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on, and ftill continued to defolate the fouthern and eaftern provinces of the empire; doubts were also poffibly entertained of the temper and difpofition which prevailed nearer home. Thefe and other caufes feemed to render it prudent, if not neceffary, to draw thofe conquering armies nearer the center, who were attached by their fucceffes to government, and from their long abfence, were strangers to domeftic parties and cabals. It should alfo be obferved, that there did not feem to be any great cordiality between the dividers of Poland; two of whom could not refrain from looking feparately with an evil eye at the fhares obtained by others, and feemed eager to enter into any new fcheme of partition, by which they might benefit individually. It feems therefore to have behoved Ruffia to difengage herself from a weak enemy, who could only be dangerous by keeping her entangled, and to concenter her force in fuch a manner, as to be prepared at all events against new neighbours, whofe power was dangerous and ambition boundless.

It will probably hereafter be a matter of furprize, that in fuch a fituation of affairs, Ruffia granted a peace upon any moderate terms to its proftrate enemy. We have, however, formerly hewn many caufes which rendered a peace very defirable to Ruffia: nor had thefe caufes been removed or leffened by any late events. The rebellion of Pugatfcheff had been long carried

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The fatal change which fo immediately took place in the Turkish grand army, after the fpecimens it had given of fubmiflion to order and difcipline, and the vigour and ability fhewn by its commanders in the preceding campaign, muft naturally excite our curiofity. In this refpect, however, it cannot at prefent be gratified. No details are to be expected from a Turkish cabinet or army; and the Ruffians, fatisfied with their fuccefs, have no occafion to enter into a recital of any particulars which might leffen the glory or difficulty of their atchievements. Such information can only

only be obtained near the scene of action, and will undoubtedly be hereafter communicated, either by some one of the most curious and intelligent of the European minifters at the Porte, or of those foreign officers who served in the contending armies upon the Danube. For fuch curious and useful inquiries or details, we have been more indebted to the industry and obfervation of the French minifters and fecretaries, for above a century paft, than to those of all the other nations in Europe,

1

Soon after the close of theyear, the Grand Signior Muftapha the Third, Emperor of the Turks, departed this life at Conftantinople, Jan. 21ft. in the 58th year of his age and the 17th of a reign, which had in its latter part been the most unfortunate of any in the Turkish annals from the time of Bajazet. His fon, Sultan Selim, being then only entered into his 13th year, feemed too young to fuftain the reigns of government in the prefent critical fituation of affairs. The emperor accordingly, with a wifdom and difintereftedness which does honour to his memory, appointed his brother Abdulhamet to succeed him in the throne. To this prince, under the ftrongeft terms of recommendation, he confided the care of his infant fon: a trust rendered facred by all the ties of gratitude; but precarious from the barbarous maxims of the Ottoman family.

It is a juftice due to humanity to refcue the character of the late emperor, from the oblivion or contempt which too generally attend misfortune. If he was not poffeffed of thofe great, dazzling, and fatal qualities, which excite the admiration of mankind, and in which, to their misfortune, too many of his ancestors were fuperiorly eminent, he was bleffed in a great degree with thofe happier ones, of humanity, juftice, and benevolence. Numberlefs inftances of these occurred during his reign, which would not have been omitted in an eulogium on the most exalted characters. His moderation and clemency with regard to his Christian fubjects, notwithstanding their avowed difaffection, and the affiftance they gave to a conquering enemy, when the very existence of the [A] 2 empire

We can only fuppofe for the prefent, that the licentioufnefs, contempt of order, and other evil habits, contracted during a long peace, under a weak, venal and indolent government, were become fo inveterate, that they could not be remedied: that any appearances to the contrary, were rather a part of the diforder, and proceeding from a temporary caprice, than the effect of any real amendment: and that nothing lefs, than what is nearly an impoffibility, a total change in the original conftitution and fyftem of government, can reftore that falling empire to it priftine ftate. It is certain that the European provincial troops in the Ottoman fervice, both horfe and foot, gave many ftriking inftances of that valour for which they were ever celebrated; but the lives of these brave men were conftantly facrificed to the cowardice or difobedience of the mob of Afiatics and Conftantinopolitans, in which they were involved. The Janizaries also gave many inftances of a defperate courage; but were in other refpects fo profligate, mutinous and diforderly, as to render thofe occafional efforts useless.

empire was in queftion, cannot be eafily paralleled, in the hiftories of the moft refined civilization, and under the influence of the pureft religion. His iaft act with respect to the fucceffion, thewed a patriotifm, which will be more admired than imitated, and a greatnefs of mind equal to the most renowned of his predeceffors.

