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Rev. T. Cormouls on Gravity.

(July 1, Wbite silk prefers the vitreous, and deep

III. Action impressed on inert mater, coloured silk the resinous. A tourmalin particularly if it be through the air

, being heated at every gradation of cool- causes it to prefer the dense aérial fluid; ing, changes its preference and attraction and while it does it remains in air, and of the electrics various times,

it rises from the earth also if overcharged Secondly: if the neutral electric is with cerrestrial Auid. Creatures and denser some height in the air, than near things constituted to attract and ose the to or below the earth's surface, which it Auid of air, for the purposes of motien, must be by reason that all matter there, stay in the air as long as their will and vegetative, inert, and living, is extracting power to use it lasts. and inbibing it from the lowest stratum IV. The earth is continually attracting of air; and electrie practice shews that and receiving this fuid from the air in the neutral Auid is much more easily a double ratio to all other bodies : vit. separated there into its components than a sheet or sphere of it sixteen feet thíck in air-then the neutral will be distin- per second. guished into the dense aërial and rarer V. The wants of heavy substances of terrestrial fluid. In which case, action terrestrial fluid are just half the ratio of and rest on electric principles should the earth's want of aërial: viz a quantity make as great difference in the election equal to a column of it of their own ex

. of substances for one or the other, as panse of eight feet deep per second. slight gradations between roughness and from these two last cases the modes and smoothness, between shades of colours, laws of common gravity ensue: thus, or warmer and cooler states of the same VI. A beavy body pushed from a base

, substances do for one electric or the or loosed from a sustainer, being involved other. Therefore it may be expected, in that sphere of fluid which is descendas really happens, that action, and espe. ing to the earth, falls with it the sixtees cially upon air, the container, should give feet of its thickness and a few inches and bodies greater degrees of preference for no more the first second, and hy reason as its denser perfecter Auid,' than for the it seems that it is some time in consuming rarer less complete of the earth, and that the last second's supply it received from while the preference for the aérial fluid the earth by its base or sustainer, and continues, the body should continue in therefore its want is not established till air, and when it changes it should seek near the end of the first second, and that of the earth, and come to it, and lie then it is : hence, at rest, especiallv as the want or redun. VII. A heavy body increases its speed dance of Auid are the cause of matter's eight feet per second regularly after the spontaneous motion, as the consideration first second's fall, its wants being equal of the effect of the flatus in the last paper in equal times, and its whole fall in time demonstrates. Now as these supposi- is the depth of the earth's sixteen feet tions have been proved in the greater imbibations per second, and its owa part to be facts by projectile cases, and wants after the first moment of falling, the fight of birds, and terrestrial Áatus, These effects are the same in aërial they resolve themselves easily into the vacuum as in air, or too nearly for any radical laws of spontaneous material inference of weight pro or con. To motion in general, and particularly that these laws of statistic gravity every exof the departinent of gravity, both direct periment truly reported agrees. For and inverted near the earth.

instance, Sheallian, as an elevated part The same neutral Auid being also trace- of the earth, offered some fuid to the able by sufficient criteria through the plummet in a lateral direction, and it great sphere of solar doninion, there- ended in part to that, in part to the fore it will be found to be the principal earth below. Its direction was also cause of all the spontaneous movements something affected by aërial Auid at

: there. However, the radical facts of, tracted by the mountain. But it is not and the laws of gravity near the earth, in art to procure an unrising flight in a are the seven following: I. Neutral electric, ibe notive Auid, ormous size or weight, nor is the imam

strongly jaculated body of the most enexists in two conditions: a denser one tional quantity of the squares of the times in air

, and a rarer one in and near the in falling any more possible than likely earth ; and all things are in continual want of one or the other.

These laws, and every thing nearly in II. Inert substances, and living crea- &c. hitherto are mere accommodations

natural forces or phenomena, as the tide, tures at rest, have affinity for, and tend to, che rarer terrestrial fluid.

to geometric figures and proportions

, and are non-existent in nature.

