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390 Experiments with Corked Bottles sunk in the Ocear. (Jutel, Campbell in sinking a bottle in the ocean.

ai). water. I em: tied the bottle, corked it I have frequently tried it on board of again as tight as possible, and died over inen-of-war many years ago, and round the cirk a piece of leather; I also cuta that, at fifty fathoms deep hy the lead notch in the cork, and stok it as briorg Hine, the cork, though well secured, was to the saine depth. The bolile came up driven into the bottle, which was sull of full : in the leather covering of the cork water when brought up by the line. I was a hole, as if mad: with the periat si have tried it with twine tied across the a knife or some sunrp instrument, and bottom of the cork and round the neck the cork had been turned, so that the of the bottle, at the same depin: it came small end was uppermost, and the ucich ap full of water, with the cork cut in was inside the bottle: by which it was two by the force of the water upon the evidently demonstrated, that the pres twine, and the twine cut also. I tried it sure of the water had not only funceda another time afterwards, at nearly the the cork in both instances, but in the same depth, with a piece of a leather lulier had burst a hole in the leather glove over the cork, and secured with also; and the expansion of the wate: twine round the neck of the bottle, and bad operated so as firmly to cork the the neck only, with the cork and twine, bottle in its ascent to the surface in both came up with the live.--I have no idea instances. The botile being again esipof the possibility of the salt water pene- tied, I corked it, and cut the cork # trating the pores of glass; but conceive smooth, and bound a halspenny over it that the weight of the water at that with leatier; I then sunk it to the same depth, if it does not force the cork in, depth (100 or 120 fathoms) and it came and fill the bottle, will force in the up empty, nothing seeming to be dism sides with its pressure. My experiments placed or operated upon by the pres were made in the Atlantic, near the sure. I was preparing to try the expebanks of Newfoundland, in the month of riment with a line equal to 200 fathoms June, 1775.

W. SHARP. in length, when a breeze of wind sprung April 26, 1816.

up, and prevented that or any further

experiinent; and though I have since MR. EDITOR,

three times crossed the Atlantic Ocean, I BEG leave to add a few facts to the I have never had an opportunity of te extracts inade by your correspondent peating them. Merchant vesseis selW. M. Restas in your publication for dom like to lose time in such inquiries, April, p. 212) froin the Rev. Mr. Camp- and it is only in a calm that passeugers bell's Journey through South Africa, bave the opportunity of amusing themwhereby it will appear that water enters selves: but vessels sent out for the purinto bottles sunk to certain depths in pose of discoveries, might devote a day the ocean, by the mouth only, and not to experiments of this kind, ibe result of otherwise.

which would he interesting. It is diffi The time since the experiments were cult to make the experiments, esceft in made is such as to efface from my me- a calm, and even then in such deep wamory the cause that gave rise to them: ter the swell of the sea is great, and no doubt many such have been made at there is considerable difficulty in getting different times and by different persons, a bottle down so deep as one hundred but none have met my eye bill those in and twenty fathoms before the ship bras your publication for this month. The considerably shifted her place. The facts which come within my knowledge candid reader will admit that the water are as follow:

can enter only by the mouth of the bote On a voyage from Jamaica, in Novem- tle, and that by forcing in the abstracber, 1787, in his Majesty's packet the tion. How far a much greater depth Duke of Cumberland, of which one St. might crush in the sides of the bottle, Aubyn was commander for that voyage, or force in a piece of metal at the mouth, being becalmed off the west end of St. must be left to future experiments. Those Domingo, I corked a common empty here descrived being made by a youth quart boule in a secure manner, and in search of antusement, much accuracy sunk it with the common sea-lead to the cannot be expected, but though inade depth of fifty fathoms. On drawing it thirty years ago, and the circumstauces up, there was no alteration observable. not noted at the time, the general qut. I sunk it again with the deep sea lead to line is as firmly fixed in my mind as if 100 or 120 fathoms, and, to my great the experiment had been made but, as surprise, the bottle came up full, and many days, corked as firmly as when put into the Hackney, April 17, 1816. swyd

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1816.) Case of the High Bailiff of Westminster.

