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(June 1,

410

On the most effectual Remedy for Poaching. that I allude to the pillory, in which Add to this, that the present arbitraty (quite the contrary to that of public and totally inefficient system of qualifi. whipping) " the severity or mildness de. cations for the killing of game, supprespends on the will and pleasure" of the ses, in innumerable cases, all interest for populace. A person inay leave the pil- its preservation : and the petty landTory in as sound and perfect -a state as holder, restricted by this regulation fion wlien he entered it, and on the contrary, the use of what is led on the produce oi he may leave it in a state verging on his own coil, will buy from the poacher eternity.

that with which he inay not supply him. With every respect for the feelings, self, or wantonly and prematurely des good intentions, and (I doubt not) abili- troy every bend of game rather than see lies of your correspondent Dr. Roots; the feed on bis grain to his own prejeand a sincere wish for the success of dice, without being allowed to concert your ably conducted and entertaining then either to his own use, or that of miscellany, I am

0. P. Q. the public. To these sources I would adpril 11, 1816.

trace the present scarcity of game, and

the daily increasing system of poaching. MP. EDITOR,

Without pretending to enter more deeply POACHING has of late assunied, to into the subject, I shall propose a few so great an extent, ihe appearance of a alterations to your attention. combined and daring system, that it must 1. That the sale of game be permitted. appear to every one who has given the 2. That qualifications be abolished, and slightest attention to the subject, that it that every person receiving from government is very universally encouraged and sup- an annual license, at the rate of 5l. or more, ported. Permit an unbiassed and un- as may seem expedient, be considered quaprejudiced person to state the view which lified to kill game.-Hence an efficient he has taken of the causes to which the source of revenue. prevalence of this lawless system may

3. Every person using this certificate, sball best be traced.

have the undisputed right of sporting on land When men expose themselves to the his own, or in his own occupation; (upies utmost rigour of the laws; when they

reserved by the landlord ;) or by permission,

on the land of another. forsake their ordinary occupations; when

4. All persons sporting without leave on they do not scruple to proceed to any

land belonging to another, shall, after oge extremity, even to the commission of

notice, on conviction before two magistrales, murder itselt, in pursuit of an object of pay the sum of 5l. for the first, 101. for the luxury, we must conclude that the object

second offence, and so in proportion; and of their pursuit is in great demand; a if without certificate, 5l. more for each of demaod sufficient to recompense them fence, for their labour, and to requite them 5. All persons sporting with certificate a for the dangers they undergo in the pur- night, or unfair hours, shall be fined, an suit of it. The greater, or at least a very conviction before two magistrates, 51.; withgrcat part of the rich, and most of the out certificate, 101. middling classes of society in this coun

6. All persons selling game without certry, have no means of furnisbing their tificate, shall forfeit, on conviction, sl. tables with garne, unless they be in pos- According to this outline, for I mean session of land themselves, or in the it is no more, I think the present erils habit of receiving it from others as a fa. might be obviated : as, by these means, vour. This restriction appears to them infinitely more real security would be so far invidious and unjust, that persons, given to the landholder, and much satiswho, in all other respects would shrink faction to the public; as the markers from the slightest violation of justice, would be fairly supplied, and the poacbanake no scruple of supplying their tables er's trade fall to the ground. Game by means of the poacher. Hence they would probably at first be much tioned, is considerately sanction in the lower but I question whether the present sutepclasses, disregard for the laws, insubordi- ing system will leave, in a short time, nation, yeneral habits of pilfering, and, game enough to stock the country. I in many cases, they may charge then- any thing is to increase gane, surely it selves with being the indirect cause of must be effected by increasing the inter the death of a fellow-creature. To this est in its preservation; which, in my source, especially at a time when the humble opinion, the proposed alterations "lower classes are in many parts of the are best calculated to promote. kingdom out of employ, may the great

AN UNPREJUDICED OBSERYER. prevalence of poaching be atiributed. April 11, 1816.

atmo

1916.]
Rev. Mr. Cormouls on Gravity.

