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Mr. Dougall on the Ancient Language of Malta. 399 rope, probably by the Phænicians. In this term bas long been entirely supits origin it signifies nothing more than a planted in Malta, as in Asia, by Sultán, man who cultivates the ground, an inha- or Sulton, an Arabic title for a despotic bitant of the country, one whose abode lord or master, exercising absolute domiis in the rude uncultivated parts of the nion, on whose will and caprice depend earth. It is composed of two terms, the the well-being or the misery of bis subimport of which is coufounded by the jects. The word Malek is found in the orthography of the Greeks and their fol- subterraneous inscription already menlowers. These terms are bar and barr, tioned relative to the son of Battus: but the first signifying in the Syriac a son, it seems to have fallen into disuse on the and the last a field, a trace of land, a invasion of Malta by the Saracens, who wood or forest. In the place of bar, the introduced the term Sultán, as indeed Maltese now use byn for a son, like the much more suitable to the administration Hebrew ben : but barr is still employed of oriental than of occidental sovereigns. to denote an uncultivated field, a tract The strict import of the title is now, of wood-land, a wilderness, or desert. however, disregarded by the Maltese. Agreeably to these significations in who employ it not only in the phrase Malta, a peasant, a rustic boor, is styled Sultán tul İhud, the King of the Jews, byn yl barr, a son of the rude country; but in reference to every European in the same way as the wild pigeon is prince of even the most restricted aucalled hamyn yl barr, the dove of the thority. desert. The practice of the orientals in Mammon still exists in Maltese in the employing the term son with another form of myn-munae, composed of the presubstantive used adjectively, is well position myn, from, or out of, and munae, known : hence a son of the country, a provisions, goods of any sori, richies laid son of the desert, a son of the sea, signify up in store. The expression from or out in oriental idioins a peasant, a rude un- of riches, er divitiis, is wholly oriental civilised man, a mariner. That such was for richies in general. the meaning of the Greek barbaros is evi The place set apart for the public dent from this circumstance, that in the worship of the Mahometans we call a Ethiopic version of the Old Testament, mosque or mosk. The term in Maltese wherever the term occurs in the Septua- is myskitae, similar to the Arabic mesgid; gint, it is rendered by one expressing a and this pronunciation is more or less villager, a peasant, an inhabitant of rude preserved in various European languages. uncultivated parts of the country. In The Spaniards, for instance, who had for the llebrew alsu bar-bara signifies a son centuries the most intimate intercourse of the desert.

with the Mahoinetans, pronounce the Various names and terms conveyed to word mesquita, the Portuguese the same, us through the Greek language have by the Italians it is softened into moschea, their proper signification in the Maltese. and by the French into mosquée. Hence Thus Cadmus, or more correctly Kad- the impropriety of the English name is mus, the reputed introductor of alpha- apparent: it ought to be written and betic characters into Greece, may have sounded moskee. Connected with this obtained his name from the Phænician term is myslem, or islum, a Malometan, kadm, the bearer of any thing: and in or Turk, in Maltese. Malta khaddem still means to carry, to Mysterium is usually derived from the bring, to import. Cadınus may also have Greek verb revew, to instruct, or initiate, been so called in allusion to his antiquity, in the secret rites of religion: but this being the earliest importer of the alpha- derivation is indirect; whereas in the bet: for in Maltese kadim and khadim Maltese mystur, signifying any thing signify the most ancient, o: tbe first. hidden or concealed, is regularly formed

Korban, a Syriac terin used in the from the verb satar, to hide : and from New Testament, (Mark vii. 11,) on the original Phænician both Greeks and which commentators have expressed va- Maltese probably received the term. rious opinions, still exists in Maltese in Raka, in the serion on the mount, the forin of khorbán or khorbyn, although (Matt. v. 22,) has exercised the ingenow seldoin employed, signifying an nuity of many learned men. Castalio oblation, a sacrifice, a thing consecrated renders it by balatro, a buffoon; by to religious service.

