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On Experiments upon Living Animals. [June 1, pleased with Porson's well-known ver roots at once. Can we seriously imagine sion into Greck iambics of the ballad, that the bencficent Author of all, whose Three Children sliding on the Ice, &c.: tender mercies are over all his works, here my sentiments are congenial with would have made the practice of cruel his: and I beg him to accept any sincere necessary to the attainment of useful thanks for producing the very curious knowledge; that lie who has enforced passage
frorn a poem entitled De Lucte the practice of benevolence in every Nutricum.
possible way upon us, by the dictates of I cannot close these remarks without the heart, the precepts of his law, and, observing, that the acuteness which the above all, his own example---should noicriticisms of that able scholar, Mr. Do withstanding have established cases in bree, display in the present volume, which the violation of his own law of creates in my mind an earnest wish that love becomes not merely allowable, but the day is fast approaching when bis pub- an absolute act of duty; in one woni, lication of Porson's notes on Aristo- that morality, whose author is God, dicphanes, joined, I sincerely hope, to his tates one way, and utility, no less the own, shall make its proinised appear. result of combinations foreseen and ap
N. N. pointed by the same God, points out Feb. 28, 1816.
another diametrically opposite? No,
Mr. Editor--though I ani no anatomisi MR. EDITOR,
or physiologist-though I may be of the A CORRESPONDENT in your num- number of those to whom your correber for March, p. 101, who subscribes spondent applies the adage, Ne sufor himself C. C. R., has very properly ani- ultracrepidum-I must à priori conclude, madverted upon the harshi aud unjustifia- that the Creator of all things las no ble terms in which IMMISERICORS(No.24) made the tortures of one part of his has spoken of Dr. Johnson.--While Í creation necessarily subservient to the am ready to allow that Johnson was not happiness and well-being of another; without his prejudices, and that his mane that the knowledge acquired by dissecner of enforcing his opinions was not tion of living anjinals inight have been always the most decorous, I can never gained in other ways less revolting to admit that his name and opinion are of humanity; and that of course all expeno weight in a disputed question; or riments of the above description are that, because he may have been under needless, and therefore abominable acts the influence of prejudice in some pare of cruelty. liculars and on some subjects, lie is Your correspondent has brought fortherefore not deserving of consideration ward a formidable list of persons as in any. Happily the question in which sanctioning by their example the prace his naine has been introduced, viz. the tice for which he contends. In reply I propriety of instituting experiments on must observe, that no authority can living animals, is one in which we du sanction a wicked action; that their not require the sanction of his great au- conduct does not prove the necessity of thority to enable us to decide in the having recourse to such experiments, negative. It is one in wbich all the best since it is still a matter of dispute ubefeelings of our nature take a part; it is ther all they learned and imparted to one in which, if I am not mistaken, the the world might not have been acquired verdict which humanity pronounces will in other ways; lastly, that mea wbolly be confrined by the voice of sober rea- given up to the pursuit of abstract truth £on.