411 Ox Gravity. By the Reo. T. CORMOULS. Then, according to circamstances, the (Continued from No.xxvii. p. 225.) arrow exhibits three different kinds of

flight. One is regular and common, Evidence of Projected Bodies against which contains the true projectilism uf received Gravity.

light bodies; the other two are the opON the best authority, as well as per posite, circumstantial varieties of d.cir sonal experiment, it may be laid down flights. as fact, that perfectly round balls tiglit The regular one flies about twenty-two fitted to the bores of guns, and sent with yards, rising in an angle of from 10 to 15 a fuir charge from any piece of ordnance degrees above the parallel, then turns always rise in the first portion of their upward in a greater angle of from 25 to flight, and for about two seconds of time. 40 degrees, from the beiglie of which it The whole of this effect is in direct con- comes, with a quick currature to the tradiction to the projectiles of present ground. Here a lift is evident all the science. They rise also necessarily and way of the fight of the first angle, and naturally, and by means of an more so in the second. The first shows sphere of lifting Huid principle, collected that there is some acquired cause of reby them as they Ay.' This is evidenced pulsion to the earth; but the second by a certain effect of a large cannon ball shews that cause to be specifically a voin its flight; viz. a cannon-ball may fly lume of elastic fluid derived from the air. equally near to a file of a thousand inen, For when the body is at a point where and give to every one it passes, a sensa- the Niglie is relaxed and slow, and where, tion of the wind and noise of its passage, if there was not a sustaining principle, yet without the least injury to any, till it should sink, it rises ;--and why? sim'it arrive at a certain distance. There it ply because a volume of the same clastic may kill or injure by what is called its fluid, which the cannon-ball discharges, wind-stroke, one or two persons, who is held more tenaciously by the shalt; may, nevertheless, stand a foot or more and as its speed is now lessened, the vodistant, on one side of its passage. This lume expands upon the air and earth, point is just at its apex of fight. The which having been but little exhausted, injury clearly happens from a fluid prin- do not readily receive it; and couseciple collected from the air, which, from quently, it remains and expands, aud the its quantity, and the overcharged state of shait is carried upward upon it till exthe shot by it, becomes re-attractible by pended. This appears more evidently the depriveil air; which, in this case, by in one of the circumstantial varieties, in a common mode of electric and chemical which the volume is so large, retained so attraction, makes use of the nearest me strongly and received so difficultly by the diating attrahent or conductor. That air and earth, that the arrow is carried enoductor here being a human body, the sometimes fourteen feet or more straight rush of the dense fluid swiftly through its up from the second rise, vibrating like a vessels and over its nerves is falal or balloon, which rise is sometimes for iwo bighly injurious. The ball now losing or inore seconds. its sustaining Auid, and its organism The second circumstantial variety is being too weak again to act upon the air, mostly in squally weather, when the arit recorers its usual affection of gravity row is suddenly deprived of its collected to the earth and begins to fall. Here volume at the point of the second rise, the principle sought is brought into cog- and snatched to the ground.

On the principle apparent in these But there is another projectile experi- projectiles the direct and inverted phement with arrows of proper form and poniena of gravity will be found to desubstance, which, at times, will exhibit prend universally. It is neither of the this principle of lifting for a considerable two electrics, but their neutral, which is lieiglit and space of time.

analizable by due means. The arrow should be formed of light N. B. The leathered seeds of thistles, dry wood without feathers, and the fore. &c. collect this same Noid spontaneously end cut thickest, that it n:ay fly without from the air, and perform their elevations turning back. It may be of an ounce, and repeaied Nights by its agency. or more or less weighi. It shouil be Birds' Flight and Flatus. discharged from a weak bow, pade of a The cases of projectiles and birds' rod not above the third of an inch in dia- poners atford such plain proof of the meter, and the arrow should be directed suspension of gravity in projected and parallelly, and drawn to produce a flight flying bodies by an atmosphere of Avid of about thirty yards or more,

principle, which they attract from the

nizance.