<816.] Mathematics --Public Libraries--Old Monthly Magazine, 513 MR. EDITOR,

MR. EDITOR, I TRUST you will not only insert the I WAS lately reading “ Spurinna, or problem of HomUNCULUS, but others the Comforts of Old Age," a late publiwhich may be sent to you, as a numerous cation of Sir Thomas BERNARD, and in class of your young readers feel a strong page 121 found the following passage, interest in mathematical questions, and I which I think gives a very accurate chaar sure it will attract the notice of others racter of the old Monthly Magazine, who are able to contribute greatly to the and similar publications. He is speaking instruction and improreinent of your of that literature which “ tends io vilify general readers.

and degrade human nature," and says: I wish, Mr. Editor, you would also “ There is yet a third species, which it call the attention of your correspondents seems necessary to notice; I inean those to the Public Libraries in the different writings which are calculated to vitupetowns and cities in the united kingdom; rate our national character. All misreso that a tolerably correct account of presentations of the actions and motives them may be obtained through the me- even of our enemies are unjustifiable and dium of your publication, and of the criminal; but an attempt thus to degrade books in them, as I am convinced we are and paralyse our own country, goes as in the possession of a much greater va- far beyond the other as the crime of a riety of early printed books than the parricide exceeds that of a common modernists give us credit for. Subjects murderer: and when this is committed of this nature occasionally introduced into under the pretence of patriotism and your work would render it more generally candour, the most abandoned guilt is amusing than some of the long essays aggravated by the most infamous hypofrom a worthy correspondent of yours on crisy."

W.G. the g***** side of the water.

June 10, 1816.
June 13, 1816.




(From SHOBERL's Historical Account of the House of Sarony.) PREVIOUSLY to the treaty of Con- The above-mentioned treaty secures gress signed at Vienna in 1815, the pos- to the Duke of Coburg-Saalfeld, an adsessions of the house of Saxe-Coburg- ditional territory of such extent as to Saalfeld comprised 17] German square comprise 20,000 inhabitants, so that his miles, with a population, according to dominions and resources will be increas, the census taken in 1812, of 57,266 souls. ed by about one-third. The principality contains eight towns and All the ducal houses of Saxony are 270 villages and ha lets. The revenues branches of the elder or Ernestine line, of the prince amounted, in 1806, to which, without regard to primogeniture, 425,413 forins, or near 50,0001. sterling.f long retained the custom of dividing the The inhabitants, as well as the reigning possessions left by the father among all family, belong to the Lutheran church, his sons. In process of time, however, and are chiefly employed in trade and the law of priinogeniture began to be manufactures.

adopted; but it was not introduced into

the house of Saxe-Coburg till the reign * The problem alluded to by our corre- of FRANCES Jostas, in the middle of the spondent should have appeared in our pre- 18th century. sent number, had it not been the conclusion of a volume. It shall have a place without the reigning duke, was respected by his

That prince, the great-grandfather of fail in our next. EDITOR. + It gives me great pleasure to be able to

neighbours as a man of the highest intefurnish these data, which are extracted from grity, and beloved by his subjects as an STORCH's Staals und Adress Handbuch

These qualities

excellent sovereign, (Weimar, 1813), as they afford the most

caused him to be entrusted with the satisfactory refutation of the sneeis in which guardarship of some of the privees of some persons have ignorantły indulged on

the kindred houses of Saxony during the subject of the pecuniary resources of the their minority. He had four sous. The house of Coburg

