Planetary Motions: A Historical Perspective

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Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006 - 224 páginas
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Students in an introductory physics class learn a variety of different, and seemingly unconnected, concepts. Gravity, the laws of motion, forces and fields, the mathematical nature of the science - all of these are ideas that play a central role in understanding physics. And one thing that connects all of these physical concepts is the impetus the great scientists of the past had to develop them - the desire to understand the motion of the planets of the solar system. This desire led to the revolutionary work of Copernicus and Galileo, Kepler and Newton. And their work forever altered how science is practiced and understood. Planetary Motions: A Historical Perspective enables students to understand how the discoveries of the luminaries of the Scientific Revolution impact the way physics is practiced today. BLNicolas Copernicus - his revolutionary work On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres that placed the sun, rather than the earth, at the center of the universe forever altered how people would see our place in the cosmos BLGalileo - his work did not prove Copernicus correct, but did destroy the ancient physics of Aristotle BLJohannes Kepler - his painstaking work eventually led to his laws regarding how the planets revolve around the sun BLIsaac Newton -his work remains the center of classical physics as studied in classrooms today Jargon and mathematics is kept to a minimum, and the volume includes a timeline and an annotated bibliography of useful print and online works for further research. Planetary Motions is an ideal introduction for students studying physics and astronomy and who need to understand the history and nature of the scientific enterprise.
 

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Índice

1 An Introduction to the History of Science
1
2 Babylonian Planetary Astronomy
5
3 Plato and Saving the Appearances
11
4 Eudoxus and Concentric Spheres
21
Figure 41 The Sun in the Summer and Winter Skies
23
Figure 42 Modern Explanation for the Appearance of Retrograde Motion of a Planet
25
Figure 43 Retrograde Motion from Concentric Spheres
26
5 Eccentrics and Epicycles
29
Figure 145 Parallax Stellar Parallax Distance
106
15 The Copernican Revolution
111
Figure 151 Leonard Digges A prognostication everlasting 1556
112
Figure 153 Frontispiece Galileo Galilei Sidereus nuncius 1610
115
Figure 154 Galileos drawing of the Moon 1610
116
Figure 155 Galileos Discovery of Four Satellites of Jupiter
117
Figure 156 Phases of Venus in Ptolemaic and Copernican Models
120
Figure 158 Frontispiece Portrait of Galileo The Assayer 1623
122

Figure 51 Eccentric and Epicycle Hypotheses
32
Figure 52 Eccentric Solar Orbit
33
Figure 54 Retrograde Motion in the Epicycle Hypothesis
35
6 Equivalence
37
7 Astronomy and Physics
41
8 Saving the Phenomena Quantitatively
47
Figure 81 Ptolemys Geometrical Demonstration of the Solar Eccentricity and Apogee
48
9 Ptolemys Exposition of Mathematical Astronomy
51
Figure 91 Ptolemys Lunar Theory
54
Figure 92 Opposition for Inferior Planets
57
Figure 93 Motion at Perigee and Apogee in the Eccentric and Epicycle Hypotheses
59
Figure 94 Equant Point
60
10 Reality or Mathematical Fiction?
63
11 The Greatest Astronomer of Antiquity or the Greatest Fraud in the History of Science?
69
12 Islamic Planetary Astronomy
75
Figure 121 Straight Line Motion from Circular Motion
79
Figure 122 A page from alTusis AlTadhkira
80
Figure 123 Rotating Circles to Rectilinear Oscillations
81
13 Revival in the West
83
Figure 131 Ptolemy and Regiomontanus are seated beneath an armillary sphere
88
Figure 132 Spherical Scheme of the Universe from Petrus Apianus Cosmographicus Liber 1540
90
14 Copernicus and Planetary Motions
93
Figure 141 Portrait of Copernicus
100
Figure 142 Copernicuss Heliocentric Planetary Spheres De revolutionibus 1543
103
Figure 143 Orbit of an Inferior Planet in the Ptolemaic and Copernican Systems
104
Figure 144 Distances from the Earth of a Superior Planet at Conjunction and Opposition in the Ptolemaic and Copernican Systems
105
Figure 159 Frontispiece Dialogo di Galileo Galilei
123
16 Breaking the Circle
131
Figure 161 The Great Quadrant at Augsburg
133
Figure 163 Tycho Brahes Great Mural Quadrant at Uraniborg
134
Figure 164 The Tychonic World System
135
Figure 165 The Tychonic Copernican and Ptolemaic Systems Compared
136
Figure 166 Portrait of Tycho Brahe
137
Figure 167 Basic Polygons between Circular Orbits
138
Figure 168 The Five Regular Solids
139
Figure 169 Keplers Model of the Solar System Closeup of the Model
140
Figure 1610 Stars Engraving by M C Escher
141
Figure 1611 Ellipse
143
Figure 1612 Keplers Law of Equal Areas
144
Figure 1613 Keplers Music of the Spheres
146
Figure 1614 LogLog Plot of Orbital Period versus Distance from the Sun
147
17 Isaac Newton and Gravity
149
Figure 171 Whirlpools of Matter Descartes Principia philosophiae 1644
150
Figure 172 Shooting cannon balls on the Earth
153
Figure 174 Title page from the Principia 1687
154
18 The Newtonian Revolution
161
Timeline
175
Glossary
189
Annotated Bibliography
201
Index
215
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Sobre el autor (2006)

Norriss S. Hetherington is the director of the Institute for the History of Astronomy and a Visiting Scholar with the Office of the History of Science and Technology at the University of California, Berkeley. He has written extensively on the history of astronomy and cosmology, and has edited Encyclopedia of Cosmology: Historical, Philosophical, and Scientific Foundations of Modern Cosmology, and Cosmology: Historical, Literary, Philosophical, Religious, and Scientific Perspectives.

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