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On the Hardships of the Game Laws.


would be most vain and preposterous, THE repeated instances which have since even the Supreme Being does not lately occurred, of persons losing their claim the love and veneration of his crealives by spring guns and other murder- tures merely because he possesses the ous instruments, placed in woods through attribute of omnipotence. PublicoLA. which there are public foot.paths, must W-6-n, B-df-ds-re. fill every feeling mind with horror and disgust at so arbitrary and cruel an exercise of the game laws.

MR. EDITOR, Independently of these unjustifiable IT must, I think, be obvious to every measures, so great is the fastidiousness one, and particularly to those who are respecting game, and so anxious are the in the habit of writing or reading in the proprietors of extensive manors to pre-afternoon, that the shortest day is hardly serve and monopolize every head of it past before they already begin to find a for their own exclusive amusement, greater brightness or increase of light that the farmers renting under them, and a than the Almanack would induce them to great part of whose crops are sometimes expect, by a reference to which the sun devoured by the game, are not only pro- appears to set on the 31st of December hibited from shooting themselves, but so no later than it did on the 14th. Taking complete is their vassalage, that they however into consideration that before are compelled to warn off any of their the shortest day the clocks are slower friends who may be properly qualified, than the sun, and after that time are and who might wish for an hour's recrea- faster, by consulting the table of equation. In addition to these restrictions tion, five minutes must on the 14th he (in the neighbourhood to which I allude) subtructed from the time given in the no person can be followed by a dog of Almanack of the sun's setting, whilst on any description, without the risk of being the 31st three minutes must be added to insalted by some of the game-keepers, it, making thus together a difference of and questioned as to bis right to keep eight minutes between the real time of or lo take out a dog : and during the its setting on the 14th and on the 31st summer months, should any respectable of December. In like manner, after females amuse theinselves with gather- the longest day one would, according to ing a few wild flowers, they are either the Almanack, expect the sun to set sternly forbidden, or the flowers wrested gradually earlier and earlier throughout from their hands; nay, even the poor the month of July, but this being councottagers are interdicted from picking a teracted by the clocks getting more and handful or two of small berries that grow more before the sun, very little difference wild in the woods, for the purpose of 'is perceived in the apparent time of the making a pudding for their children; and sun's setting before the end of the all this under the pretence of " preserve month. In fact, were one to be guided ing the game!"

by the columns of the sun's rising and We are, sir, perfectly aware that the setting in the Almanack, it would seem power vested by the odious game laws, that throughout the whole year, at whatin the hands of landed proprietors is ever distance from six the sun rises, at omnipotent, and that an arbitrary exer the same distance on the other side of cise of it cannot be prevented; but your six it invariably sets; as, for instance, wonder must be somewhat excited, when when it rises at a quarter before eight I inform you that some of those who are it is said to set at a quarter after four; acting in this despotic manner affect to and vice versa, as if the sun always came be“ unfriendly" "to the gaine laws, and to the meridian exactly at twelve o'clock. wish to be considered as enforcing them As however this happens only four times with“ great inildness and liberality!" in the year, namely, in the middle of Such an inconsistency is not only absurd, April and June—at the end of August but it is at the same time an insult to and about the 25th of December; at all public feeling; and I shall conclude other times the sun comes to the meriwith briefly obserring, that those who dian, either before twelve by a well reexercise arbitrary power, unmeliorated gulated clock, when the clocks are said by concessions, and unsoftened by any to be slow, and the mornings are proporindulgence whatever, must know but tionably lighter than the evenings; or little of the human mind, if they hope in else it does not reach it till after twelve, return to possess the affection or esteem when the clocks being faster than the of that portion of the population among sun, the evenings are proportionably which they reside. Such an expectation lighter than the mornings. And this NEW MONTHLY MAG, -No, 25.

Vol. V.

34 On the real Time of the Sun's Rising and Setting. [Feb. 1, difference between the real time of the during the month of December last, by rising and setting of the sun and that comparing which with the columns for mentioned in the Almanack is sometimes this purpose in the Almanack, the difso great as to amount to from 14 to 16 ference will be manifest, and the fallaminutes : as during the greatest part of ciousness of those columns will be clearly February, when the clocks are fourteen apparent; besides which it will appear minutes faster than the sun, and at the that, although the shortest day was about end of October and beginning of Novem- the 21st, yet the days on which the sun ber, when they are sixteen minutes set the earliest of any in the year, were slower, which accounts for the rapid de- from the 7th to the 16th, during which crease of afternoon daylight at this last the sun alternately set at ten and eleven season, and for its rapid increase in Fe- minutes before four o'clock : and when bruary, whilst the morning daylight at it cose latest, from the 28th to the 3 ist, both times is in a contrary degree af- during which it alternately rose at eigbe fected.