eldest, who succeeded him, married the


514 Memoirs of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. Saalfeld. (July 1, princess Sophia Antoinette, sister to the with rare accomplishments, this prices celebrated prince Ferdinand of Bruns- unites all the sofiness of her own 03 wick, as to tie Queen of Denmark, with the firmness of the oiber. Ee to the consort of Frederic the Great, and daunted by the storios of fate, slie neser to the grandmother of the present King lost sight for a moment of her destinatica of Prussia. By this union, the house of as a wire and mother. Amid the sa Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld became nearly al- rious pursuits to which her genius ioclit. lied to most of those reigning families in ed, this extraordinary woman made toe Europe to which it was not previously most careful education of her bugieroes related. Its connections were still far- faraily the business, the recreation, and ther extended by the marriage of the the happiness of her life. The tender two daughters of this prince, the elder attachment which subsists between all Sophia, to the Duke of Mecklenburg the suiviving members of the house of Schuerin (by whom she was mother to Coburg is her work--her highest glory: the present duke), and the younger and at the same time, the surest test of Amelia, to Alexander, Margrave of Bran- the excellence of her own heart and of denburg-Anspach, and Bayreuth. those of her children.

The three younger sons of Duke Fran- By the marriage of the third daughter cis Josias devoted themselves to the pro. of Duke Francis, who was united by the fession of arms. Prince Christian, the name of Anna Feodorowna to the Grandelder, entered into the Austrian service, duke Constantine, eldest brother of the and during the Seven Years' war, at- Emperor Alexander, the house of Cotained to considerable military distinc- bury became intimately connected with tions, when ill health compelled hiin to the court of Russia. In consequence of quit the army and return to Coburg. this alliance, the Empress Catherine II.

Adolphus, the third son, fell whilst gave a military appointment to the herevery young, as colonel of a Saxon regi- ditary prince, Ernest, and destined also ment of carbineers in the first Silesian LEOPOLD, the youngest son of Duke Fran

cis, for the Russian service. The latter, The fourth, and youngest of these bro- to whom the emperor Leopold II. stood thers, was Frederic Josius, a field mar- sponsor, had been originally designed fur shal in the Austrian service, and the ce- the Austrian service, but the early death lebrater commander of the allied armies of his majesty prevented the fulfilment of at the commencement of the war of the these intentions. French revolution, who died at Coburg Ferdinand, the second son of Duke in February, 1815.

Francis, however, entered into the AusDuke Ernest Frederic had by his strian service, under the auspices of his consort Sophie Antoinette of Brunswick, great-uncle the field-marshal. three children, two sons and one daugh- The political convulsion, which in 1806 ter.

involved the whole north of Germany, Francis, his eldest son and successor, was attended with consequences pecumade the science of government his pe- liarly calamitons to the house of Coburg. culiar study. With a clear understand. When, in the autumn of that year, the ing he united a truly philanthropic heart, French approached the Saxop frontiers, and are attainments, acquired in the Duke Francis, who was in very ill health, indulgence of an ardent passion for the retired with his consort from Coburg to sciences and fine arts, of which, till bis Saalfeld; which town is situated on the deaidi, he was a zealous patron and ad- other side of the very considerable range mirer.

of mountains known by the appellation Leuis, the second son, served under of the Forest of Thuringia, and forming his uncle Frederic Josias, as an Austrian the barrier of North Germany. Prince general, and did in the prime of life at Leopold, then but fifteen years old, was Cobury, n 1807.

the companion and support of his infirm Dule Franci: had three sons and four father: for Ferdinand was detained by dang' tiis by his consort, a princess of bis duty in Austria, and the truly German the inicient and celebrated house of the spirit of Prince Ernest had carried hiro Cou is Rouss, of Plauen. Gifted with a to the head-quarters of the King of Prussuperior understinding, and adorned sia, with whom he had been for some * We regret that the limits to which we

years on terms of the closest friendship. are confined prevent us from giving the in- The French appeared before Saalfeld; teresting particulars of this prince introduced the castle was stormed; and the ducal here in the work from which the article is family, wbich was in it, exposed to all extracted.-EDITOR.

