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1816.] Dr. Pegge on the Custom of making April Fools. 507 subscribed towards its funds. The pro- formerly began as to some purposes and in tection of commerce in the Mediterra- some respects on the 25th of March, which nean by England would, however, be was supposed to be the Incarnation of our infinitely more efficient than the puny Lord; and it is certain that the commenceattempts of such an association. That ment of the new year, at whatever time that power now possesses three permanent

was supposed to be, was always esteemed a stations in that quarter, Gibraltar, Corfu, high festival, and that both amongst the and Malta; while the operations of the ancient Romans and with us. Now, Sir, United States of the Ionian Islands are

great festivals were usually attended with an

octave-that is, they were wont to continue capable of being directed to a variety of for eight days, whereof the first and the last objects both far and near.

were the principal ; and you will find that Dresden, March 1816. C. BÖTTIGER. the ist of April is the octave of the 25th of

March, and the close or ending consequently MR, EDITOR,

of that feast which was both the festival of YOUR correspondent Ned RetLas the Annunciation and of the commencement wishes to know the origin of the practice of the new year. From hence, as I take it, of making April-fools. In the first vo- festivity, especially amongst the lower sort,

it became a day of extraordinary mirth and lume of Å Selection of Curious Articles who are apt to pervert and to make a bad use from the

Gentleman's Magazine, at of institutions which at first might be very page 251, I find the following letter laudable in themselves. I am, &c. upon the subject, wbich, as it bears the

1766, April.

T. Row. signature of an eminent correspondent, you may perhaps be induced to insert in

Renascentar quæ jam cecidere. Hor. your valuable miscellany. Port Glasgow. PENTELICON.


THE tone of gentleness, of moderaMR. URBAN,

tion, and of good-breeding, that pervadea It is a matter of some difficulty to account the expostulation of your correspondent for the expression an April fool, and the N. N. on the censures that I felt myself strange custom so universally prevalent bound, in the exercise of a sincere and throughout this kingdom of people making dispassionate judgment, to pass upon fools of one another on the 1st of April, by Mr. Kidd's volume, demands a respecttrying to impose upon each other, and send- ful acknowledgment at my hands; and ing one another upon that day upon frivolous, I should thiok it no humiliation, in ridiculous, and absurd errands. something I have to offer on the subject, and the face of so fair an antagonist, to eat I shall here throw it out, if it were only to my own words, and sing aloud my palir induce others to give us their sentiments. nodia, if I did not discern that a misThe custom had no doubt an original, and conception runs through the whole of cne of a very general nature ; and one may, his eloquent letter; and that his red-hot therefore, reasonably hope that, though one enthusiasm both for Porson and for the person may not be so happy as to investigate foppish gleaner in the stubble-field of the meaning and occasion of it, yet another his genius, Mr. Kidd, has overmastered possibly may. But I am the more ready to and pushed aside the discreet use of his attempt a solution of this difficulty, because reasoning faculties. In reality, N. N. I find Mr. Bourne, in his Antiquitates Vul. gares, has totally omitted it, though it fell appears entirely to forget that my censo plainly within the compass of his design. fame of Porson as a scholar and a man

sure was pointed not against the general I observe first, Mr. Urban, that this custom and expression has no connexion at all of genius (for those claims are founded with the Festum Hypodiaconorum, Festum and built high upon a rock of inexpugSlultorum, Festum Fatuorum, Festum Inno- nable strength,) but against the frivolicentium, &c. mentioned in Du Fresne ; for ties, the meagre morsels, the orts and those jocular festivals' were kept at a very the rays of the particular volume in different time of the year.

question; and more especially against Secondly, that I have found no traces the paltry garnish, the hash of affecta. either of the name or of the custom in oher tion, of pedantry, and of conceit, with countries, insomuch that it appears to me to which it is beset, or rather buried, by be an indigenal custom of our own. I speak the editor. Jumping, however, over this only as to myself in this ; for others perhaps may have discovered it in other parts, though * The papers with this signature, as well

as with that of PAUL GEMSEGE, were writNow, thirdly, to account for it. The ten by the Rev. Dr. Samuel Pegge. (Sec name undoubtedly arose from the custom, Selections from the Gentleman's Magazine, and this I think arose from hence: our year vol. i, P, 197, note.)

I have not.