392 MR. EDITOR,

action. Thus a further expense of 5251. FROM your local situation in the city was incurred. of Westminster, you will probably feel The preceding allegations were also

disposed to give that publicity, which substantiated before another committee your widely-diffused miscellany affords, of the liouse, who, by their report dated to the tollowing statement of the claims Soth June, 1813, having distinctly now of a meriiorious officer of that city to be ticed the two separate grourds son fuch Teimbursed by Parliament for losses sus- the two distinct claims of the high bailiff tained in the service of the public. There stood, namely, the 1,569l. 10s. Idi inis every expectation that the appeal will curred previous to the passing the act, be successful; for, with all our just rage and the 525l. incurred subsequent therefor economy, we are abundantly rich to to, were pleased to recommend both-of be jost, though far too poor to be gene- them to the favourable consideration of

T. Parliament.

In 1814 an election took place under A Statement of the Facts on which the very peculiar circumstances of absence

High Bailiff of Westminster founds of the person proposed, and leaving the his Claim on the Justice and Liberality high bailiff absolutely without redress.us of Parliament.

to the expenses incurred. This occaIn the year 1806 Mr. Morris pur- sioned an additional expense of 300l. chased the situation of high bailiff, up

The reports of the committees before to which time the expenses of elections alluded to satisfactorily establish the nehaving been invariably defrayed by the cessity imposed upon the bigh bailiff of candidates, the price giren was of course erecting hustings and employing poltwithout reference to an unexpected, and clerks; and bis efforts for conducting at that time unadmitted, liability to those the elections at the least possible expense, expenses on the part of the returning considering the peculiar circumstanees officer. In November 1806 and May 1807 in which Westminster is placed, involttuvo severely-contested elections took ing no precedent for other boroughs, and pince, cach of them lasting the full pe- containing no building capable of reriod of fifteen days, and under circum- ceiving the votes of upwards of 14,000 stances of peculiar warmth of competi- electors, he humbly hopes the above tion, requiring the utmost diligence and plain recapitulation of a few facts will circumspection on the part of the return supersede the necessity of any laboured ing officer. On each of these occasions appeal on his part to be remunerated for the claim of the high bailiff to be repaid the heavy expense he has incurred in the his expenses was resisted by one of the service of the public, and which his officandidates; the high bailift, therefore, cial emoluments, as well as his private pursued his legal remedy, when the point fortune, are wholly unequal to bear. of law was, after repeated arguments,

Abstract of Loss. decirled against him. This determination Previous to passing the act of occasioned a loss to the high bailiff of

51 Geo. III. ...L.2569 10 1,5691. 10s. 2d., including the costs of Subsequent thereto, and in

cluded in report the proceedings at law. With a view to the future protection

Subsequent to report of the high bailiff, and on substantiating

L.2394 10 2 the prec-ding facts before a coinmittee of the House of Commons, an act was MR. EDITOR, passed in 1811, assiinilating elections for AS you appear to me most' readily 'to Westminster to those for counties, by give place in your excellent miscellany miaking the candidates liable to the ex. to every communication which can in penses.

any way tend to the public benefit, I On the general election in October venture to trouble you with a few lines 1812, the two members returned resisted on a subject' which, if thus, as it were, the high hailiff's claim to be repaid the forced upon the attention of parents, expenses of that election; when, upon may have the effect of preserving inang bringing bis actions under the act for the infánt lives -! allude to the most bane recovery of those expenses, he obtained ful and pernicious, practice, in which a verdict as to one moiety against one most nionthly nurses, and many servants mertiber, --- hot the other having satisfac Whio haveë die care of infánts, indige, torily.cstablisited that he was not a'can- of secretly admitiseering of rates for the didate within the meaning of the act, the purpose of composing the infant to sleep, high bailiff was norisuited in th:13 Patterswers in other words, of saving them

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992 On the Danger of administering Opiates to Infants.

