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tion of the committee to the report of the royal college of physicians, respecting the mode discovered by Dr. Jenner, of preventing the small pos, the severest infliction as a disease to which mankind is subject. Whatever might have been the origin of the discovery, it had never been known before that gentleman made it public, that the vaccine disease could be communicated by inoculation. If that discovery should prevent the small pox, it was bardly possibleto characierise its value in termstoo strongly. When the committee considered the advantages that liad already resulted from it, and that would in future result from it, when the prejudices that existed against it should subside ; he was sure the committee would not consider the proposition he meant to make extravagant, but liberal and just to the individual. Nothing was so dillicult as to fix upon, any standard, whereby to measure what should be the grant of that Ilouse apon such an occasion. The subject had been under the consideration of Parliament some years since, but then there had not been time to satisfy the House of the value of the discovery, and therefore only 10,0001. had been voted to Doctor Jenner, instcad of 20,0001. which his friends had proposed. The inquiry that had been recently made, was perfectly satisfactory to his mind, and consequeatly he proposed to move a grant of 10,0001. which, with the sum already granted to Dr. Jenner, would ainount to the sum originalle proposed by his friends to be voted to him. It was unfrocessary for him to urge more arguments in support of his proposition, to those who had read the report. If they assumed, that the inoculation for the small pox was a benefii lo mankind, they might then be able to estima e how much greater a benefit this discovery was, which, as appearod by the report, was a certain security against the small pox. It appearcel, that of those who hail that discasc naturally, one in six died, whilst of those inmoculated for that disease, only one in SD0 died. But of 164,381 cases of persons vaccinatel, only three had died, which made the mortality only one in 54,711. It would be impossible, after that statement, to represent more lavourably the arl vantages of the discovery. And when the deathis, and all the cases of inconvenience that had occuured, in bat number of cases were taken together, they amounted to 179 only out of the , 161,331, which wis an infinitev smaller proportion than the actual mortality by the inocu
Vol. 1. -1807. 90
Searticipater as beneh pox.
lation for the small pox. But it was not this country alone that was benefited by the discovery, the whole world participated in the advantages resulting from it, An objection might be made to the utility of the discovery because it tended to increase population, but he should prefer the principles of practical humanity, in preserving life where it existed, to the encouragement of those checks mentioned by Mr. Malthus, whereby population might be kept down. If they were to go into a calculation of the number of lives that had been saved by the discovery, and the expence to the public spared by the diminution of the number of persons in the hospitals, they wight have a means of estimating the advantages of this important discovery. On all these grounds he would move the committee, - that a sum not exceeding 10,0001. be granted to his majesty, to be paid without fee or deduction to Dr. Jenner, as a further reward for his discovery of the mode of preventing the small pox, by vaccination."
Mr. Shaw Lefevre was sorry to oppose the motion, which he did not out of disrespect to Dr. Jenner, but from a feeling of public duty. Many of the statements in the report were ill-founded, and others were carried too far. He could bring evidence to the bar to prove that the mortality was greater than the right honourable gentleman stated. This was not a period of the session to vole such considerable sums. The honourable gentleman here mentioned the case of a physician, who in the year 1777 practised vaccination with success, and contended, that if the House was to be liberal, some part of the money ought to be granted to that gentleman, who was still living.
Lord Henry Petty contended, that infallibility ought not to be made the test of great discoveries, which ought rather to be estimated by general averages. He was dis. posed to go further than the right honourable gentleman, though he should not take upon him to make any specific proposition to the committee. There was no standard, whereby a great public discovery could be estiinated, that would not enhance the value of Dr. Jenner's discovery, it tried by it. If considered with reference to the national benefits resulting from it, to the advantages that he might have derived from his discovery, if he had not published it to the world, to the effect it had iu raising the fame, the honour, and the character of the country ; there was no
Bat wishrased import, thaliberalitnot have public di
JULY 29.] DR. JENNER'S REWARD.
515 standard for estimating the merit of any public discovery under which Dr. Jenner would not have a peculiar claim upon the gratitude and liberality of the House. It apo peared by the report, that the deaths by the small pox had increased since the discovery; and though he should
not wish to use any compulsion, or to interfere with the · liberty that all persons should have, to act as they thought
most advisable for their own health, or for that of their family, still he was of opinion, that persons who preferred the inoculation of the small pox, should not be allowed to endanger the health of others. Such persons, in his opi. nion, ought to be confined to their own houses whilst af. fected by the disease, and not suffered to spread infection through the community. If any proof were wanted of the value of the discovery, it would be found in the ready reception which it had met with from all nations, even the least enlightened of Asia, where prejudices were most deeply rooted. It was highly gratifying to witness the zeal with which the gentlemen of the medical profession, not only in the metropolis, but in all parts of the country, had promoted the interest of humanity, by adopting and acting upon this important discovery.
