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1816.) General Rules for the Prescrvation of Health.

3 them a gratuity of two hundred drachms, may study till he makes either a sage or but they had in fact already obtained a a fool of himself. There are many spemore valuable reward in the preservation cies of insanity which are to be ascribed of their health. Exercise therefore may solely to the abuse of the intellectual serve as an antidote both to poverty and faculties; and if there be any persons leanness, two qualities which might with who consider sound reason as wvi essenfew exceptious almost constitute the de- tial to health, they can scarcely take it finition of a man of letters.

amiss of us if we in our turn regard then To be masters of our passions, or as unfortunately labouring under a sperather to have no passions, which is cies of disease. nearly the same thing, is a rule for pro Society belongs also to the medicinal moting health, which very few have regulations of life. It serves to cheer firmness and perseverance enough to the spirits, gives occasion to exercise, follow. The most unfeeling and thought- affords useful recreation, excites mild less persons enjoy cæteris paribus, the and wholesome passions, and is attendlongest life and the best health. But it ed with many other advantages which I is a disputed point among the learned, shall not here enumerate:--but then it whether such people actually live; for must be of the right kind. There are some maintain that they only vegetate. societies in which none of these advanThis is certain that the passions are the tages is to be expected; company withsprings of most human actions; I would out conversation-conversation without say of all if there were not some mora ideas - visits without variety---assemblies lists by whom it is denied. For this which benefit nobody but the cardreason I shall not insist upon their ex maker-and amusements which, while tirpation, but shall say with Horace: they last, almost force you to regret the Animum rege, qui nisi paret

prostituted employment of the intellecImperat; hunc frenis, hunc tu compesce tual faculties. catena,

The position and clothing of the body Let us only be vigilant over ourselves : are important points. All positions are let it be deeply impressed upon our nut equally adapted to the human frame; minds that the passions are a pleasing but as different occupations require very poison which insinuates itself' to the different attitudes, we must not suppose beart; and their sweetness will not then that every person can continually keep allure us to cloy ourselves with them. in the most suitable posture, which is

Sleep is not less essential than food to when the body is straight, and all the repair the daily waste of the animal spi- muscles are allowed perfect freed m for rits. This temporary death prepares us their proper actions. Particular care for a new life, and we must submit to it, must above all be taken not to compress otherwise our machine would speedily the abdomen, as must be the case when become deranged and be rendered in- a person sits in a bending position. Recapable of performing its proper mo- spiration and the free motion of the tions. We have moreover to attend to intestines are thus impeded, and hence the promoting of all those evacuations arise evils of the utmost importance. As by which nature discharges such matters experience teaches that artisans, artists, as are of no farther use to the system, and men of letters, sometimes become and would but too soon become trouble- deformed, or contract diseases peculiar some to us. If therefore we have any to themselves, in consequence of the unregard for our health we must pay the natural positions which they are obliged strictest attention to these evacuations, to assume in their daily avocations; so some of which, as the insensible perspi we may assert that different binds of ration of the skin, must be incessantly dress interrupt health in various ways. kept up; whilst others recur daily, and How many femaies conceiving a small others again at longer intervals." As I waist to be essential to a handsome shall probably avail myself of some fu- shape, brace themselves so tight as to ture opportunity to treat this subject leave the luogs and the intestines no more explicitly, I shall bere only sub room to play! How often is the coxjoin a general sketch of the rules by cols who carries his hat under his en which our way of living ought to be yo. Jest he should derange his elegant ! verned.

laid up with colds and the com; addity The use of the understanding and of which they bring in their train! **55:all the other mental faculties requires dorf would not have died from the ? limits which are often over-stepped of a corn, had it been customary fro to the great injury of health. A man people to carry their shoes as weli


General Rules for the Preservation of Health. [Feb. I, their hats under their arms; and thou- good care not to injure his health by ree sands might have avoided the most dan- signing the reins to his passion. But gerous and painful diseases and a pre- where shall we look for the stoic who is mature grave, had they not dressed too not absolutely beside himsell, and does lightly, tog airily, or too fashionably. not snatch up a pistol or a horse-whip All these are subjects that fall within at every affront from a poliroon or a dothe province of the physician, and are mestic Self-love would impel the most too important to be passed over without effeminate of loungers to sacrifice bis discussion.

