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w it was brought by its parent to the place where Cyprian and the church were “ celebrating the Lord's-supper; and where it shrieked, and was dreadfully “ distressed; and when the cup was offered it in its curn by the deacon, it shut “ irs lips against it ; who forced the wine down its throat ; upon which it sob“ bed, and threw it up again.” Now here is a plain instance of infant-communion in the third century; and we defy any one to give a more early instance, or an instance fo early, of infant-baptifm: it is highly probable that infantbaptism was now practifed ; and that this very child was baptized, or otherwise it would not have been admitted to the Lord's-supper; and it is reasonable to suppose, they both began cogether ; yet no instance can be given of infancbaptism, so early as of infant-communion; wherefore whoever thinks himself obliged to receive the one upon such evidence and authority, ought to receive the other; the one has as good a claim to apostolic authority and tradition, as the other has.
2. The sign of the cross in baptism was used by the ancients, and pleaded for as an apostolic tradition. Basil, who lived in the fourth century observes ; that some things they had from fcripture ; and others from apostolis tradition, of which he gives instances; and, says he, « because this is the first and most “ common, I will mention it in the first place; as that we fign with the sign of “ the cross those who place their hope in Christ; and then asks who taught this “ in scripture?” Chryfoftom, who lived in the fame age, manifestly refers to it, when he says '; “ how can you think it fitting for the minister to make the
Sign on its (the child's) forehead, where you have besmeared it with the dirt ?” which Cyril' calls the royal seal upon the forehead.
Cyprian in the middle of the third century relates the custom of his times'; “ what is now also in use among us is, that those who are baptized, are offered “ to the governors of the church; and through our prayers and imposition of “ hands, they obtain the holy Spirit, and are made compleat fignaculo Dominico, “ with the seal of the Lord : ” and in another place whe says, “they only can
escape, who are regenerated and signed with the sign of Christ." And Tertul
lian, in the beginning of the same century, speaking of baptismı says ", " the “ Aesh is washed, that the soul may be unspotted; the fesh is anointed, that “ the foul may be confecrated ; caro signatur,“ the Aesh is signed,” that the “ soul also may be fortified.” Now this use of the cross in baptism, was as early as any instance of infant-baptism that can be produced'; higher than Ter
tullian's . Bafil. de Spiritu Sanct. c. 27. • Homil. 12. in 1 Ep. ad Corinth. i Catechef. 12. $. 4. • Ep. 73. ad Jubajanum. p. 184. "Ad Demetriao.. prope-finem. * De resurrectione carnis, c. 8.
tu'lian's time it cannot be carried : what partiality then is it, I know to whom I speak, to admit the one upon the foot of tradition, and reject the other? The fame Tertullian' also speaks of Sponsores, sponsors, or godfathers, in baptism ; which this writer himself has mentioned, and thus renders ; “ what occasion is " there_except in cases of necessity, that the sponsors or godfathers be brought “ into danger ;” not to take notice of the Clementine Constitutions, as our author calls them, which enjoin the use of them ; and which appear to be as early as infanc-baptism itself; and indeed it is but reasonable that if infants are baptized, there should be sponsors or sureries for them.
3. The form of “renouncing the devil and all his works," used in baptism, is also by Bafil” represented as an apostolic tradition ; for having mentioned several rites in baptism, received upon the fame foot, he adds ; “ and the rest. “ of what is done in baptism, as to renounce the devil and his angels, from what. “ scripture have we it? is it not from this private and secret tradition?" Origen before the middle of the third century relates the usage of his times“; “let every " one of the faithful remember when he first came to the waters of baptism; when " he received the first seals of faith, and came to the fountain of salvation; what " words chere he then used ; and what he denounced to the devil, non fe ufurum
pompis ejus, “that he would not use his pomps, nor his works, nor any of his . “ service, nor obey his pleasures :” and Tertullian before him ; “when we “ enter into the water, we profess the faith of Christ, in the words of his law “ we protest with our mouth that we renounce the devil, and his pomp, and bis
angels ;” and in another place', in proof of unwritten tradition, and that it ought to be allowed of in some cases, he says; “to begin with baptism ; when “ we come to the water, we do there, and sometimes in the congregation under “ the hand of the pastor, protest that we renounce the devil, and his pomp,
ana “ angels; and then we are thrice immersed; answering something more than “ the Lord has enjoined in the gospel :” naw this is as early as any thing can be produced in favour of infant-baptism..