508 Strictures on Prof. Porson & Mr.Kidd re-asserted & vindicated. (Julyl, distinction, N. N. weakly imagines that taste, and the punctilious and almoost I wielded a broad-sword of extermina- oracular accuracy of his judgment, com tion against the intellectual eminence of bined with a memory that might have Porson; and by way of repelling this vied with that of Hill or Magliabecchisupposed hostility, he clubs bois battalion whilst he records these qualificaticas of authorities, and brings forward a which I never disputed, and countereigas whole armoury of accredited names, in his own opinions with the testimony of defence of bis hero.* I can assure hiin several giants in literature - he is quite that these testimonia auctorum were per- unable to produce any one attestation, fectly familiar to me, and I could bave either publicly or privately giveo, in enlarged the catalogue by many other support of that “ furrago libelli" sbich, laudatory tributes, not only froin the and wlich alone, was the target whither pen of his own countrymen,f but also of my critical* arrows were directed! In foreign scholars--from the veteran Wyt- fact, the publication of the volume, and tenbach doua to Schäffer, the last edi- the intrepid effrontery of the editor, tor of Euripides on the Continent, and whose obvious purpose was to seize and whose work runs on all-fours in the Por- wrest the admiration of the world by sonian track. But it is curious to ob- climbing the back of this lordly Colos. serve (and here, Mr. Editor, I must beg sust are quite indefensible, or the zeal you very particularly to notice how and eluquence of N. N. would unquesadroit are the polemical tactics of my tionably have attempted their vindica opponent) that while he dazzles us with tion: this gorgeous array of names in behalf

Si Pergamå destra of the consummate powers of Porson as Defendi possent, etiam hat defensa fuissent! a Grecian, the keenness of his penetra

Æneid, lib, ii. 291. tion, the exquisite refinement of his But since the expression of my opimoa Inter alia I observe that n. N. quotes bas given offence to so amiable a writer

upon this “ rudis indigestaque molis" part of a letter, addressed by Dr. Butler to Mr. Blomfield : there is another passage of

as my antagonist appears to be, I will that same letter which I am surprised he did not venture, though the provocation so not bring forward, and print in capital let- to trespass is very strong, to add another ters, as I shall do, for its happy and perti- syllable on the subject; yet let N. X. nent application to Mr. Porson : “A scho- be assured, that the judgment passed

A GENTLEMAN; he Nothing can be more happy and jodiought to have his manners and his disposi- cious than the terms, or more elegant than tion humanized by the studies in which he the latinity, in which the late Professor Dalis engaged,” &c. (page 55.)

zel bas conveyed his opinion upon the chaof Particularly Mr. R. P. Knight and the racteristic merits of our "abnormis sapiens." learned and accurate Professor Gaisford, in in regard to the “ subactum judicium," he his edition of Hephæstio ; but in this race places him higher than Bentley. (See the of flattery Dr. Parr outstrips all competition, Preface to the ad volume of the Analecta, and, as Shakspeare says, “ crooks the preg. p. viii.)—Some few years ago, wben I visita! nant hinges of the knee" with more cbse- the Academiæ Carolinæ Gothorum, at Lund quious humility than any of the turbæ adu- in Sweden, I met with a critical iract by M. latorum. In that ocean of notes, “ vast Norberg, in which Porson was described as and deep," which flows at the back of his “simplicis animi candore inbutum, et conSpital Sermon, the doctor (for the purpose, summatissima modestià." I laughed so I imagine, of twitting those who, like my- loud, that in a fair wind N. N. might bare self, have not been blest with an university heard me in England. In him intellectual education) introduces a countless catalogue pride towered to the most scorpful height; of academical worthies, and annexes to the but the learned Swede, no doubt, had seal names of a chosen few some complimentary lowed as a literal truth that aduled egs of words either in Greek or Latin. The deco- false modesty which the professor had lai rative adjunct of Porson is, te tarv lavpace at the door of his Euripides : “ Nihil he Well done! thou Boreas of puffers! Cold reconditi aut exquisiti expectandum est ; F was the hint of ancient wisdom in the ne ronum usibus hæc editio potissimum accomquid nimis! Truly nothing can be more modata est.” (See Præf. ad Ilecubanı, p. shining in absurdity than such dropsical en- + In feeble emulation of Bentley, we comia. Doubtless Porson was a very extra

says: The wit and genius of the Heathen ordinary personage, but his merits have writers beguiled me; and as I despaired of their boundary; nor is he to be admitted raising myself to their standard en fair into the same temple of glory with the king ground, the only chance I had of looking and emperors of HUMAN NATURE, nor to sit over their heads was by getting on their on the same throne with SHAKS PEARE, Mil- shoulders." (Cumberland's Memoirs, Folj. TON, Pascal, NEWTON, and Locke,

p. 20.)



