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1816.). Sir H. Davy on preventing Explosions in Coal Mines, 43 apertures, open in the glass vessel : but the must be its depth, or the less its diameter to mixture in the bladder did not explode: and render it safe. by pressing some of it into the glass vessel, I did not perceive any difference in these so as to make it replace the foul air, and sub- experiments, when the metals of the aperjecting it to the electric spark, repeated ex- tures were warmed by repeated explosions : plusions were produced, proving the perfect it is probable, however, that considerable security of the safety apertures, even when elevation of temperature would increase the acred on by a much more powerful explo. power of the aperture to pass the explosion ; sion than could possibly occur from the in- but the difference between the temperature troduction of air from the mines.
of Aame, and that marked on our common These experiments held good, whatever mercurial scale, is so great, that the addition were the proportions of the explosive mix- of a few degrees of heat probably does not ture, and whatever was the size of the glass diminish perceptibly the cooling power of a vessel, (no one was ever used containing metallic surface, with regard to flame. more than a quart,) provided as many as 12 By diminishing the diameter of the air metallic tubes were used of one-seventh of canals, their power of passing the explosion an inch in diameter, and two inches and a is so much diminished that their depth and half long ; provided the circular metallic circumference may be brought extremely canals were one-twenty-fifth of an inch in low. I found that fiame would not pass diameter, 1. of an inch deep, and at least through a canal of the one-seventieth of an two inches in circumference; or provided inch in diameter, when it was a quarter of the wire gauze had apertures of only so of an inch deep, and forming a cylinder of an inch. When twelve metallic tubes were only a quarter of an inch in circumference ; employed as the niedium of communication, and a number of apertures of ido of an inch one-seventh of an inch in diameter and an are safe when their depth is equal to their inch long, the explosion was communicated diameter. It is evident from these facts, by them into the bladder. Four glass tubes that inetallic doors, or joinings in lamps, of the one-tenth of an inch in diameter and may be easily made safe by causing them to txo inches long, did not communicate the project upon and fit closely to parallel meexplosion ; but one of this diameter and callic surfaces. length produced the erfect. The explosion Longitudinal air canals of metal may, I was stopped by a single tube one-twenty- find, be employed with the same security as eighth* of an inch in diameter, when it was circular canals ; and a few pieces of tin-plate three inches long, but not when it was two soldered together with wires to regulate the inches long.
diameter of the canal, answer the purpose The explosion was stopped by the metal. of the feeder or safe chimney as well as lic gauze of to when it was placed between drawn cylinders of brass. the exploding vessel and the bladder, though A candle will burn in a lantern or glass it did not present a surface of more than half tube made safe with metallic gauze, as well a squre inch, and the explosive mixeure in as in the open air : I conceive, however, the bladder in passing through it to supply that oil lamps, in which the wick will althe vacuum produced in the glass vessel, ways stand at the same height, will be preburned on the surface exposed to the glass ferred. Tessel for some seconds, producing a mur But the principle applies to every kind of muring noise.
light, and its entire safety is demonstrated, A circular canal one-twenty-fifth pf an When the fire-damp is so mixed with the inch in diameter, and an inch and a half in external atmosphere as to render it explocircumference, and 1% of an inch deep, sive, the light in the safe-lantern or lamp communicated explosion; but four concen will be extinguished, and warning will be tric canals, of the same depth and diameter, given to the miners to with:Iraw from, and and of which the smallest was (wo inches in to ventilate that part of the mine. diameter, and separated from each other If it be necessary to be in a part of the only by their sides, which were of brass,and mine where the fire-damp is explosive, for about one-tortieth of an inch in thickness, the purpose of clearing the workings, taking did not suffer the explosion to act :hrough away pillars of coal, or other objects, the them.