4. Exorcisms and exsufflations are represented by Austin", as rites in baptism, prifcæ traditionis, “of ancient tradition, as used by the church every where, throughout the whole world. He frequently, presses the Pelagians with the argument taken from thence, and suggests that they were pinched with it, and knew noc how to answer it; he obferves, that things the most impious and absurd, were the consequences of their principles, and among the rest thefe: “ that " they (infants) are baptized into a Saviour, but not saved; redeemed by a deli
verer y De Baptismo. c. 18.
• Homil. 12. in Numeros, fol. 114. D.. De spectaculis, c. 4.
• De corona, c. 3.
“ verer, but not delivered; washed in the laver of regeneration, but not washed “ from any thing ; exorcised and exsufflated, but not freed from the power of « darkness :” and elsewhere he says', that “notwithstanding their craftiness, " they know not what answer to make to this, that infants are exorcised and ex
suflated; for this, without doubt, is done in mere show, if the devil has no
power over them ; but if he has power over them, and therefore are not ex“ orcised and exfuffiated in mere Mow, by what has the prince of finners power “ over them, but by lin?" And Gregory Nazianzen before him, as he exhorts to confession of fin in baptism, so to exorcism; “ do not refuse, says he 5, the “ medicine of exorcism for that is the crial of sincerity, with respect to that
grace (baptism).” And says Optatus of Milevis “, “every man that is born,
though born of christian parents, cannot be without the spirit of the world, “ which must be excluded and separated from him, before the falutary laver ; “ this exorcism effects, by which the unclean spirit is driven away, and is caused “ to fee to desert places.” Cyprian, in the third century, speaking of the efficacy of baptism to destroy the power of Satan, relates what was done in his days '; “ that by the exorcist the devil was buffeted, distressed, and tortured, with an “ human voice, and by a divine power.” And Cornelius bishop of Rome, a cotemporary of his, makes mention of the same officers in the church; and this is also as early as the practice of infant-baptism.
5. Trine immersion is affirmed to be an apostolic tradition, nothing is more frequently asserted by the ancients than this. Basil', among his instances of apostolic tradition, mentions this ; “ now a man is thrice immersed, from whence “ is it derived?" his meaning is, is it from scripture or apostolic tradition ? noc the former, but the latter. And Jeroin", in a dialogue of his, makes one of the parties say after this manner, which clearly appears to be his own sense; “and “ many other things which by tradition are observed in the churches, have ob“ tained the authority of a written law; as to dip the head thrice in the laver," &c. And so Tertullian in the third century as above, in support of tradition, mentions" this as a common practice; “ we are thrice immersed;" and elsewhere Speakingo of the commission of Christ, he says, “he commanded them to dip “ into the Father, and the Son, and the holy Ghost; not into one, for not once, “ but thrice are we dipped, at each name, into each person ;” and he is the first man that makes mention of infant-baptism, who relates this as the then usage of the church : and Sozomen P the historian observes, that it was said, that “ Eu“ nomius was the first that dared to assert, that the divine baptism should be
performed * Ep. 105. Bonifacio, prope finem. & Orat. 40. p. 657.
b Adv. Parmenian. l. 4. p. 92. 1 Ep 76. ad Magnum. * Apud Eufeb. Eccl. Hift. 1. 6. c. 43. m Adv. Luciferianos, fol. 47. H. com. 2. * De corona, c. 3.
• Adv. Praxeam c, 26. ? Hift. Eccles. I, 6. c.
I Ut supra.
performed by one immersion; and fo corrupted the apostolic tradition, which “ till now had been every where observed.”
6. The confecration of the water of baptism is an ancient rite, and which • Bafil derives from apostolic tradition ; “ we confecrate, says he, the water of baptism, “ and the anointing oil, as well as the person that receives baptifm, from what
scripture? is it noc from private and secret tradition ?” by which he means apostolic tradition, as he in the same place calls it; which was done, not only by the prayer of the administrator over the water, but by signing it with the sign of the cross ; which rite was in use in the times of Austin', who says, “ baptism " is signed with the sign of Christ, that is, the water where we are dipped;” and Ambrose, who lived in the same age, relates, that exorcism was also used in consecration : he describes the manner of it thus ? ; " why did Christ descend first, " and afterwards the Spirit, seeing the form and use of baptism require, that “ first the font be consecrated, and then the perfon that is to be baptized, goes “ down? for where the priest first enters, he makes an exorcism, next an inyocation on the creature of the water, and afterwards prays that the font may be “ fanétified, and the eternal Trinity be present.” Cyprian, in the middle of the third century, makes mention of this ceremony of consecrating the baptismal water; he says', “the water must first be cleansed and sanctified by the priest, “ that it may, by his baprizing in it, wash away the fins of the man that is bap“ tized.” And Tertullian before him, though he makes no difference between the water of a pool, river or fountain, Tyber or Jordan, yer supposes there is a fanctification of it through prayer ; "all waters, he says', from their ancient
original prerogative, (referring to Genesis i. 2.) obtain the sacrament of fanc“ tification, Deo invocato, God being called upon;" for immediately the Spirit “ comes down from heaven, and refts upon the waters, sanctifying them of “ himself; and fo being sanctified, they drink in together the fanctifying virtue.” This also is as high as the date of infant-baptism can be carried.