The new prince having taken the neceffary measures for the prefervation of public order and tranquillity, which, in that empire, is always a matter of moment and difficulty upon fuch occations, feemed to turn his attention with great diligence to the carrying on of the war. Numerous levies were accordingly made, and an order being paffed that all perfons who were guilty of túmults or diforders fhould be fent to ferve on board the fleet in the Black Sea, the terror of that punishment operated fo ftrongly on the profligate, as to produce a furprifing effect in preferving the peace of the metropolis. The emperor alfo iffued a refcript figned by himself, commanding the officers, governors of provinces and military tenants, to act with the utmoft diligence in their refpective departments for the carrying on of the war, and thofe whofe immediate duty it was, to join the army forthwith, at the head of chofen bodies of the best troops they could procure, and to act with the utmoft zeal and valour for the fervice of the ftate and religion, and the recovery of thofe provinces, which had been wrefted from the empire.

In the mean time there were fome difturbances at Adrianople, and other places where the army lay, through the mutiny of fome of the Janizaries, who were diffa

tisfied with the acceffion of Abdulhamet, and wanted to place the young Prince Selim upon the throne. Though these commotions were eafily quelled, it does not feem impoffible, that the difcontent which appeared upon this occafion might have some share in the subfequent ill conduct of the army.

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Several actions which took place on the Danube early in the Spring, feemed to indicate a vigorous campaign. Detachments from the contending armies frequently croifed that river, and thefe expeditions, though productive of no effential benefit, were attended with confiderable lofs on both fides.

In the mean time, the Porte was not inattentive to the advantages which might be derived from Pugatfcheff's rebellion, and was accordingly indefatigable in exciting the various nations of Tartars, who furround or are intermixed with the Ruflian empire, to increase the internal difturbances. It is not difficult to perfuade people, who feem to be born for nothing but war, to take up arms. The Tartars, however, are not now in the condition, which at different periods enabled them to conquer a great part of the world. That overgrown empire which has fprung up among them," has by degrees either fwallowed up, broken, or feparated, their different nations in fuch a manner, as to render an union of arms or councils, or any general and formidable alliance impracticable. Their being alfo cut off from the modern improvements in war, arms, and difcipline, is an infuperable bar to their becoming again terrible.

They could, however, be troublefome, and increase the confufion already caufed by Pugatfcheff. The

Porte

Porte accordingly, fent Doulet Gherai, the late Chan of the Crimea, with a confiderable fum of money, and attended by feveral officers of his kindred and friends, among the Nogais and Cuban Tartars, where he was foon joined by above 10,000 men This body was attacked and routed by a Ruffian detachment, before any effective junction of these nations could take place. As the Tartars ftill dream of their ancient glory, and fancy themselves, before trial, to be as invincible now as they were in the days of Tamerlane, they were fo much furprized and difpirited by this defeat, that no farther fervice could be expected from them, and the Tartar prince found matters fo hopeless, that having divided his money among his friends and adherents, he quitted the country. Similar measures were pursued and attended with fimilar fuccefs, among the Batkirs, Kirgis, and fome other tribes, all of whom were ready for insurrection or war; but were unequal to the purpose.

A confiderable armament was alfo prepared at Conftantinople, for the fupport of the Tartars, and their confederates the Coffacks, and other infurgents in the Crimea. In the mean time, fuch diligence was ufed in reinforcing the grand army, that it became more numerous than it had been fince the commencement of the war, and the Grand Vizir was faid not to have lefs than 200,000 combatants under his command on the Danube.