workmen may be lighted by a fire made of It would appear then, that the smaller the charcoal, which burns without flame, or by circumference of the canal, that is, the the steel mill, though this does not afford nearer it approaches to a tube, the greater such entire security from danger as the char :
* These results appear at first view con coal fiie. tradictory to those mentioned in page 40. It is probable, that when explosions occur But it must be kept in view, that the first set from the sparks from the steel mill, the of experiments were nade in tubes open in mixture of the fire-clamp is in the proporthe air, and the last in tubes exposed to the tion required to consume all the oxygen of whole force of air explosion, and connected the air, for it is only in about this proportion only with close vessels filled with explosive that explosive mixcures can be fired by elecmixtures.
trical sparks from a common machine,
44 Sir H. Davy on preventing Explosions in Coal Mines. [Feb. 1,
As the wick may be moved without com- learned from the miners, that breathing an munication between the air in the safe-lan- atmosphere containing a certain mixture of torn or lamp in the atmosphere, there is no fire-damp near or even at the explosive point, danger in trimming or feeding them; but is attended with any bad consequence. I they should be lighted in a part of the mine ascertained that a bird lived in a mixture of where there is no fire-damp, and by a person equal parts of fire-damp and air; but he charged with the care of the lights ; and by soon began to siew symptoms of suffering. these inventions, used with such simple pre- I found a slight head-ache produced by cautions, there is every reason to believe a breathing for a few minutes an explosive number of lives will be saved, and much mixture of fire-damp and air ; and if merely misery prevented. Where candles are em- the health of the miners be considered, the ployed in the open air in the inines, life is fire-damp ought always to be kept far below extinguished by the explosion ; with the the point of its explosive mixture. safe-lantern or safe-lamp, the light is only Miners sometimes are found alive in a put out, and no other inconvenience will oc- mine after an explosion has taken place : cur.
this is easily explained, when it is considered Among various plans for preventing acci- that the limitation is fixed to a particular dents from the fire-damp, it has been pro- spot, and that it mixes the residual air wich posed to burn the fire-lamp in the mine ; much common air ; and supposing 1 of fire but this will only render the ventilation more damp to 13 of air to be exploded, there will difficult; for there will be less respirable air still remain nearly 4 of the original quantity in the residuum of the combustion than in of oxygen in the residual gas; and in some the mixed gas, and the ventilation must be experiments, made sixteen years ago, I found greater to free the mine from the choke- that an animal lived, though with suffering, damp so generated, than from the original for a short time, in gas containing 100 parts Sare-damp.
of azote, fourteen parts of carbonic acid, and It does not appear, from what I have seven parts of oxygen. Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Represents the safe-lantern, with hollow eylinders, distant from each other as its air feeder and chimney furnished with of an inch : the smallest is 2 inches in cir. safety metallic canals. li contains about a cumference; their depth is owo inches. . B. quart of air. The sides are of horn or glass, is the chimney, containing 4 such canals, made air tight by putty or cement. A. is the smallest 2 inches in circumference the lamp tbrough which the circular feeding above it is a hollow cylinder, with a cap to air canals pass; they are three concentric prevent dust froni passing into the chimney.
45 C. is the hole for admitting oil. D. is a long be called the fire valve lantern. In this, canal containing a wire by which the wick the candle or lamp burns with its full quanis moved or trimmed. E. is the tube form- city of air, admitted from the aperture being a connexion between the reservoir of oil low, till the air begins to be mixed with fireand the chamber that supplies the wick with damp; when, as the fire-clamp increases the oil. F. is the rim round the bottom of the flame, a thermometrical spring at the top of lantern to enable it to bear motion.
the lantern, made of brass and steel, riveted Fig. 2. A metallic gauze safe lamp. AAA. together, and in a curved form, expands, Screens of metallic gauze or flame sieves. moves a valve in the chimney, diminishes BB. Wires for trimming the wick.*
the circulation of air, and extinguishes the The lamps burn brighter the higher the fame. But I did not pursue this invention chimney.