Wakefeld it is translated vile man, or Mulek, in Maltese, as in llebrew and contemptible wretch, a signification very its kindred dialects, signifies a king duly expressive of the term in Maltesc. In constituted and ordained to rule accords that dialect rakh means to spit; and to ing to certain established laws. But spit upon a person has always, above all

400 Origin of Drawing for King and Queen on Twelfth Day. (Jone), in the East, been regarded as the most Tôr saadav åşerñ mati di ortista. energetic expression of contempt and Πράεσι δειχε λόγοις, εργασί τ' επωφελίμοισι. abhorrence. ' In this meaning of raka,

PYTHAG, in Aur. Carra. the Maltese agrees with the Hebrew. “ If to spit upon you," said a person

MR. EDITOR, some time ago, to one whose baseness of

THE writer of an article on improving conduct merited every indignity, were

the condition of the poor, in your Maganot to shew that I noticed you, 'I would zine for February has ventured to subdo it."

join a remark to the prejudice of an inIn the beginning of Genesis (iii. 7) it is stitution which many of his clerical bre stated, in our common version, that our thren consider as the glory and boast af first parents formed garments by sewing the British nation. The remark is, together the leaves of the fiy-tree; an

“That the warm friends of the esta operation requiring implements and skill, blished church and of its interests, catneither of which they could possess.

not but regret when any of their brethren Now the original Hebrew term tufru is connect themselves with the sectaries for still preserved in the Maltese dafri, sig- the sake of advantages which it is pre nifying they intertwined or interwove; sumed are equally attainable within the a species of manufacture perfectly suit- pale of the established church,” Such able to the condition of the first of human a remark I believe every candid and beings, in the commencement of their liberal mind will deem worthy of aniexistence as common mortals.

puadversion. It may be true in fact, (To be continued.)

though not verbally correct, that “ ja

excellent Bible Society exists already in MR. EDITOR,

the bosom of the establishment-tbe Sos THE insertion of the following ex- ciety for Promoting Christian Knowtracts in answer to the question of B.S. L. ledge—in connection with which a bene in your number for February respecting all his fortune in the distribution of bi

volent person may, if he pleases, exbaust the origin of Twelfth day will oblige April 3, 1816.

C.U.

bles and testaments.” But those " advantages," supposed to be “s equally ar

tainable in connection with this latter The origin of the practice of drawing association, can only be of a local, parfor king and queen over the twelfth cake. tial, and very limited description. Howon this day is involved in obscurity, like

ever veverable and useful this society that of many other customs of apparently may be in the opinion of a pious churchgreater ‘moment. Some trace it to a man, it is regarded by much more than play of the Roman children, who drew half the christian world as instituced for beans at the end of the Saturnalia for promoting heresy, schism, sectariun prix the same purpose; and this classical ciples,--tending to destroy the unity of origin is countenanced by the amuse- Christ's HOLY CATHOLIC CHRcu upon ment having prevailed in our universi- earth! And since it is formed excluties, where the decision was made by sively of those who are“ warm friends beans found in the cake.

of the established church and its inteOthers imagine in it a faint resem- rests," who render all its exertions sub, blance of the offerings made to the new

servient to their own views and sencia born Saviour by the Magi, or wise men of ments, how small a part of the Peothe East, of gold, frankincense, and TESTANT communion can be expected to myrrh ; and this opinion seems proba- give it their patronage, and contribute ble, as at the ceremony performed in this to the funds of such an institution?

Becountry annually on this day the monarch sides, the Society for Promoting Chriseither personally or by his chamberlain tian Knowledge is far from being unimakes a similar offering.

versally patronised within the pale of The old calendars notice that on the the established church, especially sinca vigil of this day kings were elected hy it has adopted and given its aid in disse beans, and the day was called the festiininating the unscriptural and Pelagian sal of kings.

notions of Bishop Tomline on the subIn the time of King Alfred the twelve ject of regeneration. A society of this days after the nativity of our Saviour kind is therefore chiefly calculated for were declared to be festivals.

usefulness in the particular cop munion The festivities of Twelfth day are still Sce two recent publications by the Rev. kept up at Rome, in France, and in John Scott, vicar of North Ferriby; and the Spain. "The day is called the Feast of Rev. Mr. Biddulph, minister of St. James's, Kings.