[June], selves as much trouble and disturbance your correspondent, who signs laimselí as possible. Tois evil, which cannot be À PROVINCIAL SCHOOLMASTER, sbord too strongly reprobuted, is much more have written in such an unusual and unprevalent ihan is commonly imagined, necessary style of severity. Had te and is very frequently attended with confined' his sarcasins to Mr. Kidd, I fatal effects. The opiate most easily ex- should probably not have thought it ne hibited is syrup of poppies; but Godfrey's cessary to notice them; but as he has cordiw, and several others well known ventured to extend them to the illastrito most monthly purses, are frequently ous Porson, I should deem silence cal. employed. I have been led to address pable. Accustomed as I have always you on this subject, in consequence of been to venerate the name of this great having witnessed the effects of a secret mail, I could not but feel astonished ta dose of syrup of poppies in my own see with what precipitate confidence the family, which, but for the fortunate cir- PROVINCIAL SCHOOLMASTEP assails binn, cumstance of having been administered From certain parts of his letter I am led in an aperient mixture, would have ine- to suspect that his acquaintance with vitably been attended with a fatal termic the writings of Porson is very limited. nation I have since this circumstance This should operate as a caution to tbose conversed with several medical men, who mistake assertion for proof. Really who all concur in opinion, that this prac- when we call to mind the light which tice is the cause of the death of more Porson has thrown upon the various infants than all others put together, more paths of criticism—the many passages particularly when the death is sudden. which he has incontrovertibly corrected, The

symptoms in an infant are, great which former critics had either relinlanguor, stupor, leaden sleep frequently quished in despair, or still more cordisturbed, convulsion, and death. The rupted-the unassailable canons which remedy is, upon the first appearance of he' lias laid down in his incomparable the languor and stupor, to administer preface to the Hecuba--surely every the most efficient nieans of clearing the reader will acknowledge that he has done bowels without violence, for which pur- enough to hand down his name as a pose a clyster should, among other ap- critic to the latest posterity? "I need plications, never be omitted: medical not,” says Dr. Butler, in his letter to the advice, however, should always be in- Rev. Charles James Blomfield, “I am stantly resorted to, as a few hours may sure, bear my most sincere testimony de productive of fatal effects.-I can to the transcendant merits of that Coscarcely imagine that those who have lossus of critical learning now no more. been addicted to the practice of which I None of the elder or yourger members am now complaining, could be aware of of his college, none of his most zealous the baneful consequences likely to en- advocates, of his most ardent admirers, sue; but it is impossible to censure with or most attached disciples, can more too much vehemence the temerity, which deeply feel, or more willingly acknowcould lead a nurse of her own authority ledge their respect for his profound to employ any drug in the food or medi. learning, his keen discrimination, his un. cine of an infant, decidedly deleterious failing accuracy, and his sagacious judgin its nature, and which, in a quantity inent.' Let the SCHOOL MASTER now exceeding a few drops, would occasion hear what is the opinion of Mr. J.H. death. I trust that the wide circulation Monk, the successor of Porson, respect. which your insertion of this letter will ing the merits of his predecessor. " In give to this subject, will, on the one hac arte critica exercenda ducem et auband, tend to render parents more spicem sumsi Porsonum, qui cum ingewatchful over their infants; and on the nio, doctrina, ac judicio ultra cetero other, may deter those who have bither- mortales floruerit, cum quæcunque ad to, from any motive, committed this Græcæ linguæ orthographiam, structuabominabile and inexcusable outrage, ram, et universain indolem spectarent, from persevering in a practice so fraught unus omnium qui post literas renatas with mischief.

D. P. vixerunt, videtur optime percepisse."April 7, 1816.

(Sce the preface to Mr. Monk's Hippolytis.)

The PROVINCIAL SCHOOLMASTER seems I OBSERTE that, in page 8 of your to be one of those men who measure Magazine for February, mention is made the merit of an author by the bulk of of Mr. Kidd's Remains of Professor Por. his works. Hence it is no wonder that

It is a matter of regret to me that he should censure Porson, of whom it

MR. EDITOR,

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1816.)