the dangers and horrors of that disastrous

1816.) Memoirs of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. 515 battle, which cost Prince Lewis Ferdi. princes of the house of Coburg stedfastly nand of Prussia his life. This was more aihere:l to the principles prescribed to than the constitution of Duke Francis, chem by their ardent patrioti-n, and already so much impaired by disease, their high sense of honour, truth, and was capable of supporting; he sunk un- justice; nay, they were not even at the der the accumulation of misfortunes, pains to conceal from the oppressor of and died in the beginning of December, Germany, that the deliverance of their to the profound grief of nis famly and native land was, and ever would be country, which was left by his decease under every circumstance, the sacred in a truly disconsolate situation.

object of their persevering exertions. No sooner was Buonaparte informed, Such is frequently the power of right, that the hereditary Prince Era est, now that Buonaparte bineself, though he knew Duke of Coburg, was at the Prussian but too well the sentiments of these head-quarters, than he issued a procla- princes, and kepi a particularly vigilant mation, declaring hiin his particular ene- eye upon them, still could not help doing my, and caused forinal posssession to be complete justice to the sincerity of the taken of bis territories. A French in. brothers, and therefore treated them with tendant and commandant were appointed marked distinction, wben they visited Paexclusively for Coburg ; all the property ris upon business relative to their house, belonging to the ducal family was seized, In 1808, Duke Ernest went to Russia, and a very heavy contribution imposed and resided there for some time. During upon the country, which had already his absence, Prince Leopold devoted sufier | most severely from the passage bis assiduous attention to the adminisof great part of the French arıny, from tration of the duchy. Since that period the battle at Saalfeld, and from the con- his brother has never failed to consult sequent plunder of the town and envi- hiin on all the concerns, whether internal rons.

or external, of the bouse of Coburg; and During this period of distress, Prince whenever he has not been himselt absent Leopold renained with his afilicted mo- on his travels, he has exclusively superther, who, but for him, would have been intended various branches of the admientirely deserted, attentively watcbing nistration. over the interests of his family.

In the same year, Prince Leopold acDuke Ernest, the faithful companion companied the Emperor of Russia and of the King of Prussia, in the eventful his brother-in-law, ihe Grand-Duke Con. battle of Auerstädt, prored on that oc- stantine, to the interview which Napocasion to his enemies, how ardent a love leon had appointed at Erfurt. of German independence, and how lofry In 1809, when Austria was again ina principle of honour resided within bis volved in war, Buonaparte, who watched bosom.' He would rather have sacrificed the princes of the house of Cobury more himself and his own possessions, than have narrowly than ever, insisted, with his deserted the cause of his royal friend in peculiar vehemence, that Prince Ferdihis adversity. He kept constantly with nand should quit the Austrian service. the king when almost every one else had As he had probably been informed about abandoned bim; he accompanied his the same time, that supplies of arms majesty to the dreary wilds of Poland,

were going from Coburg to Bohemia, he to Kunigsberg, and Memel, and as if fate dispatched a minister, named Bacher, had been determined to put his con- for the purpose of making a strict instancy to every possible trial, he was quiry into the affair. This man was orthere seized with the epidemic nertous dered to repeat the demand respecting fever, from which he had a very narrow Prince Ferdinand, accompanied with escape with his life.

the menace, that if he should be taken It was not till the peace of Tilsit, that, as an Austrian soldier, during the camby a particular stipulation, the house of paign, he should infallibly be tried by a Saxc-Coburg-Saalfeld, was reinstated in French council of war. The efforts of its possessions. Duke Ernest, however, this minister to accomplish his master's on his return to his capital, found the purpose proved unsuccessful. The rigid finances dilapidated by the French ac. investigation set on foot concerning the thorities; various institutions, which be depóts of arms led to no result, because fore the war were in a flourishing state, they had fortunately been already sent entirely ruined; and his country to the off to Bohemia, and Prince Ferdinand last degree impoverished.

seemed to consider the last message Though now under French supremacy of Napoleon as a challenge to fight and strigdy watched by Bonaparte, the with more desperate resolution than he