1816.] Strictures on Prof. Porson & Mr.Kidd re-asserted & vindicated. 509 upon it by me is pretty generally adopt- tian and sir names of that Dutch comed in the circles of literary men, and mentator, who wrote a fulio volume de that his swil cunning method of waving particulá ge et satellitibus ejus! its particular defence, and, in lieu of N. N. Bullows up this gratuitous and that his especial duiy, busying, bimself uusupported libel on my taste, by a de in a loose com ion-place declamation on claration that Porson never displayed the merits of Porson, can weither bare any mor oseness upou any cccasion whatpower to overthrow my decision as ap- soever, but that “ his good-temper was plied erciusively to that particular work, notorious, his urbanity engaging,” &c. por tu persu. de any reader of sound in- If. N. was not too serious to be witty, tellect that he has accomplisi.ed the pur- I should imagine that he had assumed in pose for which lois letter was written.* this place what Pope calls “irony's trans

Having thus gently deirolis eil my op- parent veil,” and intended in that thin ponent in so fisras ibis Kiddio- Porsonianu disguise, to plant a dayger at one of the Congeries is concerne l, I shall briefly most vulnerable parts of his hero's cha- ' touch on one or two topics suggested by racter. But the simplicity and earnesthis periormance. In the sarcasın which ness of his whole manner rescue him he has been pleased to pass ou my pro- from such an imputation: I cannot doubt fession, (thouglı be has not quite ventured but that he wishes to be believed acto call me an Oebilius,) and in the un- cording to the strict import of bis words, handsome assertion that I am “one of and truly his compliments are the more those men who measu.e the merit of an generous in proportion as the object of author by the bulk of his works,” I see his panegyric is less deserving of them. something like a departure from the or- The truth I believe to have been as foldinary tove of his gentleness and urba- lows: Porson required a full stretch of nity. I must assure N. N. that this in- admiring hoinage* from all those with putation is wholly unmerited; and though whom he associated, and to such as codperhaps my feelings do not quite accord descended to propitiate his good-humour with that hoi latitude of idolatry, which by habitual delerence, he was sufficiently induced Scaliger to declare be would affable and accessible. I fully and freely rather have written an ode in Horace admit, too, his crapulous jollity, and bis than be King of Arragon, yet I can duly eternal strings of merry quotations over appreciate the mossy ingots of Porson's "the sparkling food," but it is worse intellectual wealth, though they lie in a than idle to extend his fraises in this narrow compass; and am perfectly well respect any farther. I have no delight, aware that a very small portion of that however, in dragging into open day the well-compacted treasure would have biemishes of genius. The spots upon the been hammered out by the head of an sun's disk should be hidden in the glory ordinary editor or commentator into a of his beams;t but yet the pit of error superficies of immeasurable extent and

* “ With flattery, the food of courts, they comparative worthlessness. Believe me,

rock'd him, Sir, I had rather be the author of any

And luli'd him in the down of his deone of the critical articles in Porson's

sires." "Adversaria," than bear both the chris

BEAUMONT and FLETCHER. N. N., propped up by his little band of of Nothing, however, in my judgment, Porsonnuletts, speaks in big and burly terms can be more mistaken, and, generally speakof his idol's morality--he, however, reluc- ing, more mischievous, than to employ the tantly confesses his tipsy firs:

coarse white-washing brush of panegyric, “Silenum PUERI Somno videre jacentem, instead of the discrimirating pencil of truth, Inflatum hesterno venas, ut SEMPER lac- in the portraiture of any characters of high cho!”

Virgil's Ecl. 6. renown, and of influence as exemplars for But I wish to know er cathed & whether he the formation of rising minds. The faults was really the author of the licentinus pa- of such men should be distinctly marked, rody of Pope's poem, entitled Eloisa er: and an emphatic seal of reprobation set upon dishabille, and published in 1981 by Faul- them. Above all, it should be shown that der; we all know that he had it by heart: their vices have no sort of necessary conindeed he was fond of parodies, and I am nerion with their merits, and that they are told was wont to exclaim again and again the morbid excrescences, and not the ge

nuine and healtı y fruits of the tree. For When port and claret are gone and spent, want of this moral discernment many a

Then small beer is most excellent ! scatter-brained nincompoop has fancied himHas want of decency, according to the ca- self more than half a Charles Fox, because nons of the Porso-nian school, ceased to be he has been able to imitate his prototype in kant of sense?

his gambling and other irregularities. The New MONTHLY MAG-No. 30.

