his baker, has made several experiments ing i be time the mass is before the fire; with other acids and alkalies; but those and, in order to prevent the surface he was mentioned answer best. The from becoming so dry as to prevent the addition of one drachm of prepared amexpansion of the loat, it is necessary to monia, and two drachms of alum, and cover it with a wet cloth. A greater an additional drachm of muriatic acid, quantity of the carbonate of soda being to the potatoe mass, greatly improves employed than is necessary to neutralize the colour of the bread, and renders it the acid, the bread may be considered much lighier. These he has not remuch more wholesome than is common commended, because the publiek are salt had been employerl, the excess of prejudiced against them. -Instead of the carbonate of suda, by correcting acid condemning i hem as injurious to health matter in the stomach, promoting diges. in any respect, he has directed the bread tion. For invalids whose stomachs do for his own use to be made with them. not properly diges to the food they take, The only objection to alum is its tenand for weakly children, this is of great dency to constipate the bowels, but this importance. If, however, any person effect is counteracted by the volatile should object to an excess of soda, which salt. Salt of tartar and soda, which certainly renders the bread darker, the bave been recommended in tbe public same quantity of muriatic acid may be prints to improve bread, render it darkemployed as of carbonate of soda. er, and so far as the Editor's experience

"The bread thus made, notwithstand. goes, more heavy." ing the great proportion of potatoes, is

28. An Essay on the Revenues of the more nutritious than the fermented

Church of England: with an Inquiry bread of bakers, on account of the sac

into the Necessity, Justice, and Policy charine matter, and the whole of its gelatine of the four, being preserved.

of an Abolition or Commutation of

s'ithes. By the Rev. Morgan Cove, This is proved by the strong jelly it

D.C. L. Prebendary of Hereford, and affords on boiling it in water. Bread

Rector of Eaton Bishop, Herefordprepared in this manner bas now kept

shire. The Third Edition, corrected perfectly sweet and good a fortnight, and will, no doubt, keep good many

and greatly enlarged. 8vo. pp. 61%.

Rivingtons. months. " The muriatic acid should be pure, Friends of our excellent Constitu

THIS “ Essay,” inscribed to “ the and of a proper strength, otherwise the result will be different to what is stated.

tion in Church and State,” is not the True muriatic acid, which may be ob- crude production of a visionary Rotained at id. an ounce, is as pale and formist, but the result of a long and clear as spring water. The price of the patient investigation of genuine docarbonate of soda, is 4d. an ounce. It cuments, and a candid and impartial may be proper to observe, that in Scot- consideration of the arguments of

ingenious Writers on every side of the Revenues; the Number of the Es. malters under consideration,

tablished Clergy, and the average “ The first edition of ' An Essay on

of their locome ; the Amount of the the Revenues of the Church of England' Tithes received by the Established was published anonymously, in 1795. Clergy and Lay lin propriaturs; the To the second, in 1797, the Author was Iofueoce of Tithes on National Agriinduced to add his name ; as the subject culture; the Necessity of an Aboli. appeared to have excited the attention tion or Cominulation of Tithes; the of persons of extensive erudition, and in Justice of an Abolition or Commutadistinguished situations. To the present tion of Tithes; the Policy of an edition, be bas added • An Inquiry into

Abolition or Commutation of Tithes; tbe Necessity, Justice, and Policy of a Commutation of Tithes,' first published Mr. Clark, on the Commutation or

and (in an Appendix) “ Thoughts, by in 1800. And in republishing both works, Abolition of Tilbes.” he has been solely actuated by the desire of explaining the pature of the Revenues

After what is said at the beginning of the Established Church; and, hy of this article, the Reader may justly placing the conduct of the Clergy in the expect (and he will not be disapreceipt of those Revenues in a just and pointed) to find much solid reasoning bonourable point of view, to shew, that and sound argument in every section an Abolition or Commutation of Tithes of this elaborate Essay. is neither requisite, just, nor expedient. We select a passage from a part of The Author is aware, that his quotations the Work which to inany of our Readmay appear too numerous, and that they

ers may convey some new and wale. migbt have been compressed : but he rial information. frusts, that their apposite illustration

“ The moderation of the Parochial will excuse their number and length ; and that their varied information wilí Clergy and Lay-Impropriators, in repossibly afford novelty and amusement.

spect to the compositions demanded by

them in lieu of tbeir titbes, will be more Heis to request, that any variation, which may be remarked in the sentiments, clearly seen, by going into a particular

detail of the revenues of each, and by calculations, or statements in this editivn, may be ascribed to the result of ascertaining the sumis probably received additional inquiries, and unwearied at.

by each of them on account of tithes.