luxurious repose, to quit his soft couch Pure air, temperance, bodily exercise, with cheerfulness and ramble over bill government of the appetites, attention and dale, that he may share with the to the economy of nature, a judicious rustic the inconveniences of the most use of the understanding, social inter- healthy of lives. But no! we deem ourcourse, dress, and a proper position of selves the more fortunate the less we the body, are the chief points which I bave occasion to employ the muscles have here recommended. Each of these which Nature has given us for labour topics, however, embraces a multitude and exercise. We desire not to be inof others, all of which will hereafter structed in the rules of health, that we require particular consideration, may benefit by them, because our per

sons, our lives, our health, our welfare I have heard with considerable plea- are dear to us; but it is from a very difa sure of the frequent inquiries that have ferent reason that we are anxious to been made concerning the GUARDIAN become acquainted with all the salutary or Health during the temporary sus

rules which we have no intention of obpension of this series of papers, which serving. I hope in future to be able to submit to Curiosity to learn what is for our bethe readers of this magazine with more nefit cannot be the motive of this desire regularity 1 am, nevertheless, far from any more than self-love. We are not regarding the interest with which the curious respecting things which do not generality of mankind listen to every interest us; and what seemingly interests thing relative to their health as the effect a man less than bis health? For a very of self-love or curiosity, but as the result trifle the pearl-fisher dives to the bottom of that anxiety which each individual of the sea, regardless alike of the confeels to observe how another will per- sequent spitting of blood, and the feroformi a part of which he fancies bimself cious shark by which he is every moment to be a perfect master. If people read liable to be devoured. How willingly medical works out of self-love, they would many a fair lady plunge to the would endeavour to follow the precepts depth of many fathoms for the sake of a contained in them. How rare, on the pearl necklace! For a paltry pittance contrary, are such examples! Who is the squalid ininer descends into the there but knows that temperance, regu- bowels of the earth, braving the suffocalarity, tranquillity of mind, and occupa- ting choak.damp and the most deleterition, contribute more than any thing ous vapours. He sees his fellow-labourers olse to longevity and the preservation of mangled and swept away; he regards it health? A man so fond of himself as not, and defies for a niere nothing the most people are said to be, would with most hideous of dangers. What is the pleasure conform to all these, and even reward that tempts the seaman to trastill more difficult duties, to promote verse the ocean in a frail vessel? and his own well-being. He would regard what is the pay for which he ventures another as bis enemy, who should strive his life, and, like Horace, represents to by savoury dishes and palatable beve- bis messmates the perils he undergoes rages to seduce him beyond the bounds as unworthy of notice? of tenperance. But what is the course O fortes pejoraque passi pursued at every table? The bost makes Mecum sæpe viri; nunc vino pellite curas; a thousand apologies because he cannot

Cras ingens iterabimus æquor, set double the number of dishes before How many hundreds of thousands are bis gueris. and the guests seize their ready to cut one another's throats for a glasses and drink bumpers to the health few pence a day? Who would not ratber of the founder of the feast. A man expire on the bed of honour than grow taben up with his own dear self would grey in the bosom of tranquil pleasure? lowl nich composure at his enemy or bis What merchant would spare his health, krvants who should endeavour by their if by risking it he stood a chance of ill treatment to rouse his rage, and take making an extra profit of a few pounds


1816.) Query suggested by the Mosaic History of Cain.

5. per cent.? What literary man would of the moralists, or as they go to hear not rather stick to his writing-table till an eloquent preacher, not for the sake he grew as crooked as a ram's horn, than' of improvement, but to see how a man relinquish the hope of having it said acquits himself-to make him their au. after his death that he bad written some thority for following such of his precepts thing? Who would not willingly sacri as they approve, and to laugli at the fice happiness, health, and the fairest rest. prospects of life, to gain possession of a Such is the idea I have formed of the beauty, though he may perbaps know office which I bave undertaken, and it beforehand chat ere a year has elapsed, would totally discourage me, were I not he will wish that he had rather drowned sensible that it is wrong to tret if we himself? Who refuses any desire, any

cannot make the world better than it appetite, any passion, access to his heart, chooses to be. As long as my papers though well aware that after the gratifi- continue to be read, let the inotive for cation of a few moments it will render reading them be what it will, I shall be him miserable ?

satisfied, adopting the inaxion of the hoI need not appeal to the consciences nest monk :-of my readers. They have seen in this Semper bene parlare de Domino Priore ; paper a sketch of the duties which are Facere suum officium taliter qualiter, subservient to the preservation of health. Et sinere mundum vadere ut vadet. I insist not that health be made the sole and primary object of all human actions.

MR. EDITOR, I am even ready to admit that we ought to

BY the insertion of the underwritten sacrifice part to the welfare of the whole; in your widely circulated miscellany you but let the benefit of the community at will greatly oblige your's, &c. C. E. B. large be left entirely out of the question, We will take only a paltry gain, a transient

We read in the 4th chapter of Genegratification, an empty bonour, an agree- sis, that the Lord set a murk upon able folly, a favourite notion.