General Tarleton bore testimony to the value of the discovery, from the number of the military whose lives had been saved by it. It was, besides, an important circumstance, that the troops on recovery might leave their barracks, and others succeed them without any danger of infection. Military members were said to be most fond of praising great conquerors, but, in his opinion, this gentleman who saved the lives of millions, was entitled to more praise than the most successful conqueror. in!
Mr. Sturges Bourne agreed with the noble lord opposite (Lord H. Petty), that some means ought to be taken to prevent persons having the small' pox from spreading the infection. He understood that it was the practice at the Small Pox Hospital, to inoculate out-patients to the number of 2000 in the year, who were to come three times a week to be personally inspected at the hospital. Ingenuity could not discover a more effectual mode of spreading the contagion, and he thoitght that Parliament ought to prevent the practice with the same care as they would prevent firebrands from being carried about.
Mr. H. Browne had the honour of being a governor of that institution, and had reason to think that the practice alluded to had been discontinued. He agreed that it was desirable to take incašures to prevent the infection from being spread, but he could inform the committee, that the institution alluded to, inoculated also with tbe yaccine matter. It was the merit of vaccination that it produced no infection, an'l he proposed therefore to insert some words in the resolution expressive of that circu instace.
Mr. N. Calvert adverted to the irregülarity of such an ame dment before the substance of the resolution was ägreed to.
Mr. Morris thought the country, the world, and the cause of humanity were all indebted to the ingenious philanthropist for the discovery lię lrad måde. From his system we might look for, arid undoubtedly would find, ihe extirmination of the discasc. "Fro:n the common system of inoculationi' we bad derived, and could expect to derive, no:hing but fresh 'sources of contagion. He argued that if Dr. Jenner had availed himself of the use of his discovery, without promulgating it to the public, he would bave been a greater gainer by the circunstance, and would at this moment have been in a state of comparative affluence. Ile therefore movedl, that instead of ten thousand pounds, the words twenty thousand be inserted."
Mr. Herbert alluderl to the sum of 20,0001. having been offered for the discovery of the longitude, and viewing it as a discovery of equal importance, supported the ameridment. - Mr. TVilberforcr, considering the degree in which the invention alluded to had not only percised, but in fact had absorbed, the attention of its ingenious discoverer, by which, literally speaking, he had to this moment been a loser, thouglit him entitled to every remuneration and reward which the country could bestow. He hail not brought forward this plavi in id riide uurd indigested state, hut in one in which it was hardly sitse prible of greater improvement, le bart been' ailvised by some partial friends, at the time the 10,0001. was originally votci, dar he might be able to inake 10,0001. per áunum by pracrising that single branch of science. Dis instructions, however, for carrying his plan into excciition had been so plain and intelligible, that almost evera person who setvor hard it deiailed was able to put it in practirr, and in this nay, cvery other person being completely master of the
system, system, the inventor of it had little or no practice in carrying it into effect. In this way, wbile he himself had rcaped no advantage from the plan, its operation was felt, for the last ten years, through, almost every part of the habitable globe. If he had practised such generosity and liberality in diffusing his benevolent system through the world, it was not becoming in this country, where the author had first given birth to his plan, to exercise toard's him any portion of parsimony, but with a liberal hand to supply any deficiency which his generosity may have oc. casioned, and to afford him a handsome recompence for the valuable discovery thus communicated by him to the world. He was not, however, anxious to give the recompence altogether in a sum of money at the moment.' Ile thought, if instead of the 20,0007. the 10,0001. as originally proposed, and an additional sum by way of annuity, of 1,0001, per annum, were conferred on him, it woulil be equally acceptable to Dr. Jenner himself, and would prove a more lasting and more impressive mark of the regard of the country. It was well known that Dr. Jenner was a person highly respected, and whose correspondence and acquaintance was courted by every foreigner of distinction. The expence of this correspondence must be great. He thought it would be better, therefore, and would tend the more strongly to shcv to thosc foreigoers who visited him, the regard and affection in which he was held by this country, that an annuity were settled upon him for his services. sit Mr. Windham thought that no country could be 'in
jured by liberality, to useful men; in the present questions, however, so transcendant was the service rendered by this discovery to mankind, that to talk of recompense to Dr. Jenner was out of the question ; no money couli adequately remunerate his services, at the same iime liberaliiv
itself had its liinits, and though no sim could be too large Das given to Dr. Jenner, yet ihere might be excess on the
part of Parliament; again, however, the yery impossibiality of coming up to the quantum ineruit in the present
instance, might throw back the mind so far as toʻsink it
in the other extilie. Let the committee consider it its its near calculation as possible; It then consider in the first ::place the service; ine failure incurred in t!ienestplice;
ibe expence incurred, and above all, the national character, which was deeply involved in the grateful riquital of so