The annual revenues of the parochial tention to the subject, during the last

Clergy have been stated at 2,557,0001. twenty years. Lastly, be takes leave to

But it must be remembered, that these mention, that, by the kind permission of the Autbor, and of the Printer, he

revenues arise as well from glebe and dix, • Thoughts on

the Commutation, The annual value of the auginentation has been enabled to add, in an Appen augmentation lands, with surplice-fees,

As from tithes in kind or by composition. or Abolition of Tithes, by William

lands has been shewn to be about Clark, esq. a Member of the Bath and West of England Society. The Tract is 100,0001.; and the glebe lands and surreprinted at full length, as it would have plice fees of each parish ean scarcely be been impossible to have done justice to

estimated on the average under 401. * it, by any extracts or abridgments it is

per anuum, which, according to the written with great clearness and abi- number of 10,649 parochial Benefices in lity; and investigates the important the Kingdom, and in conjunction with

the value of the augmentation lands, questioni, respecting the influence of Tithes, in the most dispassionate lan

will amount to nearly 526,0001.; and guage : it strongly corroborates the

which being deducted from the gross statements and arguments advanced in

revenue of the parochial Clergy as before various parts of the following work :

stated, will leave 2,031,0001. as the ac. and, as it can scarcely fail to forcibly

tual receipt from the tithes in their posarrest the attention of the reader, it

session. Tbe Impropriations are usually may, perhaps enlighten the suspicious estimated at 3,8 +5° in number t; and minds of the uninformed, correct the er

of these, about one-third belong to roneous Autions of the prejudiced, and

the Bishops, Diguified Clergy, and two calm the ungenerous hostility of the selfish."

• The Glebe lands belonging to

the Parish Cburches, at the highest The subjects here discussed are,

value at which tbey could be laid' about the Occasiou and Plau of the Essay;

a century ago, were estimated at 50,0004. the valural, precedented, and legal per annum. Prideaux on Tithes, p.83." Right of the Establisbed Clergy to + " Camden's Britannia, by Gough, their Reveques ; tbe Amount of their vol. i. Introduction, p. 190.".


Universities *, and the other two-thirds there are annually under wheat,3,160,000 to the Lay-Impropriators: and the Laity acres ; under rye, barley, oats, peas and are also lessees of the one-tbird belong. beans, 3,730,000 acres; and under cloing to the superior Clergy and Universi- ver, hay, &c. 1,150,000 acres. Estities. According to a computation pub- mating the produce of wheat at three lisbed about 25 years ago t; (wbich how. quarter per acre, and at 808. per quarever did not specify the proportions of it ter, the annual value of the weaten arising from tithes, and from the glebe tillage at 121. per acre, will amount to lands generally attached to the Impro. 37,920,0001.: estimating the produce of priations), they were then valued at rye, barley, &c. at two-thirds of the only 751. per annum each on the average, value of wbeat or 8l. per acre, the anand collectively at 288,3751. Which nual value of the rye, barley, &c. tillage, computation being most probably very will amount to 29,840,0001. : and estierroneous, the collective income of the wating the produce of the clover, hay, impropriations from tithes alone at this &c. at 41. per acre, the annual value of time, sball be taken at 1,538,000l. per the clover, hay, &c. crop, will amount annum. That this collective annual to 4,600,0001. These three sums, makvalue of the impropriations in tithes ing a total of 72,360,0001. sbew the only, is a most liberal and extended one, actual value of the tithes of corn and will be set in a clearer view, when the hay to amount to 7,236,000l. per annum. virtual reduction of the estimated num And this sum, wlien divided between ber of the impropriations is duly con 10,000 parishes, allowing the before sidered. ist, The deductions, which stated odd 649, for parisbes in cities, must be allowed out of their value, on towns, &c. where the ritbes of corn and account of the glebe lands usually an- bay can be of little or no value in renexed to impropriations in general. spect to calculation) will give to each 2dly, The great number of Vicarial Pa- parish 7231. as the annual gross produce rishes which are situated in large cities or value of the tithes of corn and hay in and towns, and the impropriations of such impropriated parish: and when wbicb parishes can be scarcely of much, from this amount, one-fifth only (though if of any value whatever. 3dly, The most probably one-third is nearer the nur,ber of the impropriations, which are truth) is deducted as relinquished on either partially or wholly restored to their the average by composition, the remainrespective Viearages, and in whose in- ing 5791. will be the average annual comes the value of such restored Impro- gross receipt from each impropriation ; priations are necessarily ineluded. 4thly but subject, according to varying cirThe number of Impropriations, which cumstances and agreements, to parlia. have been purchased by the landed Pro: mentary, parochial, and other outgoings. prietors, and bave been divided in due In this approximation, the values of the proportion to the freeholds of the several wheat, rye, &c, and clover, &c. crops, estates. And fiftbly, The number of are stated at very high average prices ; Impropriations, which in parishes where and will therefore be most probably enclosures bave taken place, bave been more than sufficient to cover the value either partially or wholly commuted or of all those small tithes, which in some abolished by allotments of land. From impropriated parishes are more or less one or other of these causes, the impro- included in the Impropriation. It appriations, in all apparent probability, pears, then, that the total receipt from are virtually reduced to iwo-thirds of the the tithes in the possession of the Panumber of them commonly supposed to rochial Clergy and impropriators, whebe now existing, or to 2,563 ; wbich at ther paid in kind or accounted for by 100l. per annuin each on the average, composition, amounts to 3,569,0001. per (and which is perhaps an exaggerated annum : wbich in proportion to that valuation), will amount to 1,537,4001. part of the agricultural lands in the That the valuation of the existing lin. kingdom subject to the payment of propriations at 6001. each per annum, is tithes, namely, 28,000,000 of acres, and carried to its utmost extreme, will ap. valued or rented at 15s., 20., or 25., pear from an approximation formed on