VOL, V. 3 U

con amore:


Cruelty of Experiments on Animals.

[July 1,

should be closed whenever we are able

XEITO, PHET'E ang to do it; and pressed on either hand by Αξελος εδ' ανελβος, εςις ες κακού these conflicting sensations, I shall coni- Πεσων ακειται, μηδ' ακινητες πελει. tent myself with observing, that N. N.

Sop, Antig. v. 1139 will instantly discover how complete and I am, Mr. Editor, very respecifully yours, radical has been his mistake, in investing

A PROVINCIAL SCHOOL MASTE2. his hero's character with the apostolical

June 6, 1816. attributes of meekness, placability, for- P.S. As N. N. is a worshipper of bearance, and undeviating gentleness, Porson's sacred attachment to truth, he when he shall bave learned (as he may himself ought to keep a guardian ere in almost every circle) the aviforn cast over its interests: but he tells me, that of his language when speaking upon the it has been truly said of Porsoocompositions and the characters of Her- pauca quidem ingenii sui pignora reliqait, man, Gilbert Wakefield,* Taylor, Travis, sed egregia, sed admiranda.Nos it Horne Tooke, Parr, &c.

happens that these words form a part, I will now, Sir, conclude as I com- not of Porson's but of Roger Cores's epimeiced with making a bow of respect taph, written by the famous Bentley, and to my antagonist, whose simplicity of to be seen on a tablet in Trinity College mind is so apparent, that I feel assured Chapel, Cambridge: Fallit te incauhis errors are those of the understanding, tum, pietas tua." (En. lib. x. 812.) and not of the beart.t Ile will, there. fore, take in good part the advice that

" If a few inferior joys I have given him; and I cherish, too, an Be all of life they share, eager hope, that he will not only retract

Let pity plead within our breasts his erroneous impressions, but also pos- That little all to spare.” sess maynanimity enough to thank me for the delicate forbearance with which

MR. EDITOR, I have ministered to the correction of AS a friend to humanity, I hare been them :

an attentive observer of the discussicos

that have been inserted in your pages os same also in regard to l'orson, as a spirited the cruelty of making experiments en living poet has well expressed it:

living animals; and I must freely own, The fool uncomb'd, and wash'd but once a

that nothing which has been argued week, Thinks Porson's lice can give him Porson's cation of even the policy of a practice

affords to my mind the slightest justifiGreek.


so abhorrent froin every principle of Mr. Wakefield, in a most accurate deli- humanized feeling. neation of l'orson's character, says of him : “ he is a most extraordinary person, but in all events be pleaded for the repetition

What possible good let me ask, can at all respects unamaille," &c. (See his Correspondence with Mr. Fox.) ! ditter from this have io illustrate had been once clearls

of any experiments, where the fact they Septembrizing Gronovius," as he has been well called, in regard to almost every prin- ascertained? For after all, it is butto ciple advanced by him in his triple character the proof of some required fact that the of critic, politician, and divine: nothing, policy of the practice, even in a physical however, was at any time more truly co. view, is in any shape atiempted io be loured from the life than the portrait of Por- justified; in a moral view not a word son in the letter from which I have borrowed can be alleged in its bebalf, this extrace; but N. N. I am aware, will To argue in the words of a feeling not admit the resemblance into the articles reviewer of the writings of that disgustof his faith; for rashi, enthusiastic admira- ing experimentalist, Spallanzani— " when tion is more than purblind, and her hood.

an investigation cannot be pursued withwinked eye holds no communion with the

out iuflicting torments on sensitive helight of truth.

ings, and where there is no apparent like+ Mr. Kidd tells us, and N. N. quotes the lihood of producing benefit either to passage with rapture, that Person,“ pos; ourselves or to them by the proceeding, sessed a heart filled with sensibility.” Will

that Christian benevolence, whicii mula either of these gentlemen tell us in what chapter of his treatment of Mr. Wakefield

to extend to all the creatures of God, that sensibility was displayed ? It is notori

will surely restrain our bands, and direct ous that he uniforinly thought and spoke of

us to studies more consonant with its him with cynical aspeiity and the most bitter benign spirit.” derision: and his conduct was the more Let men of science, then, rest satisfied cruel, because, as he well knew, Wakefield with the facts which have been already telt the agony of it at his heart's core. established let them be content with

Rev. T. Cormouls on Grarily.