412
Rer. Mr. Corinouls on Gravity.

(June 1, air, that I may now venture on the ac- cible impellent of himself; and the wind tion and use of the principle in the flight losing the resisting principle (which that of birds,-a very important point in the fiuid, discoverable to be the universal theory of natural motions and causes, cementive, certainly is) in the line of his and a fact analogous to, and explanatory passage, opens a way to him. Indeed, of, still greater phevonena in nature. ibe mutual attraction of the principle

This act in birds dillers widely in its which the air brings, and the bird, is sa cause from the common idea of it, as much quicker and grealer as the wind arising from the mutual repercussion of brings it spontaneously to him, that lie the air and the wings of birds.

difference of flying with or agaiost a moThe whole constitution of a bird forms derate wind is very little. a machine, adapted solely, then clearly But it is observable in the kite, and in understood, to the acquisition and use all instances of birds' fight, that the acof the principle which litts projected bo- tion of the wings confers a great power dies: and they must exclude the air to fly. This action also accords with the from nearly the whole of their frames, properties of the abore fluid principle, and from any action but that of form- and with other means; for the quicking a base or fulcrun of resistance be. ened fight of birds generally does not hind then: for their structure, consi- occur sinultaneously with the shaking dered in operation upon simple air, is of the wings, but afterwards; and they rotally opposite to flight in it

, which put their bodies into a posture to take will be shown at large bercaster. The the advantage of the floating and prospeed and force of birds' fight demands pulsive principle with which the wings a principle capable of much stronger and have supplied them: pigeons, hawks in varied effects, and to have the air's nc- pursuit, and rooks, when in low regions tion altered, and its interference near of the air, are exceptions; they use contheir bodies cut off. For eagles, and timual agitation : but all the soaring birds some other birds, at their greatest ener- conform to the above modes. gies, will dart near a hundred yards with From the above detail the means of almost the speed of a well drain arrow. flight appear to depend on four points; Their size and swiftness would require the projectile, or neutral electrie fluid tons of elastic force to effect it in simple in the air; the attraction between the unarranged air; and if the air resisted bird and it; the dispositions of air before their rush, as it does bodies in common, and behind the bird; and perlaps the it would crush and destroy them. There pressure of air upon the sphere of prinfore they must effect a particular dispo- ciple around the bird should be added. sition of it for their passage.

Conceire, then, the bird in the act of But let ibe souring kite be again con- flight; be has an atmospheric covering templated in bis rin, ibere \e exbibits of attracted fluid, all over lis body and the plainest and :nost beautiful instance wings ; then his weight is nothing, as apo of the process of flight.

pears by projectile effects: but how rises He continues a progress of ten yards his progress? Part of it occurs by the per second, often for the space of in ini- mutual attraction of his body, and that Dute or more, by one agitation of the fluid in the air before him, and an added wing, of perhaps not an ounce repercus, force occurs by the expansion of the fluid sive force; and if he moves in a ring of when it has passed the bulbous parle a hundred yards diameter, his progress of his body, by the body's heat and for a full hundred yards of it, is against the pressure of the air behind upon it, the current of the wind, which often and the narrowing rear of the bird's Llows froin three to six yards per second body. Then the spring of the expanding against him. Yet he keeps up nearly an principle, in the manner of steam, upm equal speed there without any ivechanic the air behind, sends the bird forward: iteffort.

deed, it is the same that expands in stenm. This circumstance proves the two for- If ile bird wants more principle that mer observations, viz. that a bird must the mere attraction of his body supplies

, cxclude the action of the air from his and more beat to expand it (by their Hight, and effect a particular disposition common quantities of which alone kites ofit for his passage, which plainly appears and strong birds can move long) the to be accomplished thus: 'the wind does rings are used to separate it tiom the celnot hinder his speed, because he cxtracts lateral air, by brushing it; and what is the greater quantity of projectile fluid acquired is added to the surrounding fron it with more case, as spoutaneously collection. By exercise too, the action otiered, and converts it into a more fors and heat of the muscular and vascular 1816.] Suggestion for a Bible with new References.