and nine minutes after eight, As however the deviation from the

J. SHARM. Almanack time in the rising of the sun is always exactly balanced by a contrary Dec. Rising. Setting.Dec. Rising. Setting. deviation in the evening, the length of the days throughout the year is accu- 1 7 rately expressed in the Almanacks. The

17 only alteration in them therefore I should wish to suggest, and which I cannot but look upon as a great desideratım, is, that they would express the real times of the

6 7

713 sun's rising and setting, without giving the

7 inspector the unnecessary trouble of comparing it with the table of equation, which indeed is not met with in every Almanack, and which can only be necessary to be referred to, in taking the time

11 17

713 from the sun itself, or from a sun-dial,

27 which cannot be regulated like a clock or watch.

To elucidate the foregoing remarks, I shall in the following table express the real time of the sun's rising and setting



16 18






49 50 501 50 50


19 20



51 51


56 -
57 -


21 18


8 8

52 32


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LEMUEL ABBAT (portrait painter.) talents does not shield it from the darts

THE death of this artist was accele- of calamity. rated by fits of insanity caused by the He is supposed to have died of a broridiculous conduct of bis wife. His ken heart for the loss of an only son. manner of taking likenesses was singu- Young Aikman was first interred in the lar. He first took the dimensions of ihe receptacle for the dead in St. Martin's in face with a pair of compasses, and placed the Fields, but was, according to the rethe head of the sitter as close as possible quest of his affectionate father, taken up to the easel, and then commenced his some months preceding the death of the sketch, There was a large portrait of latter, in order that one grave might hold this artist scraped by Valentine Green, them both. They were buried in Scotrepresenting him as holding in his hand land. his best portrait, that of Lord Nelson : Mr. Aikian united with the stady of the copper which included Abbat's head

painting the sister arts of poetry and alone is now destroyed, leaving that part music, and was an ardent friend of the only which contained the hero of Tra- muses. He brought Allau Ramsay into falgar.

notice in Edinburgh, and James ThomWILLIAM AIKMAN (portrait painter.) son in London ; introducing the latter

This artist exhibits one of many in. not only to the first wits in England, but stances in which the respect paid to to the minister Sir Robert Walpole. He

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1816.) Extracts from the Portfolio of an Amateur.

35 was cotemporary with Kneller, but they lish army. Careless of bis existence he were friends and not rivals. The follow- formed a plan of obtaining intelligence ing Epitaph was written by Mallet on of the American army by visiting their Aikman:

lines in disguise; when being thrown off Dear to the good and wise, dispraised by his guard he offered his watch as a bribe none,

to the centinel who suspected him : he Here sleep in peace the father and the son ;

was found guilty, and suffered October By virtue as by nature close allied,

20, 1780, aged 29."-"I have been taken The painter's genius but without the pride, prisoner" (says he in a letter)" by the Worth unambitious, wit afraid to shine, Americans, and stript of every thing save Honour's clear light, and friendship's warmth my picture of Honora, which I concealdivine.

ed in my mouth: preserving this I yet The son fair rising knew too short a date ; think myself fortunate.” At his death But oh: how more severe the parent's fate! this picture was found round bis neck. He saw him torn untimely from his side,

There is a portrait of Major André enFelt all a father's anguish, wept and died. graved by Sherwin, after a drawing by

There was also a particular friendship this unfortunate gentleman. between Aikman and Somervile the poet; and Allan Ramsay employed his There now exists at Holkham, Normuse in lamenting his beloved and ho- folk, among the pictures collected by the Boured friend.

late Lord Leicester, and in the posses

sion of Mr. Coke, the only copy ever was employed to paint a staircase at Lord made of the whole composition of the Tankerville's in St. James's-square. When celebrated Cartoon of Pisa. It is a small he was to be paid, he produced bills of a oil picture in chiaro scuro, and the perscaffolding for workmen, amounting to formance of Bastiano da St. Gallo, surninety pounds, and asked no more, say- named Aristotile from his learned or vering, “ he was content with the opportu- bose descants on the work of that philonity of shewing what he could do." The sopher. It was painted at the desire of peer presented him however with two Vasari, and transmitted to Francis the hundred pounds in addition to his de- 1st by Paolo Giovio, bishop of Nocera.-mand.