511 he known results which the discoveries being possible by an overcharge or efflux f the heartless and cold blooded expe- of the terrestrial neutral fluid upon the part imentalists that have gone before them in the volcanic or terræ-motus inode,it may u the path of philosophical inquiry have more properly perhaps be denominated n hundred-told repetition drawn, with- a fiatus. The sheet in question, by its ut wishing to ascertain what has been brushing shrubs in its passage, seemed to abundantly proved, or to repeat the have passed along from four to more feet useless trial of their cruel and beart- high, and must have rode upon the fluid "ccoiling operations-leaving to the un- as a bird in air does; and they afford offending victiins of their tortures the mutual illustration of each other's acts ' little all" of enjoyment which their and causes. humble link in the scale of creation This and former effects give an insight Effords thein.

SCRUTATOR. into the cause and law of gravity in naBerkshire, June 5th.

ture at large, viz. matter's connexion P.S. That in the terms I have used with, and motion by, a certain fluid; in this letter, in speaking of the cruel and the law of it is, that it moves sponpractice which it deprecates, I am not taneously to tle region where the fluid it applying too harsh designations, I uced wants is presented. If that fluid be esonly appeal to the revolting statements sential to the cohesion, and indeed stutus hy Spallanzani, Pistorini, Bonnet, and ens of matter, as the analysis of bodies other foreign physiologists, of their own solid and liquid readily demonstrate; and abominable experiments; sincerely wish- if there be a reservoir of the fluid central ing at the same time such a charge impli- to the earth, from whence it returns exCated foreigners only! The circunstance, hausted at last in the form of magnetic however, recorded in your Magazine of fluid continually Rowing, then must the Nay, p. 307) so much to the honour of earth and all bodies be tributary to this the Royal Society, will, it is to be dea central collection, and supply it; convoutly hoped, tend to the effectual dis- sequently they must constantly imbibe couragement of animal experiments in and transmit fluid from their systems, future in England.

and the want of it and waste will be

continued. On GRAVITY. By the Rev.T.CORMOULS.

Solution of Gravity. (Conciuded from p. 413.) A CERTAIN natural effect that has All the spontaneous motion of matter, been very common in the volcanic coun- of which common or statistic gravity is tries, and not without instance in Eng- only one case or variety, arises from the land, supplies a collateral proof of the mutual affections of all matter with a existence of a lifting fluid as its cause,

certain fluid which is determinable to be and perhaps that in air, but it may be the neutral or mother electric.* There from earth, to which large portions of is a general attractive effect of solar land will attach and forsake their very light, indeed, besides, and a particular bases when disorder or excitement in a one of magnetic fluid. But these will portion reveries the order of attraction. appear to be related fluids. Light, a If the portion rise to the fluid in air, it part of the origin of the neutral magnemay be called the lift or transfer of it. tic, the returning exhaustert state of Thus sheets of soil have been repeatedly the same, need not be considered in lifted fro:n the sides of the Appenines statistic gravity, by which, with the neuand Ætna, and it inay be Vesuvius, air

tral fluid motor, all the phenoinena, diried off and laid one upon another at

rect and reversed near the earth, are of great distances, which is a natural cause easy solution. The reversed have been of many of the amazing repetitions of explained in projected bodies and birds' soils and lavas. Such an instance of a powers. The direct are equally plain sheet of soil, some feet thick and an acre on analogies which present electric knowexpanse, being lifted and transferred 400 ledge supplies, asor 500 yards, occurred near Richmond, Firstly: a very little difference of cirin Yorkshire, about 60 years ago. This cumstance, and disposal of particle, was not done by any of the known gases: makes substances prefer and attract the some would have by explosion blown rarer vitreous electric; or refuse it, and the sheet to pieces; others transuded attract the denser resinous. Thus smooth through ii; therefore, there being no glass attracts the rarer vitreous electric, lifting fluid of requisite qualities and and rough glass the denser resinous. powers for the effect but the neutral, that * Or the two com mon electrics neutrait must be ascribed to; but the same effect lized by caloric.

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