per statute acre, will be under 3s. 5d, in ibe following data. According to a state- ihe pound at 15s. per acre, a little above ment in the Middlesex Agricultural Re- 28. 6d. in the pound at 20s. per acre, port (as reduced or proportioned accord- and a little above 25. in the pound at ing to Dr. Beeke's estimate of the total 25s. per acre. And thus, notwithstandnumber of acres in England and Wales), ing the positive and repeated assertions

to the contrary, tithes are on the ave*“ Liber Regis, by Bacon.

rage compounded or accounted for at a +“Andals of Agriculture, vol. XVIII. very moderate rate, not greatly exceed

ing an eigbtb part of the titheable ren


p. 516.”

tal of 28,000,0002. idstead of the tently once subverted or disturbed, must inpart of the titheable gross produce of volve all the reality of the realm in its 98,000,000l. estimated as equal to three ruin *' From whatever source or cause and one-balf rents; the Parochial Clergy these sentiments may be derived, they and impropriators together (valuing are so truly and forcibly applicable to their united receipts very high, and the the point in question, that they ought to ticheable rental at the medium calcula awaken all persons or bodies of men intion of 20s. per acre) receiving ouly terested in the permanent security of 3,569,0001. per annum, or rather more landed property, to a steady and deep than one-third part of their legal right: consideration of every plan which may à fact strongly manifesting the disin- be brought forward, for any alteration terested and honest grounds, on which in the present income derived from are raised the clamours against the tithes in kind. And, from a deliberate paymeni of tithes."

conviction of such a measure being unThe very learned Author thus sums necessary in itself, unjust in respect to up the topics he bas investigated.

all tithebolders, and the Clergy in parti" Apy alteration in the landed rights dency to disturb all landed property in

cular, and impolitic in its direct tenand property of the Clergy must without general, may they, in conjunction with doubt disturb the title of all other land

all those who wish to enjoy, under the ed rights and properties : because, as

protection of our excellent Constitution the Constitution has secured to the

in Church and State, their paternal forClergy tbe same successive and essential

tunes, or the fruits of their industry, right to their landed property, by which

and to deliver them down to their chile she guarantees the landed property of

dren's children, be earnestly excited to all other proprietors; therefore any

declare, both in and out of Parliament, compulsory change in the landed pro- in one united, truly wise, just, and imperty of the Church, under what.

pressive voice, Nolumus Leges Angle ever pretence, must weaken the secu.

mutari | rity, if not set afloat the stability, of all Janded property in general. On this

And thus' his very able Coadjutor, very point, the sentiments of the writers

Mr. Clark, concentrates the substaoce of a periodical publication, in reviewing

of his owo arguments : an article on the subject of titbes, ap “ Ist. That titbe-free lands do not af. pear to be correct and appropriate. As fect the improvement or increase of to tbis Author's favourite topic of com arable farms. mutation, we conceive it to be pregnant “ 2dly. That all lands are titbe-free; with such injustice and mischief, as to directly by agreement with his landhope it will never take place. We have lord) quoad the farmer, and, of course, already stated what we conceive to be definitively, quoad the public. Therefore, unanswerable objections against it ; and “ 3dly. That tiibe is not one of the many others might be still advanced. greatest obstacles to the improvement It is certain, that though the Clergy and increase of arable farms." at present might be benefited by it, on “ Or, another course of deduction the whole it would produce pernicious may be taken, by assuming, effects. The tenantry of the kingdom “ Ist. That increasing demand is the would be essentially hurt; but a much grand and absolute regulator of the greater evil than all, would be the ad

improvement and increase of arable mission of the Legislature for the time farms.' being, to be Lords Paramount of the “ 2dly. That demand is not iniuSoil: thus, by conceding to them the enced by tithe. Therefore, right of disposing of tbe permanent pro “ 3dly, That tithe is not only not perty of one class, in perpetuum, of the the greatest obstacle to the improvecommunity, and that the best establish ment and increase of arable farms ;' ed, as being the most antient peculium but that it is no obstacle at all. of the kingdom, it would incontro “ Till the preceding deductions and vertibly follow, the rest must be equally conclusions shall be fairly controverted, liable to the exercise of their will. It is it would be useless to travel out of our not for the Clergy, as an ecclesiastical present record,' for the purpose of adbody, we contend; nor as having any verting to the disputes that often arise claim, upon tbe ground of divine right, betwixt tithe-owners and tithe-payers, to the property they hold ; but as pos or to any other minor considerations. Sessed of property by the same right that They are (bowever greatly to be lamentall others, whether corporate or indivi- ed) 'most clearly foreign to the present duals, are proprietors, only on a basis antecedent to the rest, and which, if * Critical Review, vol. XX. p. 323. GENT, Mag, February, 1817.


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