Bristol.

TWELFTH DAY.

one

sec.

1816.] On a Remark respecting the British & Foreign Bible Society. 401 to which it belongs. And as for its ope- tion from the Romish communion. In rations abroad, the state of its finances such a case it must be admitted that if will necessarily render them less exten- one body of christians would be justified sive than its' worthy members could in taking the Bible as their only rule of wish. But the British and Foreigu Bible fuilh und practice, and in acting accordSociety, being formed on different prin- ing to their own interpretation of its ciples, and embracing but one object, doctrines and precepts, the same priviwhich equally meets the desires and leges must remain to every other who see pragers of all true christians, is calcureason, from conscientious motives, to lated to unite and combine the energies embrace it. Let christians of all depo, of all-to obtain universal suppor-and, minations, then, learn to cultivate a caby the princely sum annually placed at tholic spirit. They bave but “ the disposal of its committee, to diffuse Lord," and are accountable to no other the light of truth wlierever there arc eyes in things purely spiritual. Why, then, to bebold it.

skuld they not agree to differ where In answer, then, to the question; they cannot think alike-unite with each “Why should a conscientious clergyman other for the common good—"love as or layman of the Church of England join brethren,--and so fulfil the law of the Bible Society?" every liberal, pious, Christ?" and zealous christian will undoubtedly But Clericus imagines that the “ say: Let it be done to shew that the taries in the Bible Sociely are“ his enemembers of our communion are“ ready mies"—" declared and real enemies." to every good work”--that we are sin- Some of the clergy, however, will be able cere in praying that the Lord's" way to distinguish between those who consci. may be known upon earth," and his entiously separate from the communion, saving health among all nations ;" until and those who are decided enemies of he shall “ bring into the way of truth our religious establishment. The late such as have erred and are deceived" - Rev. Mr. Lambert, a venerable minister and that, when the most effectual means of the Independent denomination in of attaining the object of our prayers are Hull, after avowing himself a Dissenter, presented, we are as much inclined as solemnly declared in a popular assembly any other body of Christians to counte- that so long as the majority of his counnance and support them. By thus act- trymen preferred the established woring in concert with other denominations ship, he would not have it laid aside, if he for the common good of mankind, the could do it by holding up his finger. established clergy will have an opportu. And if " sectaries," apprehending the nity of exemplifying the spirit of their constitution and order of the Church of Divine Master-of" displaying the sir- England to be unscriptural, were gene. tues by which they are distinguished ; rally " its professed and real enemies," and by this means, in all probability, it certainly cannot follow that they are they will conciliate the affections of the enemies of the clergy, so as to render many who have separated from their it dangerous for them to unite with such communion in consequence of some persons in works of piety and usefulness ! untwourable impression that has been If any assurance they can give to the made on their minds, and induce them contrary might tend to remove the scruto return into the bosom of the church. ples and allay the fears of CLERICUS, At any rate, it is certain, that by stand- something of this kind shall be done by ing aloof, and discovering a jealous, illi- way of conclusion. In the place where beral, and uncharitable temper, they will I now reside there is an old society of only injure the cause they profess to these “ sectaries,” calling themselves espouse and strenuously maintain. CLE “ Protestant Dissenters of the Indepenricus, however, is unwilling that any of dent Denomination.” They have lately bis brethren should connect themselves printed a concise statement of their reliwith the sectaries." --Here it cannot be gious opinions, with a view to remove improper to remind him that such invi- any misconception that might arise in dious names were once liberally be the public mind. From this pamphlet I stowed on the advocates of the Reforma- shall transcribe the following passage : tion in our own country; and perhaps “ There are in the established church be may find it of some use to consider many things of which we cordially aphow far be can be justified in casting prove. Such are the leading sentiments the same kind of odium on those reli- contained in her appointed forms of digious bodies, who merely follow the ex- vine service, and especially the principal ample of his own church in her separa. part of her Articles and Homilies; thougla New MONTHLY MAG-No. 29,

VOL. V.