516 Memoirs of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfelde (July 1, had ever vet shown against his inveterate the then circumstances, to the whole enemy. This determination was clearly south of Saxony-a business which, fren evinced in the wounds which he received the complicated interests that it involved, during the campaign. Under these cir- was attended with infinite difficulty

, cumstances, and as Napoleon became The diplomatic talents of the prince, better acquainted with the active exer- however, at length succeeded in adjust tions of the brothers against him, it was ing the differences, by the conclusion of no wonder that be should grow more a convention with Bavaria, jealous of these princes and more at- When, towards the end of 1811, the tentive to their proceedings. In conse- political horizon began to be once more quence of this inistrust, be repeated in overcast, and a new prospect of a hap1810 his demand, that Prince Ferdinand pier result was afforded, Prince Leopold

, should retire from the Austrian service: unable any longer to endure his conand this time with the additional requi- strained inactivity, again tendered his sition, that Prince Leopold also should services to the Emperor of Russia. quit the Russian army, in which he had Alexander, apprehensive lest a premabeen a general ever since 1803. Cham- ture step might endanger his family, pagoy, who was then minister, and to begged to defer the fulfilment of bis wish irhom was referred, under the niediation to a more seasovable time. The prince of Russia, a question concerning the ad- having thus failed in the object upon justment of the limits of the principality which he was exclusively bent, in order of Coburg, expressed but too plainly to withdraw himself from the observation the sentiments of his master in these of the French government, set out at words :-.que l'Empereur ne ferait rien the beginning of 1812 on a distant tour, pour ses ennemis.

and travelled to Vienna, Italy, and Whoever knows the power with which Switzerland. such an exorcism was calculated to ope- At the commencement of 1813, the rate at that time on a Gerinan prince, three brothers of the house of Coburg will not fail to admire the firmness of exerted themselves, as far as their situa Leopold, who, after this declaration, tion permitted, to prepare the emancstill hoped that he should not be obliged pation of Germany. Such were the to leave the Russian service, and went zeal and the openness of their proceed. to Paris to reinonstrate on the sub- ings, that the French government, isject. He there found the gorernment censed in the highest degree, only waited bigbly incensed at such refractory beha- for the monent of a favourable turn in viour, to which France was certainly not the political state of affairs, to wreak its accustomed on the part of the Ger- utmost vengeance.

In despite of its man princes of the Confederation of the rage, however, the reigning Duke, ErRhine; and he was bluntly assured, that, nest, repaired to Berlin, where he bad in case of his farther refusal to comply, no inconsiderable influence upon the Napoleon would be necessitated to iake personal resolutions of the king, in conthe possessions of the bouse of Coburg sequence of which he sent his brother from his brother, the reigning duke. The Ferdinand to Vienna. Prince Leopold affections of the prince were not proof went to Münich, to pave the way for against this threat; it producel the de happy changes, and in February' prosired effect, and Leopold sacrificed his ceeded to Poland, to the Emperor of own inclination and his brilliant military Russia, who received him with cordial prospects to the welfare of his family. friendship. Here he comniunicated to The Emperor of Russia granted his re- Field-marshal Kutusoff much important quest, that he might tacitly retain his information respecting the state of things military rank, till better times should in Germany, and the condition of stie permit biru publicly to resume it. French army, and thus acquired the im

Obstructed in the career which he bad mortal honour of being the first prince marked out for himself, Prince Leopold of the then existing Copfederation or declined all the offers of military.charges the Rhine, who openly declared agains! made to him from the west; and de- France. voted hiinself with so much the more Thc allied army pow marched from assiduiry to the affairs of his house, and Poland to Silesia and Saxony. Oa die 10 the arts and sciences. In 1811, he ed of May, Prince Leopold was in the negociated with the crown of Bavaria, battle of Liitzen, and the following das at Münich, a frontier arrangement, of with the Russian cavalry formed part of considerable importance to the princi- the rear-guard. The prince was afterpality of Coburg, and likewise, under wards sent in forced marches toward the

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