are ready to take any course that may IM MISERICORs.commences with an as. lead to the attainment of their objectsertion which appears to me to deter that "their humanity is ever at their mine the question in a way exactly the horizon," the end being in all cases sufreverse of that which he adopts: be says ficient with them to justify the means. that, “ however questionable the morizo' The name of Boerhaave, indeed, I am lity of practising experiments upon living sorry to see upon bis list: the “ surly animals may be, its utility can be moralist” has written a life of him which doubted by none but the ignorant"- would have led me to form of him better that is, in other words, he defends the expectations; and I would still venture practice on the score of utility alone. to indulge a hope that his name may İts morality he thinks questionable; at have been inserted through mistake or least he allows that competent persons misconception. We know that Boermay deem it questionable. This conces- haave, the firm believer of revealed resiou, I think, cuts the question by the ligion, was once, from some misrepre
395 sented words, accused of deism or even in question. As he has furnished his of atheism: why may not a similar mis. opponents with a sentence froni the Latake have occurred in this instance also. in, I shall entreat his consideration of However, be that as it may, no name, one uttered by a person not inferior to however weighty, can outweigh truth, the author whom he quotes: "As a mador annul the distinction between right man, who casteth firebrands, arrows, and
death, so is the man that deceireth bis IMMISERICORs pursues his subject by neighbour, and saith: Am not I in detailing, in the person of a surgeon in sport?" (Proverbs, xxvi. 18, 19.) And the navy, three pleasant narratires cor- lastly, I will advise bim, when he next roborative (I suppose they are meant to
the pen, to write with somebe) of his opinious. With regard to the what more civility towards his opponents, first we may observe, that necessity jus- and not to suppose that an opinion, tifies the use of any means-I mean the which even he must allow deserves nó necessity of self-preservation-so that ruder appellation than that of an aniable whenever we are precisely in the situa- weakness, should be encountered with tion of the six young gentlemen in ques. the arrogance and harshness in which he tion and their friend the surgeon, we
MISERICORS. may perhaps agree with them in opinion March 12, 1816. as to our mode of proceeding. His next P. S. Perhaps some of your readers story is that of a malefactor condemned can furnish the remainder of the followto be broken on the wheel, who prefer- ing beautiful lines which appeared in the red having his punishment commuted for Courier soon after the account of the that of being bled to death. As the battle of Trafalgar, and which are all expedient adopted tended to establish that I remember :an important fact in the animal economy, When notes of triumph swell the gale, without doing the sufferer a greater in Why sits Britannia sad and pale, jury than he must otherwise have sus
In the hour of victory? animal was perhaps in this instance jus- And pensive bows her laurel'd head, cained, the experiment upon a living She mourns her gallant hero dead,
She weeps that matchless Nelson bled, tifiable-except that a conscientious
In the hour of victory. mind would scruple to practise deceit even upon a criminal, and for the attain.
MR. EDITOR, ment of an important purpose. Ilis third narration is one, which no feeling the certain removal of that truly painful
BEING in possession of a recipe for mind can peruse without horror; nor do sensation the tooth-ach, and desirous of I speak wiadvisedly when I say many a
communicating its value to the public, in person has died on a gibbet for a crime
order that others may get rid of so trouwhich, in point of moral guilt, is not to be compared with that committed by the ornaments of the mouth, to the injury
blesome a visitor, without parting with " the celebrated Pitcairn of Edinburgh" of the gums, I solicit you to give it a and his five associates. I regret to find a writer setting out with the professed place in your valuable Magazine. It is intention of justifying experiinents on the brute creation while alive, and end- clean white plate, will produce a yellow
A sheet of writing-paper, burned in a ing with a narrative which demonstrates ish oil, which oil is to be soaked up by a liis indifference for the life of one of his small piece of clean cotton, and placed own species; and if this indifference be in or on the tooth affected for twelve ur the natural consequence of his opinion, fifteen minutes. In the most distressing, I am furnished with an additional argument against instituting experiments upon relief, one of which happened last week
cases I have known it give immediate living animals of any description. With in a 'Mrs. I--, who for more than regard to the observation,
" that the good of individuals ought always to give tormented by the pain, when, by apply
three months had been almost always way to the good of the whole,” I will telling the oil of paper, she had immediate IMALISERICOns, on authority greater than that of all the “modern philosophers # For the information of our correspondand philanthropists" put together, that ent we think it right to state, that very soon
we are not to do evil that good may after the appearance of the article on which come;" and that no plea of supposed he animadver's, Death summoned the wriutility can justify the practice of deceit ter to that bourn which is beyond the reach upon a fellow.creature, followed as it both of human censure and admonition.was by the fatal catastrophe of the case EDITOR.
396 Remarks on Sir H. Dary's Wire-Gauze Safe-Lamp. (June 1, relief. I never knew a case where a re- the cylinder, the fame may be easi. petition was necessary. J. W. extinguished by putting a cap of meta Newington, April 22, 1816.
or even of woollen or linen, over it.**
Sir H. Davy states, that “ should MR. EDITOR,
ever be necessary for the miner to wors YOUR active benevolence in the cause for a great ler.gth of time in an explosivo of the unfortunate prompts me to re- atmosphere by the wire-gauze lamp, quest that you will have the goodness to (which by the bye is an impossibilas, insert the following remarks in your next for tbe reasons given above,) it may be journal, which is very extensively circu- proper to cool the lamp occasionally by lated arpongst those persons who are throwing water upon the top," &c. materially concerned.