3 F

388 A Trip to Paris in August and September 1815. (Jane 1, terior to the skirts of the place, where government pays something towards the he built slaughter-houses for them called support of these people, who serve to abattoirs. Many of these are used by amuse the public of Paris. the foreign troops for bospitals, and the There are several newspapers published plan and arrangement of these abattoirs daily in Paris. They afford, no doubt, are considered as the best basis for any sonic entertainment to those who feel au hospital to be erected upon, principally interest in the domestic and foreign powith regard to cleanliness. The vendors litics of this nation, but they are destiof old clothes and rags have also been tute of those numerous other ingredients removed near to the spot where the that render a London paper to English Temple formerly stood. Here a large men as indispensable an article as their hall has been constructed in the form of tea; fortunaiely they can meet with : open barns, pervious to the air from all sufficient supply here of that necessary sides. The new canal d'Ourque, like- of life, and also of English magazines wise begun by Buonaparte, is to furnish and pamplilets, of which the greatest Paris with wholesome water, and to supply is met with in the large reading serve also for cleansing the streets. At room of M. Gaglignani, in the rue Vipresent they use no other water here tienne, whilst Bovillier's rooms in the ihan that of the Seine after it has been rue Richelieu are their principal sesort filtered; the spring water not being fit to for good eating and wines. drink, nuing to the chalk through which The difference in the manner of living, it passes. The tanpers he had not been between the English and French, is welt able to remove from the vicinity of a ri- known. Soup, an indispensable article vulet which falls into the Seine beyond here at every dinner; vegetables stewed; the Jardin des Plantes, where they make meat in small pieces dressed in a hundred the air very unwholesome. Even the different ways; no large joints, except a numerous sisterhood of washerwomen leg of mution; good poultry, roasted have not escaped Napoleon's notice. soinetimes, but too much so; game; These are subject to early decrepitude good sallad ; fine fruit, and wine, after and mortality, from exercising their trade you become used to it, besides confecconstantly in cold water on the Seive, iionary, and good coffee, bread, with and in positions very injurious to their plenty of eggs, form the characteristics healılı.

of French living; whilst water, alone or Paris is not, as it appears to me, so pixed with wine, is drunk instead of rouch infested with beggars as London, beer. The water, as well as the wine, is nor are the passenger's eyes bere shocked iced in the present warm season. with the exbibitions of all kinds of human With all these good things, and innudeformities by which he is annoyed in merable places of public ainusement, in London. On the Boulevards you see a fine climate, it might be supposed that towards evening a class of solicitors of a man might live here very loppily; yet charity called puuores honteuses. They are there many most substantial and are decently dressed women, having their essential things wanting. Besides the faces covered with a veil or a handker- appearance of a scanty diffusion of prochief, as if from their situations in life perty through the classes of people below they were ashamed to beg; they appear the bigher ranks, and of ihe comforts sonietimes as mothers with ove or two and decencies arising therefrom, and children; however, the trick, as I am the want of solidity and independence in inforined, no longer succeeds so well as the characters of individuals, an irksome it did at first. Iwo soldiers attracted meayreness in their conversation is felt iny notice, playing and singing in the by a man habituated to the society in street. One of them had lost his right England, unless it be among men of sciarm, yet by having the bow fastened to ence and literature, who form a distinct his left side, and with his left hand draw- class; but as to the real business of life, ing the fiddle along it, lic nuade out a there is more knowledge and just conpretty tolerable tune, and iustead of an ception diffused ainong the middling indecent or political ballad they sung a classes in England, than here, or perhaps religious legendary tale in verse, tending any where else. The French 'nation to show the good effects of religion ; scem to form only one immense circle, Though they have bere also their singers of which their government is the centre, of political and amorous ballads, and to whicb every thing converges, from criers of newspapers, and strolling musi- which everytbing emanates; whilst cians playing at the doors of coffee the Englisli move in a thousand difhouses-&c. I have been told that the cles round their own particular con