Professor Porson and Mr. Kidd vindicated.

393

to

has been truly said: “ pauca quidem in- ries: he felt pleasure in the search, and genii sui pignora reliquit, sed egregia, satisfaction in the vindication, of this sed admiranda." The following is onė rare article. If detected in the slightest of his remarks: “ The mode of the pub- error, he would thank the individual lication, (Mr. Kidd's) the conceit of the who pointed it out, immediately amend editor, the confusion of the extracts, the it, and publicly confess it.” Is this any obscure brevity of the notes, and the proof of his moroseness? “ It is not our musty quaintress of the subjects in con- intention," as is well observed in that troversy, were not, in my estimate of the noble review of the Correspondence of mingled merits and demerits of the vo Wakefield and Fox, Museum Criticum, lume, redeemed by the insulated gleams vol. i., p. 397, compose a panegyric of genius and of wit; though I see on Mr. Porson; but as the effect of the enough to lament that such prodigality present publication has been to draw the of talent should have been so muddled attention of the world to his failings, away in pedantry, clouded by a morose cominon justice requires that some menness habitually cherished and encou tion should also be made of his virtues, raged, and, worse than all, stupefied into We shall observe, then, that he posdrunkenness, as it too frequently was, in sessed two qualities, which, though they che stye of sensuality.”

are not the sole, are yet very essential The beginning of this sentence will be requisites in the formation of a great noticed hereafter; my business at pre- character--an utter contempt for money sent is with the latter part of it. To and a religious attachment to truth. It accuse Porson, then, of moroseness, is to is from this latter quality that his writings contradict whatever is known by those derive their peculiar excellence. He is who were furnished with opportunity of one of those few authors on whom the observing him by close inspection. From reader may rely with implicit deference, them we have learned, that in society who think it no less culpable to advancé Porson's good temper was notorious, his what they do not know to be true, than urbanity engaging, and his conversation what they know to be false. So deterwithout reserve. Add to this, that the mined is he to be accurate, that he never many communications on points of cri- relaxes his vigilance for a moment; he ticism, which he gave to his friends with withholds no arguments because they the utmost readiness and good humour, are at variance with his own opinions ; bear ample contradiction to any chargé he deduces no conclusions which the of moroseness. In proof of this asser

facts themselves will not strictly wartion, see Mr, Blomfield's edition of Es- rant; he makes no assertions which he chylus, Mr. Monk's Hippolytus, Dr. has not duly weighed, and of the correctMaltby's Thesaurus, and other publica- ness of which he is not fully convinced.” tions which have made their

appearance

Such is the illustrious character which since the lamented decease of the 'pro- the SCHOOLMASTER handles so splenetifessor. “ He possessed a heart,” says cally! Let us now briefly consider his Mr. Kidd in his preface, p. 16, "filled usage of Mr. Kidd. We have already with sensibility; he was at all times wil seen that he talks of the “ conceit of ling to assist his fellow-labourers; and the editor, the confusion of his extracts, no scholar ever consulted him who did the obscure brevity of his notes." Upon not leave him instructed and delighted." the general merit of the work I must --It would be useless to deny that these confess that my opinion differs widely brighter parts of his character were from his own; and I am sure that every shaded by some infirmities; and that he admirer of Porson will be happy to see was addicted to immoderate drinking, the scattered rays of genius thus brought however deeply to be regretted, cannot together. The SchooLMaster, however, be denied. Willing to make this con has some reason to complain of the cession to the fullest extent to the “ confusion of the extracis," but the SCHOOLMaster, I beg leave to ask him notes seem to me to be sufficiently long. why, as he has brought into view the The great merit of the disciples of the known failings of Porson, he makes no

Porsonian school lies in expressing their mention of his virtues? Does he not ideas with conciseness. Mr. Kidd cerknow that the professor was an inflexible tainly exposes himself to a charge of lover of truth, and had an utter con conceit; but his accuser ought to have tempt for money, “ Truth,” as Mr. Kidd brought forward some proofs of the misery justly remarks, " was considered by raculous silliness of mind, of which I Richard Porson as the basis of excel- know no instances. lence; it was the object of all his inqui I am very glad to find that he is

New MONTHLY MAC.-No. 29. VOL. V.