These lamps are directed to be made The wire-gauze safe-lamp of Sir H. of iron-wire, and, notwithstanding the Davy, of wbich you have given a de exceedingly fine texture of that wire, tailed description, occupies for the pre- they are intended 10 stand a strong heat sent a share of public notice; I shall within, whilst surrounded by a moist therefore offer no apology to your readers atmosphere; of course they must very for commenting freely and dispassion- suon rust; and of this Sir H. Dary ap ately upon that gentleman's lamp and pears to be well aware, for he finds it his account of it.
beedful to remark, that “ their safety As the wire.gauze of this lamp is should be proved before they are used, stated to be so very fine that there are by plunging them into a jar or barrel 748 apertures in a square inch, it would containing an explosive mixture of firebe interesting to know how many mmutes damp." (I had almost said seconds) the fire-damp We must also take into consideration would take to burn its way through such that the gauze-lamp may very readily be a fimsy texture as this wire-gauze? upset by the smallest touch or motion in
It would be equally interesting to the mine, and thereby an aperture would know what quantity of the fire-damp in be made in the gauze by the flame;a coal-mine may be destroyed by such we must reflect that pieces of coal struck combustion within a wire-gauze appara- off by the pitmen’s instrument may break tus of this description, before the wire a few meshes of the gauze-lamp, and be burnt through and an explosion en- thereby cause explosion, and also that a sues?
fall of store or other substance from the As a key to these questions, Sir H. roof of the mine, which, though it might Davy himself states: “ that when the not perbaps break the lamp, might tear wire-gauze safe-lamp is lighted, and in- the fine gauze, and admit of explosion troduced into an atmosphere gradually by the fire-damp coming down with the mixed with fire-damp, thie first effect of fall of the stone. Add to this, the liathe fire-damp is to increase the length bility of the apertures in the wire-gauze and size of the flame. When the inflam- to be choked up by the soot from the mable gas forms as inuch as one-twelfth oil-lamp, which would of course obstruct of the volume of the air, the cylinder the light, and increase the heat and coat. becomes filled with a feeble blue flume ; sequent danger. The same circumstances but the flame of the wick appears burn must occur from the coal-dust of the ing brightly within the blue Aame, and miner, when at work, filling up the aper the light of the wick continues till the tures of the wire-gauze. From all these fire-damp increases to one-sixth or one circumstances, it will now be readily
fifth, when it is lost in the flame of the acknowledged' by every unprejudiced fire-danp, which in this cuse fills the person, that such lamps as those of wire
cylinder with a pretty strong light.” gauze partake more of the nature of a This is clear enough; for should the un- delicate philosophical toy, than of a fortunate pitnan, relying upon such an useful, strong, and safe instrument for instrument, neglect to attend it for a few giving light, and preventing explosions minutes, (and the carelessness of pitmen in coal-mines. is proverbial,) he would find that when At a future period I shall offer some ever the fire-damp is only in the propor- remarks upon coal-mines, and the pretion of one-sixth of the atroospheric air, sent methods in use for rentilating and an explosion would follow, as the wire- lighting them, which shall be freely dise gauze would soon be burnt through; and cussed for the public good. I am in this case the following precnution of
A FRIEND Sir H. Davy would be rendered nugatory,
To RationAL IMPROVEMENTS. viz. t* when the fire-damp'is burning in Newcustle, dpril 17, 1816.