389

1816.) Mr. Sharp or Experiments with Bottles sunk in the ocean. tres, aod the whole with planetary or- "revolutionists: 'ran 'into the other es der royolve round the general centre of treme. the national interest and the govero- Stulti dum vitia vitant, in contraria currunt. ment. In this place you hear of none of The scum of society was now to have; those numerous meetings daily called an essential participation in the governtogether in England, for the purpose of ment. This is also gone by, and it it'has the speculative advantage of the indivi- left a visible effect on the manners of duals so convened, in the first instance, the inferior classes of the people here, but ultimately for the benefit of the na- among whom there are many who would tion, much less of meetings of such indi- have rudeness pass for liberty, the Revoviduals who are linked together by some lution cannot be said, on the othe: trand, political sentiment, by attachment to not to have introduced any good change some public character, or even by the whatever. It cannot but be consoling endearing recollection of early con to every friend of the human species to nexions formed at some public institu- observe the dawn of a better state of" tion for the education of youth. Public things in France. The trial by jury may spirit is the blood that should pervade he considered as the first school where the arteries and veins of a free constitu- the young Frenchman is called upon by tion; it is of slow creation ; it was so in his country to exercise a most important England, and if it cannot be ultimately function, on which the property, nay, the furnished by the French nation, they life of his fellow creature depends. I must return io their former absolute mo- have witnessert this noble function exer. narchy.

cised here at Paris to my greatest satisAinong the governments more or less faction; it was on occasion of the trial absolute upon the continent, the best of a woman charged with having droined treat their subjects as children who are her own sister. The ability of the judge not supposed either to have a right or a in summing up the evidence, pointing capacity to meddle with matters of go- out the interest which the prisoner could vernment. These subjects are early have in committing the crime, the beartaught this lesson, and are made to con- ing, the defect, and strength of the evitemplate with distant awe and surprise dence brought for and against the prithe wonderful operations of their govern- soner, the talents of the attorney-general ment, who without ceremony take the in opening the prosecution, and of the money of the subjects out of their pocke counsel for the prisoner, together with ets, without deigning to give them any the decorum observed by a multitude of account of its application. Such blind spectators during the trial, left nothing submission tends to repress if not to ex to be wished for. When the jury with." tinguish the noblest of human feelings,. drew to consider of the verdici, the awful -self-respect, the only shield against suspense in which the prisoner was placed the tempiation to baser crimes, where impressed on my mind a serious feeling; secresy promises iinpunity. These go but a group of French ladies, admitted vernments, by drawing so narrow a cir- into the inner court like myself

, tell imcle round the few individuals who share mediately into a lively chat, as between in it, to the exclusion of the talents and the acts of a play: Another institution, knowledge of a great part of the nation, to which the Revolution lias given rise, is not only deprive themselves of the aid of the assembly of the grand uational counthese auxiliaries, but render themselves cils, whose discussions of the most imincapable of acquiring a true knowledge portant measures will afford to the young of those whom they govern, and of man- Frenchman an opportunity to exercise kind in general, as may be easily per- and improve his judgment, and will ceived by any man of observation on en recal him from the pursuits of egotism tering a circle of continental diplomatists and frivolity to employ his talents; stimu-s. belonging to such governments. Under lated by an honorable emulation for the the French government before the Revo- benefit of his country. lution nothing seemed to be respected

(To be continued.) but nobility, titled courtiers, and priests," or soldiers. How, in such a state, could MR. EDITOR, the most useful classes of society rise in IN your Magazine for this montis, I the estimation of others and of them- see a letter from-W. M. RETLAS, reselves? The Revolution overturned this questing to be informed iti anyut your system; but being begun in violence scientific correspondeins can give ring, and ignorance of the true nature of go- or what, satisfactoryconclusions respecto cement upon principles of liberty, the ing the experiments of the Rev. Dr.

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