3 E

[Jude 1,

394

On Experiments upon Living Animals. pleased with Porson's well-known ver roots at once. Can we seriously imagine sion into Greck iambics of the ballad, that the beneficent Author of all, whose Three Children sliding on the Ice, &c.: tender mercies are over all bis works, here my sentiments are congenial with would have made the practice of cruelty his: and I beg him to accept my sincere necessary to the attainment of usefui thanks for producing the very curious knowledge; that lie who has enforced passage from a poem entitled De Lucte the practice of benevolence in every Nutricum.

alice.

possible way upon us, by the dictates of I cannot close these remarks without ihe heart, the precepts of his law, and. observing, that the acuteness which the above all, bis own example should not criticisms of that able scholar, Mr. Do withstanding have established cases in bree, display in the present volume, which the violation of his own law of crentes in my mind an earnest wish that love becomes not merely allowable, but the day is fast approaching when bis pub- an absolute act of duty; in one worl, lication of Porson's notes on Aristo- that morality, whose author is God, dicphanes, joined, I sincerely hope, to bis tates one way, and utility, no less the own, shall make its proinised appear result of combinations foreseen and ap

N. N. pointed by the same God, points out Feb. 28, 1816.

another diametrically opposite? No,

Mr. Editor--though I am no anatonist MR. EDITOR,

or physiologist--though I may be of the A CORRESPONDENT in your num- number of those to whom your correber for March, p. 101, who subscribes spondent applies the adage, Ne sulor himself C. C. R., has very properly ani- ultra crepidum-I must à priori conclude, madverted upon the harsh and unjustifia- that the Creator of all things has sint ble terms in which IM MISERICORS(No.24) made the tortures of one part of his has spoken of Dr. Johnson.--While I creation necessarily subservient to the am ready to allow that Johnson was not bappiness and well-being of another; without his prejudices, and that liis mane that the knowledge acquired by dissecner of enforcing his opinions was not tion of living aniinals inight have been always the most decorous, I can never gained in other ways less revoltion to admit that his name and opinion are of humanity, and that of course all expeno weight in a disputed question; or riments of the above description are that, because he may have been under needless, and therefore abominable acts the influence of prejudice in some pare of cruelty. ticulars and on some subjects, he is Your correspondent has brought for therefore not deserving of consideration ward a formidable list of persons as in any. llappily the question in which sanctioning by their example the prachis name has been introduced, viz. the tice for which he contends. In reply I propriety of instituting experiments on must observe, that no authority can living animals, is one in which we do sanction a wicked action; that their not require the sanction of his great au conduct does not prove the necessity of thority to enable us to decide in the having recourse to such experiments, negative. It is one in which all the best since it is still a matter of dispute whefeelings of our nature take a part; it is ther all they learned and imparted to one in which, if I am not mistaken, the the world might not have been acquired verdict which humanity pronounces will in other ways; lastly, that wea wholly be confiriped by the voice of sober rea- given up to the pursuit of abstract truth £on.

are ready to take any course that may IMMISERICORs.commences with an as lead to the attainment of their objectsertion which appears to me to deter- that "their humanity is ever at their mine the question in a way exactly the horizon," the end being in all cases sufreverse of that which he adopts: he says ficient with them to justify the pięans. that, “ however questionable the moris.' The name of Boerhaave, indeed, I am lity of practising experiments upon living sorry to see upon bis list: the “ surly animals inay be, its utility can be moralist” has written a life of him which doubted by none but the ignorant"- would have led me to form of him better that is, in other words, he defends the expectations; and I would still venture practice on the score of utility alone. to indulge a hope that his name may Its morality he thinks questionable; at have been inserted through mistake or least he allows that competent persons misconception. We know that Boermay deem it questionable. This conces- haave, the firm believer of revealed resion, I think, cuts the question by the ligion, was once, from some misrepre

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