Nor was the court of Petersburg lefs diligent to enable Marthal Romanzow to open the campaign with vigour. Though the rebellion of Pugatfcheff feemed a confiderable impediment, yet Ruffia was now

freed from fome other material embarraffinents. The heavy clouds which hung on the fide of Sweden were now difperfed, and it was no longer neceffary to keep an army on that frontier; while the Auftrians and Pruflians fo effectually occupied Poland, and overawed the inhabitants, that the Ruffians were freed from all apprehenfions in that country. Marshal Romanzow's army was accordingly rendered very formidable.

After various motions and actions on the Danube, the marshal having received a freth reinforcement of 10,000 regular troops, and a fupply of 30,000 recruits, made the neceffary difpofitions for paffing that river. A large fleet of boats having been prepared for that purpofe on the river Argis, under the conduct of General Soltikow, fell down to the Danube, and notwithftanding a confiderable oppofition both by land and water, that general effected a landing on the other fide near Tutukay, in the night between the 16th and 17th of June. The paffage being now fecured, the Generals Kameniki and Suwarow alfo croffed the river at the head of their respective divifions, the whole amounting to about 50,000 men. These were followed in four days by Marshal Romanzow with the remainder of the army, who encamped near Siliftria, which he seemed again to threaten with a fiege.

In the mean time, there was a continued feries of actions between the Ruthian Generals and different bodies of the Ottoman forces: In one of thefe, General Soltikow was vigorously attacked by the Batha of Rufzick, who was at length with difficulty obliged to [413 quit

quit a well fought field, after a a fevere engagment of feveral hours continuance. In this action, the Arnauts, and other bodies of the Turkish European troops, fhewed the greatest courage, and could only be foiled by the difcipline and firmness of the Ruffian infantry, and the excellent management of their artillery. This engagement was remarkable, as being the laft in which the Turks acted with the vigour or spirit of men.

On the fame day, the June 20. Reis Effendi, having marched at the head of 40,000 men to oppose the Generals Kamenski and Suwarow, was defeated without a blow, the whole army, both cavalry and infantry, having deferted their colours fo fhamefully, that they equally evaded the danger of being killed or taken. The whole Turkish camp, with a fine train of brafs artillery, which had been caft under the directions of the Chevalier Tott, were the rewards of this cheap victory. The Turkish accounts make this runaway army to confift of 70,000 men, and reprefent the conquerors only as a handful.

From this time, diforder, mutiny, and difmay, feized all the Turkish armies, and they abfolutely refused to face the enemy. They plundered the baggage, robbed and murdered their officers, and abandoning their colours, difbanded by thoufands, and marched in great bodies towards the Hellefpont, committing every kind of outrage by the way. Their arrival in the neighbourhood of Conftantinople was fo terrible to the court and city, that when all prayers, promifes, and offers of money, were found ineffectual to induce them

to return to the army, the minifters, instead of punishing this lawlefs crew, were under a neceffity of furnishing them with veffels for their tranfportation to Afia.

The rage of mutiny, or the terror of the enemy, became fo univerfally prevalent, that if some of the Turkith accounts are to be relied on, no lefs than 140,000 men, either abandoned their colours totally, or refused to act under their officers. Even in the grand camp at Schumla, and under the vizir's own eye, before matters were arrived at their ultimate state of diforder, he could not reftrain the Europeans and Afiatics from cutting each other to pieces. It is alfo faid, that minifter was abandoned by his whole cavalry, so that the immenfe army which he commanded at the beginning of the campaign, was in a few days reduced to nothing.

Such are the fatal but certain effects of luxury, degenerate manners, and a weak and venal government, which upheld for a time by the renown of its former greatnefs, neglects, or despises the virtues which raifed it to power and glory. A vaft empire tumbling to pieces, under the weight of its vices and profligacy, exhibits a leffon of awful inftruction. The great empires of the world have, however, fallen in this manner, without any benefit to their fucceffors from the example.

Marthal Romanzow did not neg left the advantages which the prefent fituation of affairs afforded. He placed the different divifions of the army in fuch advantageous fituations, and poffeffed himself of fuch important pofts, as totally to cut off all communication between the

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