7. Anointing with oil at baptism, is a rite that claims apostolic tradition, Basil' mentions it as an instance of it, and asks; “ the anointing oil, what pas« fage in scripture teaches this ?” Austin' speaks of it as the common custom of the church in his time; having quoted that passage in Aets x. 38. “how God .“ anointed him (Jesus) with the boly Ghost; adds, not truly with visible oil, but “ with the gift of grace, which is signified by the visible ointment, quo baptiza“ tos ungit ecclefia, " with which the church anoints those that are baptized :” several parts of the body were wont to be anointed. Ambrose" makes mention
of • Ut fupra. p De tempore fermo, 119. c. 8. 4 De facramentis, 1. 1. C. 5. Ep. 70. ad Januarium.
• De baptismo, c. 4. - De trinitate, 1.15. C.26.
De sacramentis, l. 3. C.. I.
+ Ut fupra.
of the ointment on the head in baptism, and gives a reason for it. Cyril: says, the oil was exorcised, and the forchead, ear, nose and breat, were anointed with it, and observes the mystical signification of each of these; the neceflity of this anointing is urged by Cyprian' in the third century; "he that is baptiz. « ed must needs be anointed, that by receiving the chrysoi, that is, the anointing, “ he may be the anointed of God, and have the grace of Christ. And Tertullian, in the beginning of the same century, fays?, as before observed, “the flesh “ is anointed, that the soul may be confecrated;” and in another place “, “ when “ we come out of the laver, we are anointed with the blefied ointment, accord“ ing to the ancient discipline, in which they used to be anointed with oil out “ of the horn, for the prieithood ;” this was the custom used in the times of the man that first spoke of infane-baptism.
8. The giving a mixture of milk and honey to a person just baptized, is a rite that was used in the churches anciently through tradition ; Jerom makes mention of it, as observed upon this footing, and as an instance, among other things which obtained authority in that way: “as to dip the head thrice in the laver, “ and when they came out from thence, to taste of a mixture of milk and boney, to
signify the new birth ;” and elsewhere he says, it was a custom observed in the western churches to that day, to give wine and milk to them that were regenerated in Christ. This was in use in Tertullian's time ; for, speaking of the administration of baptifn, he says ", "we come to the water-then we are thrice dipped-then being taken out from thence. we taste a mixture of milk and honey; and this, as well as anointing with oil, he observes, was used by heretics them. selves, for so he says of Marcion"; "he does not reject the water of the creator, “ with which he washes his disciples; nor the oil with which he anoints his “ own; nor the mixture of milk and honey, by which he points them out as new. “ born babes;” yea, even Barnabas, a companion of the apostle Paal, is thought to refer to this practice, in an epistle of his ftill extant'; not to take notice of the white garınent, and the use of the ring and kiss in baptism, in Cyprian and Tertullian's time
Now these several rites and usages in baptism, claim their rise from apostolic tradition, and have equal evidence of it as infant-baptism has ; they are of as carly date, have the fame vouchers, and more ; the testimonies of them are clear and full; they universally obtained, and were practised by the churches throughout the whole world ; and even by heretics and schismatics; and this
is · Cateches. myftagog 2. 5. 3. & 3. $. 3.
y Ep.70. ad Jaguariam, p. 175. . De resurrectione carnis, c. 8.
: De baptismo, c 7. • Adv. Luciferianos, fol. 47. « Comment. in Esaium. c. 55.1.
d De corona, c. 3. • Adv. Marcion, l. 3. c. 14. E C. 50 prope finem. : Tertullian de pudicitia, c. 9. Cyprian. Ep. 59. ad Fidum, vid. Aug. contr. 2. Epift. Pelag. 1. 4. c. 8.