after I had discovered the properties of the From my experiments it appears, that a fire-damp, on which the safe lantern is mere narrow throat or opening to the metal- founded, lic part of the chimney, is sufficient 10 pre 2. The safety of close lamps or lanterns vent explosions from passing through the may probably be likewise secured by sieves lamp, supposing them possible; but with the made of asbestus, or possibly even hair or safety canals or metallic gauze in the chim- silk, placed over the air apertures : but meney the security is absoluie.
tallic gauze will be necessary above in the The circular canals and the apertures com chimney. I have little doubt but that winvered with metallic gauze, are so much su dows of fine metallic gauze may be used for perior to tubes in practical application, that giving light in lanterns, with perfect security; I have no doubt of their being generally perhaps for the chimney it may be worth used; I have therefore given no sketch of while to have fine plated silver wire gauze the first safe lantern I had constructed with made. tutes; but substituting tubes for canals it is 3. The expansive powers of the fire-damp exactly the same as that represented fig. 1. during its explosion are so small as to render APPENDIX.
no precautions, with respect to the thickness 1. In the beginning of my inquiries I of the glass or horn in the lamps or lanterns, had another close lantern made, which may necessary.
KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.—55 GEO. III. (1815.) [The figure which follows the date of each Act, denotes the number of sheets of
which it consists : each sheet is sold for three-PENCE.] LXXX. An Act to provide for the and to be evidence in any proceedings at Collection and Management of Stamp law. Copies of newspapers to be lodged at Duties on Pamphlets, Almanacks, and the Stamp Office, which shall be evidence Newspapers in Ireland. June 14.-3. against the proprietors. Copies of second
One copy of every pamphlet to be lodged editions to be lodged in like manner as the at the Stamp Office. Penalty for not paying first. Printers outlawed for any criminal of daty to be 401 and forfeiture of copyright. fence, or who may receive judgment for a Venders of unstamped almanacks to forfeit traiturous or seditious libel, shall not be sup5). for each copy. Every hand-bill contain- plied with stamps. Printers becoming banking more than one advertisement to be supt, or non compos'mentis, shall no longer deemed a newspaper, The printer's name
be entitled to print newspapers. Persons and place of abode to be affixed to all news
having unstamped newspapers in their prisa papers and pamphlets under a penalty of 10l. session shall be liable to a penalty of 101. Affidavits of proprietorship of newspapers to
and the printer, proprietor, or publisher, to a be made before the Commissioners of Stamps, penalty of 20l. for each new paper so nn
stamped. Printers supplying others with The ingenious author has given enlarged stamps to forfeit 40l. and persons using representations of different parts of his lamps; stamped paper so furnished to be liable to the also of a safe lamp having a glass chimney like penalty. Duty on advertisements to be covered with a lin plate, and the safety ap- paid monthly. Printing materials may be pertures in a cyliader with the covering seized for dury. The operation of this act to above; of an argand lamp of similar con
commence July 5, 1815. struction, and of a glass tube furnished with
LXXXI. An Act to repeal the sevefame sieves in which a common candle may ral Acts for the Collection and Managemay be burned. As however the generalment of Stamp Duties in Ireland, and to principle is the same in all, we have thought make more effectual Regulations for col. ibat the figures given above would afford a lecting and managing the said Duties in sufficient illustration of it. EDITOR, general. June 14,-8.
New Acts of Parliament.
LXXXII. An Act to grant Duties of regulate the Mode of Payment of PilotCustoms, and to allow Drawbacks and age on Foreign Vessels in the said Port. Bounties on certain Goods, Wares, and June 14.-1. Merchandize imported into and exported LXXXVIIJ. An Act to amend an from Ireland, in lieu of fornier Duties, Act of the last Session of Parliament for Drawbacks, and Bounties; and to make rendering more easy and effectual Refurther Regulations for securing the Du- dress for Assaults in Ireland. June 14. ties of Customs in Ireland. June 14.-3. -1.