397 MR. EDITOR,
OBSERVATIONSON THE ANCIENT IT is with no little regret that on look LANGUAGE OF MALTA. ing over the edition recently published
BY MR. JOHN DOUGALL. by Mr. Zotti of the Lettere di Gungu (Continued from page 300.) nelli I observe him speaking in his pre
THE Phænician dialect, even as it face with any degree of indecision of the still exists in Malta, bears a very strong authenticity of these interesting remains affinity to the original Chaldee, and the of that pontiff
. For notwithstanding the cognate dialects of the Syrians and the unaniinous admission of his own coun Hebrews. This will be manifest from trymen that they are his legitimate pro- the following examples. Thus: armla, a ductions, and even Mr. Zotti's own ex- widow; deheb, gold; dryh, the arm; ultation in the credit which they reflect keukba, a star; kybrit, sulphur; shemsh, on the memory and principles of Ganga- the sun; shytla, a plant; sykkina, the nelli, still with an inconsistency the culter of a plough; are at once Maltese more unaccountable he subsequently and Chaldaic. qualifies bis first conviction of their ge Again: the Syriac, or Aramæan tongue, nuineness by his after-hesitation as to varies from the primitive Chaldaic chiefly their real author!
in the prolongation of certain words ; à After observing in the first instance, peculiarity in which the Maltese par« non ostante però tutto ciò che si possa takes. Thus : demm, blood; ghain, the in contrario opporre queste lettere susti- eye; id, the hand; ruhh, breath, or spisteranno eternamente e faranno sempre rit; shybt, anise; are both Syriac and onore al Ganganelli,” it is surely not a Maltese. little surprising to see him absolutely in Many Hebrew terms are also prevalidating his own judgment in this strong served by the people of Malta : such as and honorable testimony by the hesitat- bnydem, for ben adam, a man, literally a ing indecision that follows: “ QUAL SI a son of Adam; byrek, he blessed; SIA mai stato lo scrittore di esse."!!! atbyrek, he is blessed; fyde, he re
As it were for an antidote to his own deemed; fahhma, a coal; ghynba, a scepticism, the learned editor has very grape. judiciously appended the interesting de The Phænician tongue flourished in its fence of the Marquis Caracciolo" of the purity in Malta for many ages: for alauthenticity of these letters, in which he though both Greeks and Romans had great so ably repels the nialignant insinuation intercourse, and even were settled there, by a French journalist of his attempting yet the languages of those nations were to pass off his own fabrications as the so opposite to the Maltese in structure, actual letters of the celebrated pontiff.t vocables, and pronunciation, that it
Be Mr. Zotti, however, as undecided would have been extremely difficult to as he pleases, I am confident that the pe- adopt and incorporate any of them in the rusal alone of this interesting document dialect of the island. The Greeks, bewill carry perfect conviction to any libe- sides, were merely merchants and maral or candid mind that the letters in riners occasionally visiting Malta in the question are, beyond the possibility of course of their commercial expeditions ; dispute, the genuine and indubitable pro- and the Romans, even when masters of ductions of the venerabie writer' by Malta, never felt it to be of such importwhose name they are immortalized. ance, in a military or financial point of
SCRUTATOR. view, as to require the constant residence Berkshire, April 19th.
of any considerable body of troops, the
only colonists on whom they set much * See his “ Ringraziamento dell'Editore value. The intercourse between the delle Lettere del Pontefice Ganganelli all' Carthaginians and the Maltese could Autor dell'Anno Letterario."
only tend more and more to fortify and + It was the liberal and manly spirit which confirm the attachment of the islanders these letters uniformly breathe on all the
to their ancient language, laws, and cusmultifarious subjects of their discussion
toins. which was doubtless the source of that acri. monious hostility that led the secret partisans was in the greatest danger, not of cor
The period when this venerable dialect of the discomfited Jesuits to attempt to undermine the credit of a pope who had the ruption only, but of general depravation Tesolution and firmness to exterminate their and even extinction, was the ninth cenorder. Happy had it been when he signed tury, when Malta, with Sicily and the the instrument of their dissolution that he south of Italy, fell under the yoke of could but have sealed it with an Esto perpe- the disciples of Mahomet from Africa, luo.