413 adapted systems of the bird are increased, might be considered by his learned sineand by that effect the duid becomes more cure brethren as a novel and dangerous sublined and elastic, and the air more example of diligence in his vocation. resistive to its impulse by the law of Bedford Row, April 8, 1816. T. Auids, which, by constitution, super-resist increased impingements. Thus is MR. EDITOR, the minde of birds' Aight made apparent. THOUGH it is most probable that Additional effects on electric principles you have received, ere this, an account are conceivable, but for the present this of the shock of an earthquake felt at shall suffice. But if any one finds a dif- this island on the morning of the 2d Pes ficulty to overcome the rooted ideas of bruary last, I cannot refrain from transflighc by the air and wings in mutual re- mitting you a short statement of its efpercussion, let thero lay a bird before fects. chem, move his wings in the mode and The 1st February was perfectly calm angle the bird uses them in fliglie; let and all nature serene and still, the sea as them consider the effect of the air upon smooth as glass, the wind S. W. On the surface of the wing uplifted; that the morning of the 2d about 124 o'clock, effect will appear to tend to depress the shocks of an earthquake were felt: the bird's body, and to send him a little for- sensation was most tremendous; the ward; but the downward pull, though whole island, houses, rocks, and castles, it tend to lift the body, being more for- shook from their very foundation. There cible and quick, is in an angle to send the were several shocks at this bour, some bird twice as much backward. There people say they felt twelve or thirteen, fore, the system of the bird and common and that the continuance was at least ten air are totally different and unadapted to minutes; others assert, it continued but each other.

three minutes, some more, some less. (To be concluded in our next.) Every thing appeared to be in trembling

agitation, and as if nature were divided MR. EDITOR,

against herself-one part seemed to be IN the first spare corner of your use, disputing with another; all was motion, ful miscellany allow me to suggest a de- not a green leaf was still

, not a mountaiii sideratum in the theologian's library; could raise its majestic head above the that is, an edition of the bible, with a rest of the earth, and boast of its seo reference from each verse or text to every curity, nor was a cave sheltered from its English homily or sermon that has been effects. From this time a perfect calm published upon it; this without other pervaded all nature, till 6 o'clock in the note or explanation, would, to the bi- morning, when the approach of another blical student or private reader, afford shock could be foretold by the noise; the best means of solving his doubts or and in less than half a minnte three assisting his inquiries.

shocks were felt, but in no respect so I am aware, that, in many instances, tremendous as the former; these last the text is considered as a mere peg continued a minute a half; every thing whereon to hang some jejune paraphrase became again one succession of motion, or flimsy moral essay; but that should and all remained doublful as to what not operate to their exclusion, as they would be the end. At seven o'clock might occasionally be resorted to with the clouds collected in every direction; advautage, although names of established the mountains were hidden from our credit would command a greater portion sight ;--the rain descended in torrents, of attention.

and continued during the remainder of the As utility would be the only notive day to pour down with such vehemence, and reward of so laborious an under- that it was scarcely possible to venture taking, I despair of its being effected by out. Feb. 3, wind W. very fine morning, any of the numerous tribe of authors, the sky perfectly clear, and all nature who acquire that name by works as little again serene and still. original and less meritorious than the Thus far I have given you a simple reone I would suggest; but I see no rea- lation of what we felt; the effects in son why it might not be compleated by this island were but trifting. TheEgreja some reverend librarian of one of thé de Alonte," or Mount Church, and the numerous theological repositories at the Lgreja de Santo Antonio," were the universities or in London, with compara- only places of worship that were damaged; tively little labor or expensc-“having all the walls of the former were completely appliances and means to boot,” unless he splitten. At St. Amaro and Santa Crui, should be apprehensive of setting, what tive villages in the interior, several houses 414 Earthquake at Madeira--Chichester Savings Bank. (June 1, were thrown down; and in Funchal its years and a half, the particulars of which effects are visible in some places. The are briefly expressed in their circula consequences were to make the catholics bandbill, as follows: of the Romish church very religious all “ In most cases the poor find it diffithe next day, which happened (very cult to obtain interest for the little sarluckily) to be a dia Santo; the day fol- ings which they may collect: and somelowing that, bowever, they thought all times, by trusting their property in utwas past, and therefore prayers were safe hands, they lose all the labour of 1100 wavted, and so returned to their usual their lives, which is the occasion of very inode of life.