How it could escape the eyes of the

French and English connoisseurs, or This unfortunate amateur of the arts artists who had access to the collection was Adjutant-general to his Majesty's of which it constituted the chief ornaforces in North America, Love, who mene, is a mystery which, for the honour has created many a poet, caused André of the art, none can wish to unravel. to attempt the art of design : he painted a portrait of his mistress, a Miss Hunora built St. Philip's church at Birmingham, Speyd, a protegée of the Sewards; and and Cliefden House: but bis chef-d'æuore bowever inferior it might be considered of absurdity is the church of St. John's, as a work of art, it was looked upon by Westminster, with four belfries. Miss Seward as the most correct resemblance of her friend, as may be seen in It is related of this artist, that having this lady's will. Miss Sneyd had ex- copied a Leda from a bas-relief of Michanged eternal vows of fidelity with chael Angelo, all Paris was struck with Major André, but thought proper to the performance. The Duc de la Force marry another, whose ill-usage soon offered to give 12,000 livres for it, but broke her heart. She died of a consump the duke being a sufferer by the Missistion a few months before her unfortunate sippi scheme, restored it to Artaud with loser suffered an ignominious death. He 4000 livres for the time he had enjoyed had entered the army in order to over it. In 1721 Artaud brougl it this mastercome his unfortunate attachment by ex- piece to London; he would not part ertion, and was discovered by the Ame with it, but sold a copy for 6001. sterling. ricans as a spy, and hung by the com It was so much admired, that he received mand of Gen. Arnold.

many presents of medals, which are still “ Major André,” says Miss Seward in in the library at Geneva. In 1738, beher life of him, “possessed numberlessing the victim of devotion, he himself degood qualities; he was a poet, à music stroyed his statue in a fit of piety, yet cian, and a painter. On the union of with so much parental fondness, that he his faithless mistress with another, he cut it to pieces anatomically. This ocleft the counting-house of his uncle, and curred at Geneva. M. de Champeau stimulated by despair entered the Eng- obtained the head and one foot; a lady






Extracts from the Portfolio of an Amateur. (Feb. 1, got an arm, and the artist was severely re nion he was mild, cheerful and pleaprimanded for destroying it.

sant: he did not forget an essential

piece of good manners in a particular When painting bis way from Dublin which our best talkers are too apt to to England in his own post-chaise, ac- neglect. He gave other people an opporcompanied by a French valet in jacke tunity to speak. Without this little acboots, at that period a fashionable no- cominodating pliancy, unless we can univelty, he loitered with a little pardonable versally prevail on curselves to listen to vanity in his native neighbourhood, and those by whom we are neither interested visited Knutsford assembly. A widow nor pleased, the strong intellect and imthen present was at once so won by his pressive precept of Dr. Johnson would appearance, that she sat to him for her be tyrannical; the copious anecdote of portrait, and then made him an offer of Murphy fatiguing; the redundancy of her hand, a boon which he did not think Fox exhausting, and the digressions of proper to refuse. Lady Duckenfield by Burke, with all his matchless grace, ill her marriage articles reserved lier for- , timed rhapsody. The end of Astley's tune to herself, but Astley's behaviour lite, though revelling in riches and friendwas so satisfactory to her that she soon ship, was not happy; for he bad nego gave him a portion of her property, and lected the one thing needful-be had dying shortly after, settled the whole of not prepared for that last, that awful the Duckenfield estate, estimated at journey which all must take; his retro5000l. per annum, upon bim, after the spect in declining life was neither comdeath of her daughter, the wife of Sir fortable nor satisfactory; and he exWilliam Daniel. Astley, after the death pressed repeated and earnest wishes to a of bis lady (whom be always spoke of friend who soothed the languor of his with tenderness and regret, and who was last moments, that he could be permithis senior) found his fortune so much di- ted to live over again," and then how minished by his extravagance, that he different a man I would be !" were his was in treaty for a post-obit, when at the remarkable words. time this business was arranging Lady It is said he would never stir out withDaniel died. Though the news of this oul bis bag and sword, and affecting to event reached A-tley at midnight, he hur- forget the necessary instruments of his ried instantly into Cheshire, and going art, for it was then it appears the fashion through all the necessary forms took for the artist to go to his sitter, would possession of the estate; and returned use his sword for a inaul-stick, to town before his wife's relations knew

BACON (sculptor.) what bad happened. On this increase When this artist was modelling a bust of fortune he bought the house in Pall of his Majesty, the King asked bim if Mall, of which Pennant in his account of he had ever been out of the kingdom : London relates In Pall Mall the on being answered in the negative, the Duke of Schomberg had his house; it King said, “ I am glad of it; you will was in my time possessed by Astley the be the greater honour to it." This bust painter, who divided it into three, and procured for him the royal patronage; most whimsically Gtted up the centre for and he prepared a second for the Unihis own use. This part has since been versity of Göttingen, and two others for occupied by Dr. Grabam and Mr. Cos. the King.---His first dionuinent was that way, and the one adjoining by Gains- of Dirs. Withers, in St. Mary's Church, borough."