commonly called by Europeans the $a
398 Mr. Dougall on the Ancient Language of Malta. [June 1, facens, a terin which in Maltese signifies stances will be found in these words theves, or robbers. The language of viz. bykae, he wept, is at once Maltese, those invaders, animated at once by the Chaldaic, Hebrew, Syriac, Samaritan, love of dominion and spoil, and by the Arabic, and Ethiopian; bynae, he built, exterminating zeal of religious fanaticism, is Malt. Chal. Syr. Heb. and Arabic, that is to say the Arabic, descended ghain, the eye, is Mal. Chal. Syr. Heb. froni the same origin as the Maltese, so Sam. and Ar.; haleb, he drew milk, is pearly resembled it in many essential Mal. Chal. Syr. Heb. and Ar.; khom, lie particulars that it seems wonderful that rose up, is Mal. Clial. Syr. Hleb. Sam. Ar. the islanders were able to preserve their and Ech.; mylae, he filled, he drew water, vernacular tongue in any tolerable purity, is Mal. Ch. Sam. and Eth.; myt, he died, Thai they did so, however, is unques- is Mal. Cbal. Syr. Heb. and Ar.; rufes, tionatle when the two languages are be sbattered, he trod upon, is Mal. Chal. compared together. The deep-rooted Syr. Ileb. and Ar.; ruh, spirit, breath, antipathy subsisting between the Malo the soul, is Mal. Chal. Hleb, and Arabic. tese and the Arabian strangers, on ac From these few specimens some judg. count of their different manners, customis, ment may be formed of the important aid and opinions, above all on religious inat to be drawn froin the present Maltese ters, strengthened by the hatred felt by in explaining the most ancient dialects an injured and oppressed people for of the East, and of the great facility everything proceeding from their inju- thereby aiforded to the natives of Malta rious oppressors; all these causes tended in the acquisition of those languages. It inost powerfully to establish unaltered is of consequence to observe, that alamong the Maltese their ancient lan- though the Maltese possess many words guage and usages.
bearing a very close resemblance to the lů the modern Maltese, however, are Arabic, yet it possesses also a great va. found a number of terms and manners of riety of terms which froin their guttural expression common to the Arabic in its pronunciation are evidently oriental, but best days. Part of these may probably which have not the least affinity with the have been introduced by the Saracens, Arabic. This can be explained only by whose language a thousand years ago was considering that the Maltese is imme necessarily much more pure and like the diately derived from the Phæniciany, and ancient Arabic than any of the hetero- its descendant the Punic of Carthage. gencous dialects now prevalent along For this reason many of the most leamed the southern shores of the Mediterra- men of Europe, particularly those emnean. This may be one reason why the ployed in the study and interpretation of Arabic terms and phrases in the Maltese the Scriptures in the original tongues, are confessedly of the best character. Of have gladly availed themselves of the few this the orientat scholar will be enabled means afforded to the public of obtainto judge from the following specimen. ing a knowledge of the Maltese dialect. Thus: barud, to file, or polish; bir, a Of the utility of the Maltese in this rewall; dakhal, to enter, or go in; dár, a spect the following are instances : house; hajeb, the eye-brow; hama, mud; The distribution of the whole buman jarru, a jar, or water-vessel ; jenna, a race into two opposite classes of Fery pleasant grove, or garden, paradise, the disproportionate numbers is well known seat of the blessed ; jezzae, tonsure; and of bigh antiquity. The Jew and kharej, he went out; are equally old the Gentile, the Greek and the BarbaArabic and present Maltese. In Malta rian, the Italian and the Tramontane, arc also preserved a number of infections, the Parisian and the Stranger, the Engphrases, inanners ofexpression, sentences, lishman and the Foreigner, are distinoand proverbs, or maxims, employed by tions perpetually recurring in history the Arabians. On this account it is that and in conversation. In this classifica. the Maltese make use of certain terms tion it is curious that the Greeks, not belonging to the ancient Sabaans and contented with the rich and abundant Ethiopians, such as zakl, a sack or bag stores of their own language, should have of leather; tyrae, soft moist ground; had recourse to the language of those khassis, an old inan, an elder, or presby- very barbarians whom they affected to ter of the church, a priest.
despise for a term so expressive and so Froin what has been said will be ma necessary as that by which every human nifest the strong aftinity and consan- being but themselves was to be desigguinity of the Maltese with the primary nated. dialects of the East, especially with those
The Greek term barbaros is wholly derived from the Chaldaic. Of this in- oriental, but early introduced into Eu