Who would have the courage to sacrifice any and he went oui from the presence of the

lest any finding him should kill him : one of these trifles to his life and health? Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on I have a right to ask the question, and I the east of Eden, and there bad a wife, read the answer in the conduct of the and a son, named Enoch, who builded a world. What is it then that can render people

whole city, &c. &c. disposed to read with pleasure and avi- there being only his aged parents exist

Query:-What need bad Caio to fear, dity a work which treats of a subject so ing? And how came he by his wife? We uninteresting as health? I fancy I have find in the sacred volume no mention of discovered the secret in this, that the majority imagine the mode of life which any female but Eve, of the human spe

cies then living? best suits their convenience, and which is most flattering to their passions, to be good enough, and merely read the works MR. EDITOR, of physicians to confirm themselves in FROM the attention which you have this notion. When they see how “ doc- uniformly given to every thing connected tors disagree," how one declares that to with the fine arts, I am induced to hope be a deadly poison which another pro- that you will indulge me with a portion nounces a panacea; when they see some of your truly useful and entertaining guilty of those excesses which are for- magazine, for the purpose of requesting bidden by physicians living notwithstand- from some of your intelligent corresponing to a healthy old age, while others dents an answer to the foll swing queswith the most rigid observance of diete- tions:- On what principle are engravers tic precepts are continually ailing; when prohibited from exhibiting their works at they see physicians imposing duties which the Royal Academy ? and on what acit is impossible to perform, and them- count are they disqualified from becoming selves violating the rules which they en- Royal Academicians On looking over join the rest of mankind as they value the names of the members of the Royal their lives to follow; they find in these Academy I was surprised to find profescontradictions quite sufficient to satisfy sors in linost every branch of art except the scruples that inay have arisen in that of engraving. A -atisfactory reason their minds, and to confirm them in their for a circuinstance apparently so extrairregularities and excesses. They read ordinary, and so opposite to the laws of medical directions as they do the works all foreign academies, would be to me


6 On the Exclusion of Engravers from the Royal Academy. [Feb. I, very acceptable ; for I confess myself igo abroad. In Italy, in France, in Ger. norant of the scale by which merit is many, the professors of engraving are demeasured, or the qualifications that corated with the highest bonours of the are necessary to entitle a candidate to academy. They there classed the honours of a seat in our academy, amongst the most intelligent and the It is true engravers are admitted to no most favoured of the members; and the vitiates, but by their not being allowed reward they receive is in some degree to advance beyond thai rank, I pre- commensurate with their merits. As sume that they are not considered wor knowledge and science advance, prejuthy of higher honours. If that is the dice and illiberality recede: and as the case, I am naturally induced to a-k, laws of our academy are not so inflexible whether the art of engraving is less meri as not to bend occasionally, I am inclined torious or less worthy of encouragement to hope that those who have the power than either miniature-painting, enamel- will not be behind our neighbours in lipainting, or even portrait-painting. Is berality, in policy or in justice, but that ine painter of still lite, or even the land- as we bave on some occasions been bescape-painter, a more meritorious artist nefired by their example, so I trust that than the historical engraver? If the value our academy will see the necessity of of any thing is estimated in proportion protecting and encouraging every departto its ability, or in proportion to the plea- ment of art, and that the avenues which sure which it produces, or to the talent lead to honours, wealth, and fame, will required to produce it, then I think en not here alone be closed against the hisgraving will rank much higher than the torical engraver.*

T. F. legislato.s of our academy have thought Paddington, Dec. 27, 1815. proper to admit. When I see a tine print executed with the most careful at MR. EDITOR, tention from a roost interesting picture, AT the time I received the following I feel a pleasure that few works of art letter I little thought it was the last I can produse she gratification is height- should ever have from one who was so ened frin towing that what I am en dear to me. It was just a year and two joying with so much satisfaction can be months after that I got the account of multiplied to thousands, and that more his decease, and the impression it fixed than thousands can share the pleasure at on my mind is at this moment as fresh the same moment. To enumerate the as when I first received it. I remain, advantages of engraving either to the

W. BURDON. man of science, the scholar, or the artist, Welbeck-street, Dec. 12, 1815. is I presume quite unnecessary; though I cannot avoid saying that the fame of

Worlowka in the Ukraine, the greatest painters would have been

W jun. 1798. but very imperfectly known, and the I have now been here a month at the works of the most eminent architects house of the Duke of Polignac, and prowould have remained comparatively un- pose to pass here at least a month more. thought of and unseen but for the en. By that time the Black Sea will be again graver. To draw a comparison between navigable, and I shall thus have avoided the wor! of living artists would be in- a tedious, expensive, and dangerous vidious and improper; but to compare journey by land. The countries between the productions of those who are beyond the Ukraine and Constantinople are inthe reach of praise or censure, cannot fested with the plague, robbers and redisturb their faine. The works of Wool bels, so that many arguments are not lett, Strange*, Vivares, and Rouker, will wanting to induce me to protract a visit remain imperishable monuments of legi. of a few days to one of as many months. timate art, and will be regarded as trea. The society of this family is highly insures when many of the pictures that teresting in many points of view, and I were cueval with their productions will have now been intimately connected with be forgotten. In an institution avow. it for so long a time that I live in it as edly established for the promotion of the one of its natural and constant members. arts, and in a country where genius and As for you my good friend, you bave no liberality are proverbial, it is reniarkable that they were not admitted as members bibiting engravings at their exhibitions, ac