LXXXIII. An Act to regulate the The Grand Jury at assizes may make Payment of the Duties of Customs on presentment for costs adjudged at Sessions Foreign Goods imported into Great Bri- under the act 54 Geo. III. c. 18). cain from Ireland, or into Ireland from LXXXIX. An Act to amend an Act Great Britain, and of the Drawbacks on of the Srd Year of his Majesty's Reigo, the Exportation of Goods the Growth, for making Regulations for the building Produce, or Manufacture of Great Bri- and repairing of Court Houses and Sestain or Ireland, having been imported sions Houses in Ireland. June 14.-1. into either country from the other. XC. An Act to explain an Act made June 14.-1.
in the Parliament of Ireland in the 32nd When goods imported into either country year of his Majesty's Reign, relative to from the orber shall be exported, the ex- inland Navigations there, so far as relates porter shall be allowed a drawback equal to
to the Limitation of Actions against Cathe duty. Foreign wines in bottles or flasks nal Companies and others. June 14.–1. in packages containing six dozen quart bot.
XCI. . An Act for the Payment of tles or Hasks may be imported into either Costs and Charges to Prosecutors and country from the other.
Witnesses in Cases of Felony in Ireland. LXXXIV. An Act to amend so much June 14.-1. of an Act of the 33rd year of his present XCII. An Act to amend an Act of Majesty as relates to fixing the limits of the 50th year of his present Majesty's the towns of Calcutta, Madras, and Reign relating to Prisons in Ireland, so Bombay; and also so much of an Act of far as concerns Contracts for building or the 39th and 40th of his present Majesty repairing such Prisons. June 14.-1. as relates to granting Letters of Admi XCIII. An Act to repeal the Duties nistration to the Effects of Persons dying payable on, and the Permission to enter intestate within the several Presidencies for Home Consumption, Silk Handkerin the East Indies to the Registrar of the chiefs imported by the East India ComEcclesiastical Courts; and to enable the pany. June 14.-1. Governor in Council of the said Presi
XCIV. An Act to continue and dencies to remove Persons not being Bri- amend several Acts relating to the British Subjects; and to make Provision tish White Herring Fishery. June 14. for the judges in the East Indies in cer- - 4. tain Cases. June 14.-2.
The bounty on exportation repcaled and LXXXV. An Act to amend and con that on cured herrings increased from 25. to tinue for One Year and until Twelve 4s. per barrel, which must contain, exclusive Months after the Termination of the of salt and brine, according in the mode of present War by the Ratification of a package, from 212 lbs. to 235 lbs, weight of Definitive Treaty of Peace, Two Acts of fish at least. his present Majesty for enabling Sub
XCV. An Act to repeal the Duties jeets of Forcign States to enlist and serve
payable on the Importation into Great as Soldiers in his Majesty's Service, and Britain of solid Vegetable Extract froin to enable bis Majesty to grant Commis- Oak Bark and other Vegetable Submissions to Subjects of Foreign States to stances used in the Tanning of Leather; serve as Officers under certain Restric- and to grant a Duty in lieu thereof. tions. June 14.--1.
June 14.-1. LXXXVI. An Act to continue until
The dury imposed by this act is 3s. per the 25th day of March, 1820, an Act made in the 46th year of his present Ma XCVI. An Act to grant a further jesty for permitting the Importation of Sum of Money for purchasing an Estate Masts, Yards, Bowsprits, and Timber for
to accompany the Title of Earl Nelson, Naval Purposes froin the British Colo- and also to amend Two Acts of the 16th nies of North America. June 14.-1. and 53rd years of bis Majesty's Reign for
LXXXVII. An Act to relieve certain making such Purchase. June 14.-3. Foreigo Vessels resorting to the Port of In addition to the sum of 90,000l. granted London in respect of Pilotage; and to by former acts, 9,000l, is to be paid out of
1816.) Original Poetry.