Worcester; his first work in sculpture, In summing up Astley's character it is the King, and the first figure in marble, said he owed bis fortune to bis form, his at the Duke of Richmond's at Goodwood. follies to bis fortune. He had a brother, - Wben he exlibited his statue of The & surgeon of eminence, who resided at Thames, it was noticed by a certain great Putney, and who was unfortunately run personage, who after having expressed over and killed on Putney Common: her admiration of it as a work of art, his fortune, which was not inconsider- inquired why he could not avoid making able, devolved to our artist. Asily gave it so frightful a figure. He replied, that good dinners and enjoyed them with mo Art could not always effect that which deration ; but in his intercourse with was within the reach of Nature-the the sex he was a culpable libertine, tem union of beauty and majesty. When perate on the principle of preserving bis hie modelled his head of Jupiter Tonans, relish for pleasure, and active almost it was mistaken by connoisseurs for a againse inclination, that he might pre- fine antique, and they inquired from serve health to enjoy it. As a coinpa- what temple abroad it had been brought.

Proceedings of the Royal Society.

37 Mr. Bacon was singular in never setting years.”—“It is well for you, then," said his draperies, but executing them ac the artist, taking leave of him, " that your cording to his ideas as the work came friend Bacon is not now at your elbow; out. The following anecdote is an ex for he would not have been pleased at cellent lesson to would-be critics : seeing his work so roughly handled.” Walking one day to Westminster Abbey, Mr. Ryley, who some time ago used he observed a person standing before his to make designs for book prints, made principal work, who seemed to pride several drawings of monuments for Mr. himself on his taste and skill in the arts, Bacon; and though the former professed and was extremely exuberant in his re- Deism in opposition to the Calvinistical marks. “ This monument of Chatham," principles of the latter, yet on hearing said he to Mr. Bacon, whom he evident- Mr. Bacon say accidentally that he was ly mistook for an ignorant stranger, “ is pressed for a sum of money, he stepped admirable as a whole, but it has great out, and presently returned bringing his defects." _“ I should be greatly obliged friend a bag containing about 200 guito you,” said Bacon, “ if you would be neas, which he would fain have left for so kind as to point them out to me."

bis use.

Mr. Bacon blamed him for “Why bere," said the critic," and there; keeping so much cash in his house,' and do you not see? bad, very bad !" at the afterwards having observed him to apsame time employing his stick upon the pear anxious and melancholy, spoke to lower figures with a violence likely to him about arranging his affairs, and as injure the work. " But,” said Bacon, “I he knew that he had considerable proshould be glad to be acquainted why the perty, he urged him to make his will. parts you touch are bad." He found, Ryley replied he did not know how: on however, nothing determinate in the which Mr. Bacon proposed to write for reply, but the sanje vague assertioos re. him. This offer was accepted. After peated, and accompanied with the same naming a few legacies to relations, he apviolence. “ I told Bacon," said the pointed Bacon bis executor and residuary would-be critic, “ of this while the mo- legatee. Bacon, however, positively renument was forming. I pointed out fused this; insisting upon it that bis proother defects, but I could not convince perty should go entirely to his relations, him."-" What, you are personally ac but that at any rate nothing should come quainted with Bacon?" said the sculptor. to himself. The event of Ryley's deatlı Ob yes;”. replied the stranger; “I proved, that the property thus honourhave been intimate with loim for many ably refused was very considerable.

Rennell, esq.

PROCEEDINGS OF PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETIES. ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. lyses of those Bodies. By Robert PorTHE second part of the Philosophical rett, jun. esq. Transactions for 1815, just published, On the Nature and Combinations of a contains the following papers : newly-discovered Vegetable Acid ; with

On some Phænomena of Colours exhi- Observations on the Malic Acid, and bited by Thin Plates. By John Knox, Suggestions on the State in which Acids esq.

may have previously existed in VegetaSome further Observations on the bles. By M. Donovan, esq. Current that often prevails to the West On the Structure of the Organs of ward of the Scilly Islands. By James Respiration in Animals which appear to

hold an intermediate place between Some Experiments on a solid Com- those of the Class Pisces and the Class pound of Iodine and Oxygen, and on its Vermes, and in two Genera of the lastChemical Agencies. By Sir Hunphry mentioned Class. By Sir Eyerard Home, Davy.

bart. On the Action of Acids on the Salts On the Mode of Generation of the usually called Hyperox yınuriates, and Lamprey and Myxine. By Sir Everard on the Gases produced from them. By Home, bart. Sir Humphry Davy.

On the Multiplication of Iinages, and Further Analytical Experiments rela- the Colours which accompany them, in tive to thionstitution of the prussic, some Specimens of Calcareous Spar. By of the ferruretied chyazic, and of the David Brewster, LL.D. sulphuretted chyazic Acids; and to that A Series of Observations of the Satelof their Salts; together with the appli- lites of the Georgian Planet, including a cation of the Atomic Theory to the Ana. Passage through the Node of their Or

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