* The French academy, so far from proof our academy, and that engraving is tually received the works of the British ar. 110t allowed the reward which it receives tists, and on a very recent occasion voted

Strange was a member of several foreign their gold medal to an eminent English enacademies.



1816.] Mr. Burdon on his Correspondence with Mr. Tweddell, 7 right to any intelligence from this quar- with extracts and the evidence giren beter, and yet you seem to me that kind of fore the committee. I cannot but think unaccountable mortal, called a privileged a few pages of your valuable miscellany character, so that I could willingly orer would be usefully devoted to disquisitions look your many unrighteousnesses, had of this nature, in which the moral ameI many opportunities of writing to Enya lioration of our fellow-creatures might land, and sufficient notice beforehand, be the great topic insisted on. The al for I no longer write by the post-it is lusion made in the above article to the quite useless in this country. When I Society for Bettering the Condition of find out any means of sending a letter the Poor, leads me to observe on the to Petersburg by a private courier I avail important services which that society myself of it, otherwise I ain frugal of my has rendered to the community at large. time and my words. When these occa It has been the means of suggesting to sions present themselves they are gene- individuals opportunities of dumg good, rally unforeseen, and I am obliged to which they would never otherwise have profit of the moment; for instance, at thought of; it has taught many to cultipresent I am this noment arrived at the vate charity as a science, and not as a Countess de Witt's, who tells me that mere instinct; and thus enabled them to she sends off a courier to-morrow morn- experience all the pleasure which the ing for Petersburg. I have only there exercise of benevolence never fails to imfore a few minutes to give you before part, without the pain of witnessing dinner is served, and soon after dinner those evils which indiscriminate bounty we return home. Will you thank me or frequently occasions. Amongst other not? I leave not to your discernment but schemes of benevolence suffer me to to your friendship, to determine whe- mention one, the benefit of which I have ther these few unimportant lines are fully ascertained by experience: it was worth eighteen-pence, which I imagine first suggested in a report from the Rev. my letter will cost you for its passage J. SMITH, of Wendover, Bucks, who from Petersburg to England. It will stated that he had in conjunction with simply convey to you my wishes for your two or three benevolent persons in bis health and happiness, and the assurance parish, offered to receive the earnings or of my regard. I wrote two or three days savings of such persons as were regular ago io T. Bigg; tell him so, least the in attendance on divine service, and to letter should be lost. I shall be at Con- repay the entire amount at the end of stantinople about the time that you re the year, together with a premium of ceive this letter, at least probably so.

one-third or fourth of the whole by way At all events, if you write to me imviedi- of remuneration to them for their indusately on receiving this, your reply will try and frugality. Suppose a poor man certainly find me there. By what you told lays by 6d. every week, froin the 1st of me about a certain affair, of those ......... January to the 31st of December, the I do not imagine it will be in your power total amount will be 26s. : if to this an to fulfil my request, or your own wishes addition of one-fourth be made by any as I am well persuaded. If however con benevolent person who undertakes to do trary to our joint expectations those gen- so, here is 1l. 12s. coming to the poor tlemeu should prove more honest than I man at a time of the year when lie most an inclined to believe, it would not yet requires it: money which he may lay out be too late to reply to that effect, my in the purchase of firing, or warm clothoriental projects being retarded by this ing, or articles of provision; money in visit. Give me information upon the part the produce of his own industry, state of that unfortunate country you live which he has saved in small sums with in: I am sorry to call it mine, and I avoid hardly any inconvenience to bimself, and it. God bless you my dear Burdon. Tell part the donation of his benevolent şume if you still continue the book which perior. This plan I have seen adopted you proposed to publish, and in what with success in a small parish where, state of progress it is. Believe me to be, though many grown persons were not with the utmost sincerity, your affecó induced to adopt it, the children of the tionate friend,

J, T. parish-school did so with few exceptions,

and thankfully received the amount of MR. EDITOR,

their savings with whatever donation I HAVE perused, with much satisfac- their benefactor was pleased to bestow. tion, your report of the committee of This is a plan so simple that it may be the House of Commons on the subject adopted without any difficulty: a inore of mendicity in the metropolis, together important object in the attainment of

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