47 the Consolidated Fund to the Trustees, and Committee on the Downpatrick Election the whole to be expended in the purchase to re-assemble and to suspend the Transand repair of the manor and mansion of mission of Warrants and other ProceedStandlynch in Wiltshire, and in the enfran- ings for the Appointment of Commischisement of copyhold premises belonging sioners tv examine Witnesses in Ireland. to tliat estate.
June 14.--1. XCVII. An Act to grant to the XCIX. An Act to make further ProJudges of the Commissary Court of Edin- visions for collecting and securing the burgh a fixed Salary in place of their Duties of Excise on Malt made in Irepresent Salary and captain Fees and land. June 22.--2. Payments. June 11.-1.
C. An Act to provide for the CollecAll fees to judges to cease, and the judges tion and Management of Stamp Duties of the Commissary Court to receive 6001.a payable on Bills of Exchange, Promissory year each.
Notes, Receipts, and Game Certificates, XCVIII. An Act to enable the Select in Ireland. june 22.-3.
THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO. At Mount St. John Britain's best blood Wrilten at Brussels, June, 1815.
was shed, For England's triumph o'er her Gallic foes, Ten thousand heroes sleep on honour's bed; To seal her glory, WELLINGTON arose ; Plancenoi's plains and Gaumont's fields can Above Napoleon's fame his famc shall rise, tell, And mount resplendent to th' immortal skies. How many Frenchmen in the battle fell, For him shall altars fume with holy myrrh, From morning's sun to ev'ning's close of day, For him, to heav'n shall we our prayers
When Gallia's boasted phalanx now gave way prefer;
To England's cavalry and Scotland's pride, * To save our country WELLINGTON was Whose warlike sons, in martial combats born,
tried, His glorious deeds her annals shall adorn. Lambs in their quarters, lions in the field, Th' heroic muse his battles shall rehearse ; Made the broad cuirass to their weapons Some future Pindar sing in Ossian verse
yield; That while he fought for Europe's sacred And taugh: ambition's scepter'd son to feel cause,
The power of England arm'd with British He fought for honour and the world's ap. steel. plause.
The modern Titan, flying o'er the field, Cool and deliberate, yet with ardor fir'd, Saw Gallic pride to British valour yield; With thoughts of victory his soul inspir’d; His legions, struck with terror and dismay, The gallant Chief, near yon adjoining wood, Fled from the field, and England won ihe Firm as a rock, 'mid danger nobly stood;
day, Gaz'd on his men, then pass'd from front to The great, th' immortal day, that fix'd the fate rear,
Of Belgian Liberty and Nassau's state. The ranks resounding with a treble cheer;
What tongue can utter, or what pen can England for ever! was the joyful cry,
write Long live her Chief! surrounding bills reply. The martial horrors of this dreadful fight; His army weak in n'mbers, strong in fame, The roar of cannon, and the din of arms, Saw Victory stead to her hero's name :
Glory's long struggle, and its dire alarms; The troops embartled on the rising ground,
What blood of England and of France was Near Soigny's forest, strong entrenchments
Where Brunswick perish’dand where Nassau From Frichmont's heights to Gaumont's
Mars and Minerva fought on either side, fertile plain,
Britannia's valour, Gallia's skill were tried : Britain's heroic sons the shock sustain,
Here trumpets sounded vici’ry—there reOf Gallic fury and consummate skill,
treat, Destin'd Napoleon's mandates to fulfil ;
And now a battle won-and now defeat. To conquer Belgium, and lay waste the land, Where Britain's valiant troops unconquer'd
Justice and Freedom summon'd to the stand.
Proclaim'd at last, to whom the palm must Thrice did Napoleon head the fierce attack, WELLINGTON conqu'ror--and NAPOLEON And thrice the British squadrons drove him
Was robb'd of fame and crowns in one deTill maul'd and feather'd in the glorious fight, Th' Imperial cagle wing'd his rapid flight, The Scotch Highland regiment,