cruel distress to them. Even this is nice It still remains doubtful as to where the worst--for by discouraging iodustry this phænomenon orignated : some sup- and prudence, such misfortunes produce pose in the Western Islands, for a vessel still wider and more lasting suffering. arrived a few days ago that felt it off Comfort and independence are the reSt. Michael's, and the people on board ward of labour; but it cannot be esimagined that they had struck on a pected that a man will toil for the reward rock: some say at Lisbon; and a report unless he is secure of enjoying it. From has even gone about that it was at Co- these considerations we bave joined topenhagen, but the reason for this asser- gether to form a little society for receittion I do not know, as nothing has ar- ing small suins froin.the poor at interest, rived that could bring news from that “ For the sake of security, we all and quarter.

each of us engage for the safe repayment I cannot forbear mentioning one cir- of the money put into our hands. We cumstance, though perhaps you may be propose to resuse no suins however well acquainted with it. At the Egreja small; and when they amount to 205. to de Monte there is an image of the Virgin allow interest on them of five per cent.Mary which they call a Senoru de Monte. We shall not receive more than fifty The poor ignorant natives are made to pounds from any one person. Erery believe that wherever this graven image one will be at liberty to draw out any is, no harm can happen : they affirm part, or the whole of what is due to him, that had it (or she as they say) been in when he pleases.-A receipt, or a noie lhe town, that is, brought down from of hand, will be given for every sum the church and placed here, at the time taken, on the party applying paying for of the food last year, that flood could not the stamp." have done any kind of damage; but as it To this it may be added that they was not here, many houses, and bridges, have now on their books upwards of and walls, and banks, and hedges, and 3,0001. of which the greatest part being ditches, and whatever stood in the pas- invested in the navy five per cents, they suge of the waters, was carried away. have been hitherto enabled to pay inteThe deluge brought down from the rest at the rate of five per cent. without -tnountains whole beds of stone of an in- sustaining any material loss. J. M. credible size, and with inconceivable Chichester, Muy 10, 1810. force. Notwithstanding the great virtue of the said image, though it was in the church at the time, it could not prevent the effects of the earthquake from reach- IF a genuine portrait of Alexander, of ing its residence. I would ask these Homer, or of Alfred, be regarded as a people why did the earthquake visit the desideratum in the history of art, and in favorite island of this senoru at all? or the bistory of man, so is that of Shalwhat is the reason that harın can touch speare; for thoughí The English Poet is the island if her power be so great? comparatively a modern, yet it is as diffiFunchal, Madeira, Mercus. cult and doubtful to substantiate the March 8, 1816.

authenticity of a portrait of him, as of

the ancient Grecian bero, or pret, or of MR. EDITOR,

the more estimable Englisli monarch AS in some of your late magazines you There is neither proof nor intimation thal have noticed the recent institution of Shakspeare ever sat for a picture; and it Savings Banks at Southampton, Winches- must be admitted that the whole host of ter, and other places, it is but doing jus- presumed portraits “coine in such ques tice to the city of Chichester to mention iionable shapes," and with such equiva that a bank of this kind bas been esta- cal pedigrees, that suspicion or dishelic blished there, under the firm of four geo- attach to all.' Not so the Monuncular tlemen of that place, for more than three Busę at Stratford :, this appeals

MR. BRITTON ON THE MONUMENTAL BEST

OF SHAKSPEARE,

to our

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